Sociology Emotions
by
Kathryn J. Lively
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 August 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0018

Introduction

The sociology of emotion is a relatively new field. Developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the sociology of emotion draws attention to the ways in which emotions—phenomena that have historically been viewed as inherently personal—are socially patterned. Although emotions are typically seen as micro-events or constructs, sociologists routinely illustrate the degree to which emotions are not only related to one’s position on the social structure, but also how emotions, particularly through their management and their expression, serve to reproduce the society in which individuals are embedded. Thus, the study of emotions has become crucial in explaining the reciprocal relationship between individual agency and social structure. Like most burgeoning subfields, the sociology of emotion has been long on theory and somewhat short on empirical studies. However, a veritable explosion of empirical studies has been reported since around 1990, based on such diverse methodologies as in-depth interviews, ethnography, surveys, experiments, and even computer simulations. Moreover, sociologists throughout the discipline, ranging from those studying sociobiology to those studying social movements, have acknowledged the importance of studying emotions. Although the sociology of emotion has grown to include most, if not all, of the areas of inquiry traditionally associated with social psychology (including, but certainly not limited to exchange, trust, and equity, among others), its most highly developed subject matter continues to be that pertaining to emotion management, emotional labor, and the sociology of work.

Classic Works

Most sociologists agree that emotions act as a signal function. In other words, emotions, like our other senses, tell us how we are faring in a particular social interaction. Whether or not sociologists assume that emotions are socially hard-wired (Darwin 1955) or socially constructed (Cooley 1964, Goffman 1959, Hochschild 1983), there is considerable agreement that our emotional experience comprises physiology, cognition (or the meaning we make of a particular situation; James and Lange 1922, Mead 1934), display (Goffman 1959), and the label (James and Lange 1922) we give it. The selections in this section address each of these four factors of the emotional experience, with the exception of the appendix by Hochschild 1983, which provides an elementary summary of these readings as they pertain to her understanding of emotion. Mead 1934 and Cooley’s work, in particular, set the stage for the discussion of role-taking emotions (see Shott 1979 under Positivist versus Interactionist Approaches: The Early Years) and theories of emotional Deviance. Goffman’s later work (Goffman 1967) inspired many of the structural theories of emotions, particularly those of Randall Collins (see Social Structure).

  • Cooley, Charles H. 1964. Human nature and the social order. New York: Schocken.

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    This work remains a pioneer sociological treatise on American culture as well as a cornerstone of the social constructionist approach to emotion. By understanding the individual not as the product of society but as its mirror image, Cooley concludes that the social order cannot be imposed from outside human nature but that it arises from the self. Originally published in 1902; reprinted in 2006 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction).

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    • Darwin, Charles. 1955. The expression of emotions in man and animals. New York: Philosophical Library.

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      Considered by many to be Darwin’s greatest work, this magnum opus on how humans and animals display such emotions as fear, anger, disdain, and pleasure has in most respects been sustained by later scientific research. Darwin’s notion that emotion is a signal function has become a cornerstone of sociological thought on emotion. Reprinted 1979 (New York: St. Martin’s).

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      • Goffman, Erving. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

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        In his best-known work, Goffman provides a study of human behavior in social situations and the way we appear to others that remains unsurpassed to this day. Although Goffman did not address emotion per se, scholars studying management and labor have used many of his ideas. Reprinted, London: Penguin, 2007.

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        • Goffman, Erving. 1967. Interaction ritual. New York: Doubleday Anchor.

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          Goffman provides the foundation for much of the later sociological scholarship on ritual interaction, emotional energy, and the role of emotion (as well as other micro-interactions) in perpetuating social stratification (see works by Collins in Social Structure). Reprinted in 1982 (New York: Pantheon).

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          • Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1983. The managed heart: The commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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            In Appendix B Hochschild provides a yeoman’s review of the classic theoretical traditions upon which the current sociological view of emotion was based. Although by no means complete, this chapter is an excellent starting point for students and emotion scholars alike.

