Immigrant Incorporation in Canada
- LAST REVIEWED: 04 May 2015
- LAST MODIFIED: 29 November 2011
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0027
- LAST REVIEWED: 04 May 2015
- LAST MODIFIED: 29 November 2011
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0027
Scholars of immigration want to understand why people move across international borders, and what the consequences of migration are for the individuals involved, and the people and societies they enter and leave behind. Canada is a long-standing country of immigration, from the earliest British and French colonial settlers to contemporary migrants who hail from around the world. Today, about one in five Canadian residents was born outside the country and, in proportion to its population, more new permanent migrants arrive each year than in any other highly developed nation. The politics and social dynamics of this migration and settlement are shaped by Canada’s institutions: from federalism and the courts to its school systems and labor market regulations. These dynamics are also shaped by the country’s history of race and ethnic relations, which includes the political mobilization and government response to First Nations peoples and the country’s Francophone minority, which is largely but not exclusively concentrated in Quebec. Theoretically, the scholarship on immigration in Canada sometimes draws on ideas and research conducted in other countries, especially the United States, but scholars of Canadian immigration also provide important models for researchers and policymakers in other countries. The specificity of a Canadian approach is especially evident in federal/ provincial partnerships and the points system used to select migrants, in the country’s refugee determination system, and in its policy of multiculturalism.
General Overviews and Textbooks
An excellent starting point to understanding immigration in Canada is the overview by Li 2003 and Reitz 2004, both of which combine attention to history, current policy, and the socio economic integration of immigrants. For those wanting more detail on law and policy, Becklumb 2008, an overview of the Canadian immigration program, is a good primer. Li 2003 provides not only a descriptive overview of the topic but also an argument about how issues of race imbue Canadian immigration, historically and in the present. This is a theme developed further in Satzewich and Liodakis 2010, a textbook now in a second edition. Canadian scholars have been at the forefront of studying and debating issues of diversity and social cohesion, themes showcased in the volume edited by Banting, et al. 2007. In comparison, Canadian research on transnationalism has lagged that of scholars in the United States, but see the recent volume by Simmons 2010 on immigration and transnationalism in the Canadian context.
Banting, Keith, Thomas J. Courchene, and Leslie S. Seidle, eds. 2007. Belonging? Diversity, recognition and shared citizenship in Canada. Collection of papers originally presented at a conference held 13–15 October 2005, Montebello, Quebec. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.
This collection of essays by leading scholars focuses on the dynamics of social cohesion given the diversity of Canadian society, including political recognition of immigrant populations, First Nations, and the country’s long-standing Francophone communities.
Becklumb, Penny. 2008. Background: Canada’s Immigration Program. Ottawa, ON: Library of Parliament.
This is a general overview of Canada’s immigration and integration policies that includes a discussion of legal framework, categories of immigrants, temporary immigration, judicial review, removal, integration and settlement initiatives, and the role of the provinces.
Li, Peter S. 2003. Destination Canada: Immigration debates and issues. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press.
This accessible overview introduces many issues central to public debates over immigration in Canada, from the social construction of who, exactly, is an immigrant, to the economic dimensions of immigration and integration in a context of population renewal. Li provides informative figures and tables, and also argues for the importance of race in understanding immigration in Canada.
Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2004. Canada: Immigration and nation-building in the transition to a knowledge economy. In Controlling immigration: A global perspective. 2d ed. Edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, James F. Hollifield, and Takeyuki Tsuda, 97–133. Stanford CA: Stanford Univ. Press.
Part of a volume comparing immigration and integration policies across a dozen countries, this chapter provides an excellent overview of the Canadian case, including attention to how institutions––from educational systems to labor markets––combine with Canada’s peculiar mix of multiculturalism and bilingualism to affect migration and integration.
Satzewich, Vic, and Nikolaos Liodakis. 2010. ‘Race’ and ethnicity in Canada: A critical introduction. 2d ed. Don Mills, ON: Oxford Univ. Press Canada.
