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Buddhism - Oxford Bibliographies

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George D. Bond

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2011-12-15

Arhat Introduction The term arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) denotes for Buddhism a being who has reached a state of perfection and enlighten...

Early Buddhist Philosophy (Abhidharma/Abhidhamma)

Tadeusz Skorupski

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2016-04-28

Early Buddhist Philosophy (Abhidharma/Abhidhamma) Introduction During the centuries after the Buddha’s demise, the activities of the Saṅgha in India are...

West (North America and Europe), Buddhism in the

Scott A. Mitchell

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2010-09-13

Buddhism in the West (North America and Europe) Introduction The study of Buddhism in the West is built on the pioneering work of a handful...

Warrior Monk Traditions

Mikael Adolphson

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2014-01-13

Warrior Monk Traditions Introduction Warrior monks in the Asian setting usually refer to members of Buddhist monastic communities who fight fo...


David L. McMahan

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2010-09-13

Meditation Introduction Buddhist meditation is made up of a wide array of techniques designed to produce heightened states of awareness and c...


Karma Lekshe Tsomo

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2012-06-26

Prātimokṣa/Pātimokkha Introduction The prātimokṣa (Pāli: pāṭimokkha), the Buddhist monastic code of discipline, is a corpus of disciplinary ru...

Wheel of Life (Bhava-Cakra)

Karil Kucera

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2012-01-11

Wheel of Life (bhava-cakra) Introduction The Wheel of Life (Skt. bhava-cakra)—or, as it is sometimes referred to, the Wheel of Becoming, the Wh...


Bart Dessein

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2013-03-19

Sarvāstivāda Introduction The rise of the Sarvāstivāda school of Buddhism as a distinct group dates back to the 2nd to 1st centuries bce. Acco...

History of Buddhisms in China

Albert Welter

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2013-03-19

History of Buddhisms in China Introduction Buddhism is a major religion in China, and its influence extends beyond China to other regions of E...

Art and Architecture in India, Buddhist

Jinah Kim

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2015-11-30

Buddhist Art and Architecture in India Introduction As Leoshko demonstrates in her Sacred Traces: British Explorations of Buddhism in South As...


John M. Thompson

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2013-03-19

Huineng Introduction Huineng (also Hui-Neng or Hui Neng; Jpn. Enō; b. 638–d. 713), the legendary “Sixth Patriarch” of Chan (Jpn. Zen), is a se...

Zen, Premodern Japanese

Taigen Leighton

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2010-09-13

Premodern Japanese Zen Introduction Japanese Zen developed in distinctive ways after the Chan traditions were imported from China during th...

Thai Buddhism

Justin McDaniel

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2012-12-19

Thai Buddhism Introduction Thailand’s population is between 93 and 96 percent Buddhist, and Buddhist institutions have been socially and royal...

Dalai Lama

Gareth Sparham

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2012-10-25

Dalai Lama Introduction Dalai Lama is the honorific title of Tenzin Gyatso (Bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho, b. 1935), a Nobel Peace Prize winner and t...

Culture, Material

John Kieschnick

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2012-03-23

Material Culture Introduction The study of material culture belongs to a relatively young discipline that examines artifacts as well as ideas ...

Mahayana, Early

David Drewes

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2013-04-22

Early Mahayana Introduction In recent decades the study of early Mahayana has witnessed significant upheaval. Western scholars have abandoned ...


Charles Lachman

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2016-03-31

Images Introduction Buddhism appears to have spread slowly at first from its birthplace in northern India after the death of the historical Buddha. With...

Modernism, Buddhist

David L. McMahan

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2010-09-13

Buddhist Modernism Introduction Scholars have used a cluster of terms—“Protestant Buddhism,” “modern Buddhism,” and most commonly, “Buddhis...


Jeff Wilson

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2010-09-13

Shinran Introduction Shinran (b. 1173–d. 1262) was an obscure figure in his own time, but his teachings became the basis of the largest...

Abhijñā/Ṛddhi (Extraordinary Knowledge and Powers)

David Fiordalis

Subject: Buddhism »

Date Added: 2013-01-28

Abhijñā/Ṛddhi (Extraordinary Knowledge and Powers) Introduction Abhijñā (Pali: abhiññā) is a Buddhist technical term that refers most specific...

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