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            • James, William, and Carl G. Lange. 1922. The emotions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

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              In this classic, James and Lange argue that emotions are feelings which come about as a result of physiological changes, rather than being their cause. This theory has been challenged in recent decades but remains important in terms of the evolution of sociological thought on the nature of emotion. Reprinted in 1967 (New York: Hafner).

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              • Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, self and society. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                This manuscript contains the heart of Mead’s position on the relationship between the individual and society. Mead’s ideas were extremely influential to symbolic interaction—that is, our ability to take the role of the other—and underlies a good deal of the current sociological work on emotion, including emotional socialization, emotion management, emotional labor, and emotional deviance. Reprinted 2000.

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                Edited Volumes and Textbooks

                There are very few edited volumes on emotion, beyond the Annual of Social Perspective on Emotion, edited by David Franks (see Franks 1992–1999), which provided the first outlet dedicated to early sociological scholarship on emotion and showcased the early thinking of many of the innovators in the field. The three individual volumes represent the state of sociological research at three different points in time, as well as from three different methodological and theoretical perspectives. Kemper 1990 is a classic in that nearly all of the research agendas that were introduced in 1990 have since become cornerstones of the subfield. Notably, Clay-Warner and Robinson 2008 hosts many of the same authors and ideas as the original Kemper piece, albeit the next generation version. This volume also highlights the work of many experimentalists who were relatively late to the sociological study of emotion. Finally, Spencer, et al. 2012, Emotion Matters, represents what the editors refer to as a “relational” approach to emotion; the pieces therein are largely theoretical and based on qualitative data. Taken together, these volumes provide an interesting perspective on how the field has grown and matured over the last decade. To date there is also only one textbook on emotion. Scott Harris’s An Invitation to the Sociology of Emotion serves as a very brief introduction to the subfield (Harris 2015). Not intended to be a definitive work on the sociology of emotion, An Invitation to the Sociology of Emotion provides a surface introduction to the field. Topics include how to think about emotion in a sociological way, emotion norms, emotion management, emotional exchanges, emotional labor, and reasons why the sociological study of emotion matters.

                • Clay-Warner, Jody, and Dawn T. Robinson. 2008. Social structure and emotion. New York: Academic Press.

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                  Reflecting the theoretical and methodological breadth of the sociology of emotion, this book contains contributions from recognized leaders in the field. Easy to read and covering many core areas within sociology of emotion, this text is organized around the following themes: status, power and emotion, emotion and identity work, justice and moral emotions, emotional labor, and social change. Winner of the 2010 Outstanding Recent Contribution Award by the American Sociological Association’s Section on the Sociology of Emotion.

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                  • Franks, David D., ed. 1992–1999. Social perspectives on emotion: A research annual. Greenwich, CT: JAI.

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                    Franks’s edited series was one of the early outlets for sociological scholarship on emotion. The volumes feature seminal work by many of the leaders in the field, including Lynn-Smith Lovin and Rebecca Erickson, among others. The volumes tended to highlight both theoretical and empirical scholarship and feature interdisciplinary perspectives. This series remains one of the foundational publications within the subfield.

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                    • Harris, Scott. 2015. An invitation to the sociology of emotion. New York: Taylor & Francis.

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                      Not intended to be a definitive work on the sociology of emotion, An Invitation to the Sociology of Emotion provides a gentle introduction to the field. Topics include how to think about emotion in a sociological way, emotion norms, emotion management, emotional exchanges, emotional labor, and reasons why the sociological study of emotion matters.

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                      • Kemper, Theodore D. 1990. Research agendas in the sociology of emotions. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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                        At the time it was published, this book housed introductions to nearly all of the cutting-edge research being done in the sociology of emotion in short, digestible chapters. It is still a treasure trove, not only as part of the historical record of a growing subfield but also as a road map for up-and-coming scholars.