This book presents an accessible overview of theoretical debates on race and ethnicity, and applies them to Canadian history and the contemporary context, including chapters on immigration, multiculturalism, and transnational identities in a globalized context.
Simmons, Alan B. 2010. Immigration and Canada: Global and transnational perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.
Situated within a global approach to international migration, this book provides a critical perspective to immigration in Canada, spanning topics from the historical roots of Canadian migration to contemporary debates over refugees, temporary workers, undocumented migration and migrant trafficking.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions and individuals. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
Purchase an Ebook Version of This Article
Ebooks of the Oxford Bibliographies Online subject articles are available in North America via a number of retailers including Amazon, vitalsource, and more. Simply search on their sites for Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guides and your desired subject article.
If you would like to purchase an eBook article and live outside North America please email email@example.com to express your interest.
- Advanced Democracies, Electoral System Reform in
- Advanced Democracies, Public Opinion and Public Policy in
- Advertising and Election Campaigns in the United States
- Africa, Comparative Politics of
- American Indian Politics
- Arab-Israel Conflict, The
- Arendt, Hannah
- Aristotle's Political Thought
- Australia and New Zealand, Comparative Politics of
- Authoritarianism in Russia
- Bicameralism in Stable Democracies
- Biopolitics and State Regulation of Human Life
- Brazilian Political Development
- Business-State Relations in Europe
- Canadian Foreign Policy
- Candidate Emergence and Recruitment
- Channels of Electoral Representation in Advanced Industria...
- China's One-Child Policy
- China-Taiwan Relations
- Chinese Nationalism
- Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Civil-Military Relations in Asia
- Civil-Military Relations in Latin America
- Class in American Politics
- Comparative Capitalism Theory
- Comparative Politics of Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bis...
- Comparative Politics of Chile and Uruguay
- Comparative Politics of Federalism
- Comparative Politics of the Middle East and North Africa
- Congress, Defense, and Foreign Policy
- Congressional Reassertion of Authority
- Conservative Litigation Strategies and Groups in US Judici...
- Corruption in China
- Cosmopolitan Political Thought
- Crisis of European Integration in Historical Perspective, ...
- Critical Theory and the Frankfurt School
- Cuban Political Development
- Cycles of Protest
- Democracy and Authoritarianism in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Democracy and Dictatorship in Central Asia
- Democracy in Latin America
- Democratic Citizenship
- Democratic Peace Theory
- Democratic Theory
- Democratization in Africa
- Democratization in Central America
- Democratization in Mexico
- Development of Survey Research
- Direct Democracy in the United States
- East Africa, Politics of
- Economic Voting
- Election Forecasting
- Election Laws in Democracies
- Electoral and Party System Development in Sub-Saharan Afri...
- Electoral Change in Latin America
- Emotion and Racial Attitudes in Contemporary American Poli...
- Environmental Governance
- Environmental Politics among Advanced Industrial Democraci...
- Ethnic Diasporas and US Foreign Policy
- Eurasia, Comparative Politics of
- European Social Democracy
- European Union, Politics of the
- Failed and Weak States in Theory and Practice
- Far-Right Parties in Europe
- Federalism in the United States
- Field Experiments
- Filibuster, The
- Gender and Electoral Politics in the United States
- Gender, Behavior, and Representation
- Global Inequality
- Globalization and the Welfare State
- Globalization, Health Crises, and Health Care
- Governance in Africa
- Governmental Responses to Political Corruption
- Gridlock and Divided Government in the U.S.
- Historiography of Twentieth-Century American Conservatism,...
- Hobbes’s Political Thought
- Hume’s Political Thought
- Hybrid Regimes
- Identity and Political Behavior
- Immigrant Incorporation in Canada
- Immigrant Incorporation in Western Europe
- Immigration and International Relations
- Impact of Campaign Contributions on Congressional Behavior...