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                        • Spencer, Dale, Kevin Walby, and Alan Hunt, eds. 2012. Emotions matter: A relational approach to emotions. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                          Conceptualizing emotions within the experience of social relationships, this volume brings together a group of international scholars to advance our understanding of emotion. Empirical and theoretical chapters demonstrate how emotions relate to sociological theories of interaction, the body, gender, and communication.

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                          Data Sources

                          Unfortunately, there are few accessible data sources for studying emotion. To date, the most widely cited source is the General Social Survey. The General Social Survey’s 1996 emotion module is the second-most analyzed source of data in the social sciences in the United States, after the US census; however, the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1996) is also gaining traction among emotions scholars. For comparative research, the most important sources are the International Social Survey Programme and the World Values Survey, although these sources are much more limited in terms of the emotions considered. Additional sources of data for studying emotions are those data sets that also take into consideration instances of depression—particularly within family settings (i.e., the National Survey of Families and Households). Additionally, for those scholars interested in affective meaning (particularly as it applies to Affect Control Theory), there are several semantic dictionaries available for public use at the Affect Control Theory Readings website (see Affect Control Theory), which is currently housed at Indiana University. Additionally, Time-Sharing Experiments for Social Sciences (TESS) also offers a unique opportunity for scholars of all sorts to collect experimental type data using large, diverse samples and has been used successfully to collect data on emotion.

                          • General Social Survey.

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                            The second most analyzed source of data in the social sciences in the United States after the US Census, the GSS has documented Americans’ changing social attitudes through a full-probability, personal-interview survey since 1972. The website has simple-to-use tools for beginning users. In 1996, the GSS issued a module on emotions.

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                            • International Social Survey Programme.

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                              An invaluable resource for cross-national research, the ISSP coordinates surveys currently being fielded in forty-three countries. Begun in 1985, member countries field a topical module survey every year, drafted by member organizations from each country. Although limited in emotion indicators, there are occasionally measurements for happiness.

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                              • National Survey of Families and Households.

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                                This dataset includes three waves of interviews conducted between 1987 and 2003 with randomly selected adults from a national sample, those adults’ marital, cohabiting, and divorced partners, and focal children. Although the first wave only includes standard depression scales, later waves also include measure of anger.

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                                • National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States: A National Longitudinal Study of Health & Well-Being (MIDUS I), 1995–1996.

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                                  The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary investigation of patterns, predictors, and consequences of midlife development in the areas of physical health, psychological well-being, and social responsibility. The data collection is comprised of four parts. Part 1, Main, Sibling and Twin Data, contains responses from the main survey of 7108 respondents. Respondents were asked to provide extensive information on their physical and mental health throughout their adult lives, and to assess the ways in which their lifestyles, including relationships and work-related demands, contributed to the conditions experienced. Respondents were asked to compare their overall well-being with that of their peers and to describe social, physical, and emotional characteristics typical of adults in their 20s, 40s, and 60s. Information on the work histories of respondents and their significant others was also elicited, with items covering the nature of their occupations, work-related physical and emotional demands, and how their personal health had correlated to their jobs.

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                                  • Time-Sharing Experiments for Social Sciences.

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                                    Not a data set, per se, but rather a means to collect data. Time-Sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences (TESS) offers researchers the opportunity to capture the internal validity of experiments while also realizing the benefits of working with a large, diverse population of research participants. Investigators submit proposals for experiments, and TESS fields successful proposals for free on a representative sample of adults in the United States using GfK (formerly Knowledge Networks), a highly respected Internet survey platform. To date only a few sociologists studying emotion have utilized this technology (see Doan, et al. 2015, cited under Emotion, Sexual Behavior, Sexualities, and Sexual Assault).

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                                    • World Values Survey.