- Implicit Attitudes in Public Opinion
- Income Dynamics and Politics in North America and Europe
- Income Inequality and Advanced Democracies
- Income Inequality in the United States, The Politics of
- Indian Democracy
- Indigenous Rights and Governance in Canada, Australia, and...
- Informal Practices of Accountability in Urban Africa
- Institutional Change in Advanced Democracies
- Intellectual Property in International Relations
- Interest Groups in American Politics
- International Conflict Management
- International Criminal Justice
- International Law
- International NGOs
- International Political Economy of Illegal Drugs
- Internet and Politics, The
- Iran, Political Development of
- Israeli Politics
- Judicial Supremacy and National Judicial Review
- Kant's Political Thought
- Labor Politics in East Asia
- Land Reform in Latin America
- Latin America, Democratic Transitions in
- Latin America, Environmental Policy and Politics in
- Latin America, Guerrilla Insurgencies in
- Latin America, Social Movements in
- Legal Mobilization
- LGBT Politics in the United States
- Liberal Pluralism
- Local Governments in the United States
- Machiavelli’s Political Thought
- Marx's Political Thought
- Mechanisms of Representation
- Media Effects in Politics
- Minority Political Engagement and Representation in the Un...
- Modern Dynastic Rule
- Modern Elections and Voting Behavior in Europe
- National Interbranch Politics in the United States
- NATO, Politics of
- Neoclassical Realism
- New Institutionalism Revisited, The
- North America, Comparative Politics of
- Oil, Politics of
- Origins and Impact of Proportional Representation, The
- Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities
- Partisan and Nonpartisan Theories of Organization in the U...
- Partisan Polarization in the US Congress
- Partisan Polarization in the US Electorate
- Party Networks
- Peace Operations
- Personality and Politics
- Plato's Political Thought
- Policy Responsiveness to Public Opinion
- Political Economy of Financial Regulation in Advanced Ind...
- Political Economy of Taxation, The
- Political Geography in American Politics
- Political Obligation
- Political Parties and Electoral Politics of Japan
- Political Thought, Hegel's
- Political Thought of the American Founders, The
- Politics and Policy in Contemporary Argentina
- Politics of Anti-Americanism
- Politics of Disaster Prevention and Management
- Politics of Financial Crises
- Politics of Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia
- Politics of Higher Education in the U.S.
- Politics of Internal Conquest in the United States and Can...
- Politics of Japan
- Politics of Natural Disasters, The
- Politics of North Korea
- Politics of Science and Technology
- Politics of South Africa
- Politics of Southern Africa
- Post-Communist Democratization
- Preferential Trade Agreements, Politics of
- Presidential Persuasion and Public Opinion
- Presidential Primaries and Caucuses
- Public Opinion in Advanced Industrial Democracies
- Public Opinion in New Democracies and Developing Nations
- Qualitative Methods, The Renewal of
- Race in American Political Thought
- Regime Transitions and Variation in Post-Communist Europe
- Regional Integration in Latin America
- Regional Security
- Regulating Food Production
- Religion in American Political Thought
- Religion in Contemporary Political Thought
- Religion, Politics, and Civic Engagement in the United Sta...
- Rousseau's Political Thought
- Rule of Law
- Russia and the West
- Science and Democracy
- Social Policy and Immigrant Integration
- South Korea, Politics of
- Spectacle, The
- State Building in Sub-Saharan Africa
- State Formation
- State, The Nature of the
- Supreme Court of the United States, The
- Systemic Theories of International Politics
- Taiwan, Politics of
- Tea Party, The
- The New Right in American Political Thought
- Transitional Justice
- Turkey, Political Development of
- US Military Bases Abroad
- US Presidency, The
- Voter Turnout
- Welfare State Development
- Welfare State Development in Latin America
- Welfare State Development in Western Europe
- West Africa, Politics of
- Worker Politics in China
- Youth and Generational Differences in US Politics