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                                      An international network of social scientists have collected data on the values and beliefs of citizens from over eighty countries. There have been six waves of data collection: 1981–1984, 1990–1994, 1995–1998, 2000–2004, 2005–2009, and 2010–2014. Since 1995, coverage has been extended to a wider range of non-Western societies and developing democracies. Occasionally contains markers for happiness and well-being.

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                                      Field Reviews

                                      There have been a number of excellent review pieces of the field. Some of these have been empirical in nature (Smith-Lovin 1995 and Thoits 1989), while others have been more theoretical (Stets 2003; Turner 2007; Stets and Turner 2006; Turner and Stets 2005; Turner and Stets 2006). Although each of these selections is a review of other works, each one provides unique insight into the sociology of emotion. Thus, none of these should be mistaken as a replacement for the others, but as a reflection of its authors’ unique vision about what the subfield is and where it should go.

                                      • Sharp, Shane, and Jeffrey L. Kidder. 2013. Emotions. In Handbook of social psychology. Edited by John DeLamater and Amanda Ward, 341–367. New York: Springer.

                                        DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-6772-0_12Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        One of the most recent reviews of the subfield, Sharp and Kidder cover a variety of topics relating to the sociology of emotion, including emotional typologies, methods and measures, and theoretical approaches—including biological and cultural approaches, emotion management, identity theory, interactional theories, phenomenological approaches, social exchange, and evolutionary psychological theories. They end by introducing recent theoretical developments—such as emotion as performance and the effects of physical spaces on emotional experience—and directions for future research.

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                                        • Smith-Lovin, Lynn. 1995. The sociology of affect and emotion. In Sociological perspectives on social psychology. Edited by Karen S. Cook, Gary A. Fine, and James S. House, 118–148. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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                                          An ideal introduction for students of emotion, Smith-Lovin offers a comprehensive view of the subfield that incorporates an impressive blend of empirical and theoretical work. In so doing, she also lays out an impressive research agenda, much of which still remains unanswered today.

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                                          • Stets, Jan E. 2003. Emotions and sentiments. In Handbook of social psychology. Edited by John DeLamater, 309–335. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

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                                            Stets provides a sweeping theoretical overview of the field, taking the reader from basic definitions, through a range of theories regarding the nature of emotion (including the so-called social emotions: guilt, shame, embarrassment, empathy, and sympathy), to ongoing theoretical innovations in theories of identity, exchange, and expectations states.

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                                            • Stets, Jan E., and Jonathan H. Turner. 2006. Handbook of the sociology of emotions. New York: Springer.

                                              DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-30715-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Stets and Turner’s handbook provides a comprehensive view of the subfield and serves as a primer for those new to the sociological study of emotion as well as those immersed in it; overall, an excellent resource for any graduate class or anyone new to the field.

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                                              • Stets, Jan E., and Jonathon H. Turner, eds. 2014. Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                Like its predecessor, Volume 2 is a must read for anyone interested in the sociological study of emotion. This volume contains twelve chapters on various theoretical perspectives on emotion, one chapter on measurement, and twelve chapters detailing such social arenas of emotion as the economy, mental health, sports, morality, technology, and crime, among others.

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                                                • Thoits, Peggy A. 1989. The sociology of emotions. Annual Review of Sociology 15:317–342.

                                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.15.080189.001533Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Although one of the first reviews of the subfield published, this review remains highly relevant to current strengths and weaknesses in the field. Wonderfully cogent, Thoits masterfully identifies the ways in which emotion has been used as both a dependent and independent variable and identifies literally dozens of questions that still remain unaddressed.

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                                                  • Turner, Jonathan H. 2007. Human emotions: A sociological theory. New York: Routledge.

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                                                    This major theoretical treatise takes existing work on the emotions in significantly new directions. Beginning with general sociological principles, Turner creates a detailed and unified grand theory of human emotions that takes into consideration not only culture and structure but also biological imperatives.

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                                                    • Turner, Jonathan H., and Jan E. Stets. 2005. The sociology of emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511819612Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      A short yet comprehensive review of the theoretical traditions in the sociology of emotions, including examples from the cultural, dramaturgical, interaction ritual, symbolic interactionist, exchange, structural, and biological perspectives. Turner and Stets also provide appendices on relevant psychological theories as they intersect with sociological theories.

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                                                      • Turner, Jonathan H., and Jan E. Stets. 2006. Sociological theories of human emotion. Annual Review of Sociology 32:25–52.

                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123130Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        In addition to reviewing a number of sociological theories, Turner and Stets also raise several ongoing debates within the field, such as the nature of emotions, feeling, and affect; the degree to which emotions are biologically based or socially constructed; and the ongoing gap between social psychological theories on emotions and macrostructural theorizing.

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                                                        Journals

                                                        To date, there is no one journal dedicated to the sociological study of emotion. Therefore, sociological research on emotion is scattered throughout a number of journals both within and outside of sociology. Sociological research on emotion is found most commonly in social psychological journals (e.g., Social Psychology Quarterly, Symbolic Interaction), as well as in general sociology journals (e.g., American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces). However, given that emotions cut across every aspect of social life, a good deal of research on or pertaining to emotion also appears in specialty journals associated with other subfields within the discipline, such as Work and Occupations. In addition to regularly appearing in general and specialist sociology journals, sociological research on emotion also appears in psychology journals (e.g., Motivation and Emotion, as well as in international and interdisciplinary journals dedicated to theoretical and conceptual issues in the study of emotion (e.g., Emotion Review). There is also a tremendous amount of overlap between the sociological study of emotion and that published routinely in journals dedicated to theories of management and studies of complex organizations (e.g., Academy of Management Review)

                                                        Positivist versus Interactionist Approaches: The Early Years

                                                        As the sociology of emotions developed as a subfield, scholars debated the nature of emotions. Some sociologists argued for a more positivist approach rooted primarily in biology (Ekman 1973; Ekman, et al. 1982; and Kemper 1981), whereas others, particularly those rooted more deeply in early symbolic interaction thought (e.g., Shott 1979), focused more on the social aspects of emotions (also see Schachter and Singer 1962). Although initially viewed as entirely oppositional, these two perspectives have become more complementary with time. Indeed, Kemper 1987 is believed to represent an important reconciliation between these two seemingly opposing perspectives. Thoits 1990 further codified the relationship between physiology and cultural factors by proposing a four-factor model of emotion made up of the physiology, the expression, the label, and the meaning.

                                                        • Ekman, Paul. 1973. Darwin and facial expression. New York: Academic Press.

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                                                          In this volume, Paul Ekman summarizes a decade of research regarding human emotion across a variety of cultures. In particular, his work shows that there are there are a number of emotions that occur cross-culturally, providing strong empirical support for the notion of primary (or basic) emotions that have evolutionary value.

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                                                          • Ekman, Paul. 1982. Emotion in the human face. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                            The first edition (1972) of Emotion in the Human Face evaluated and integrated all existing research on facial expression of emotion since Darwin’s The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals was published in 1872. In later editions, Ekman expanded, reorganized, annotated, and cross-referenced the contents of the first edition, bringing the review of basic research up to date and charting the new developments in the field.

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                                                            • Kemper, Theodore D. 1981. Social constructivist and positivist approaches to the sociology of emotions. American Journal of Sociology 87:336–361.

                                                              DOI: 10.1086/227461Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Adopting a strong positivist stance, Kemper criticizes constructionists for (1) rejecting the importance of the biological and physiological substrata in the determination of emotions, (2) supposing that emotions are largely determined by “feeling rules,” and (3) proposing that actors must define situations before emotions will be experienced—without proper explication.

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                                                              • Kemper, Theodore D. 1987. How many emotions are there? Wedding the social and autonomic component. American Journal of Sociology 93:263–289.

                                                                DOI: 10.1086/228745Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                In an attempt to wed the positivist and constructionist perspectives, Kemper distinguishes between primary and secondary emotions. The former are physiologically grounded emotions that have been identified as evolutionarily important, cross-culturally universal, and so on. The latter are emotions that are acquired through socializing agents who define and label such emotions, while the individual is experiencing the autonomic reactions of one of the primary emotions.

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                                                                • Schachter, S., and Jerome E. Singer. 1962. Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review 69:379–399.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/h0046234Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Based on a series of experimental studies of college students, Schachter introduced a two-factor model of emotion, in which situational clues (or meaning) were deemed equally important as physiological arousal, thus paving the way for the constructionist view of emotion adopted by many sociologists.

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                                                                  • Shott, Susan. 1979. Emotion and social life: A symbolic interactionist analysis. American Journal of Sociology 84:1317–1334.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/226936Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Adopting a strict symbolic interaction, Shott posits that our experience of emotion must be understood as emergent and constructed and results from the socialization of affective experience and expression. Further, her analysis suggests that feelings that presuppose role-taking (e.g., guilt, embarrassment, and empathy), facilitate social control.

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                                                                    • Thoits, Peggy. 1990. Emotional deviance: Research agendas. In Research agendas in the sociology of emotions. Edited by Theodore D. Kemper, 180–203. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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                                                                      Thoits codifies existing discussions of emotions to include both physiology and culture. In her four-factor model, she proposes that emotions are experiences comprised of physiology, label, expression, and meaning. These elements are interdependent, and a change in any one can effect a change in the others. Provides a model for emotion management.

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                                                                      Classifications and Measurement

                                                                      Sociologists, and other social scientists as well, have spent considerable effort trying to classify or otherwise make sense of emotions and to distinguish among emotion, mood, and affect (Rogers and Robinson 2014). Although there are dozens of classificatory schemes on emotions, some of which are focused on certain types of emotions (e.g., positive or negative emotions), in recent years Ortony, et al. 1988 has become the standard choice among sociologists, particularly those using the General Social Survey Emotion Module (cited under Data Sources; also see Church, et al. 1998). Another distinctly sociological approach to the study of emotion is to focus on the underlying dimensions of affective meaning. Although psychologists routinely recognize two dimensions (e.g., evaluation and activation), sociologists—particularly affect control theorists—have documented the presence of a third dimension: potency. The early studies reported in Heise and Morgan 1988 and MacKinnon and Keating 1989, based on college student samples (as well as a later study using nationally representative survey data of US adults; see Lively and Heise 2004), provide important empirical support for the basis of affect control theory and its subsequent body of theory and research. Heise 2010 introduces several survey techniques to capture cultural meanings, which are affective in nature, and may be useful for ethnographic studies. Church, et al. 1998 finds some support for the presence of primary emotions in a sample of Filipino-English bilinguals. Similarly, Smith and Schneider 2009 fails to find support for other popular models of emotion that distinguish among primary, secondary, and tertiary emotions but does acknowledge the need to distinguish between emotions that have two, as opposed to three, dimensions on affective meaning. While this section may be of interest to scholars doing research in emotion, it will probably be less so to students and those with a substantive interest in emotion. Clay-Warner and Robinson 2015 addresses the pros and cons of using infrared thermography as a measure of physiological aspects of emotional response (also see Robinson, et al. 2004), and Doan 2012 uses survey data to distinguish between moods and emotions.

                                                                      • Church, Timothy A., Marcia S. Katigbak, Alberto S. Jose, and Stacia M. Jensen. 1998. Language and organisation of Filipino emotional concepts: Comparing emotion concepts and dimensions across cultures. Cognition and Emotion 12:63–92.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/026999398379781Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Using data collected from Filipino-English bilinguals in three studies, the cross-cultural comparability of emotion lexicons and their conceptual organizations are investigated. The authors find cross-cultural support for the presence of primary emotions, as well as for the classification proposed in Ortony, et al. 1988.

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                                                                        • Clay-Warner, Jody, and Dawn T. Robinson. 2015. Infrared thermography as a measure of emotion response. Emotion Review 7.2: 157–162.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1754073914554783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          In this short piece, Clay-Warner and Robinson discuss the pros and cons of using infrared thermography. Although they highlight the utility of using this relatively unobtrusive method for capturing emotion response, they also acknowledge potential weaknesses and offer directions for future research.

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                                                                          • Doan, Long. 2012. A social model of persistent mood states. Social Psychology Quarterly 75.3: 198–218.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0190272512451157Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Using data from the GSS Emotions Module (1996), Doan distinguishes between moods and emotions, creating a social model to better explain why some discrete emotion states are likely to become more enduring moods, while others do not.

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                                                                            • Heise, David R. 2010. Surveying cultures: Discovering shared conceptions and sentiments. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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                                                                              Surveying Cultures employs several techniques rooted in survey methodologies to discover cultural patterns in social science research. Examining both classical and emerging methods that are used to survey and assess differing norms among populations, Heise introduces a theory of measurement for ethnographic studies that employs the consensus as culture model.

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                                                                              • Heise, David R., and Richard Morgan. 1988. Structure of emotions. Social Psychology Quarterly 51:19–31.

                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/2786981Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Using scaling techniques, Heise and Morgan examine the dimensional structure of the lexicon of pure emotion adjectives in terms of evaluation, potency, and activity. Activation appears to be the main discriminating factor in positive emotions, but activation and a sense of potency combine in discriminating negative emotions.

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                                                                                • Lively, Kathryn J., and David Heise. 2004. Sociological realms of emotional experience. American Journal of Sociology 109:1109–1136.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1086/381915Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Using data from the GSS Emotions Module (1996), Lively and Heise explore insights from Hochschild’s theory of emotion management as well as Heise’s Affect Control Theory. In the process, they develop new measurements, including emotional segues (also see Lively 2008, cited under Sex and Gender) and emotional stations.

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                                                                                  • MacKinnon, Neil J., and Leo Keating. 1989. The structure of emotions: A review of the problem and cross-cultural analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly 52:70–82.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2786905Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Using Canadian data, MacKinnon and Keating replicate the three-dimensional structure of affective meaning: evaluation, potency, and activation (see Heise and Morgan 1988), providing additional support for a cybernetically based study of emotion and the presence of a third dimension of affective meaning.

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                                                                                    • Ortony, Andrew, Gerald L. Clore, and Allan Collins. 1988. The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511571299Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Perhaps the most systematic classification of emotions to date. Ortony, Clore, and Collins distinguish between three types of emotion: reactions to events, reactions to agents, and reactions to objects. This scheme has been widely adopted by scholars using the General Social Survey data (see Data Sources), such as Lively and Heise 2004, Lively 2008 (cited under Sex and Gender), Lively and Powell 2006 (cited under At Work and at Home), and Simon and Nath 2004 (cited under Sex and Gender).

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                                                                                      • Robinson, Dawn T., Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Christabel Rogalin. 2004. Physiological measures for theoretical concepts: Some ideas for linking deflection and emotion to physical responses during interaction. Advances in Group Processes 21:77–115.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0882-6145(04)21004-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        In this chapter, Robinson and colleagues lay out a research agenda that includes bringing physiology into sociological research on emotions.

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                                                                                        • Rogers, Kimberly B., and Dawn T. Robinson. 2014. Measuring affect and emotion. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathon Turner, 283–305. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                          A comprehensive review of the elements of emotions typically measured by sociologists and the techniques used to measure them. Instead of starting with a consensus definition of emotion, Rogers and Robinson take a more eclectic and, therefore, comprehensive approach to the study and measurement of emotion.

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                                                                                          • Smith, Herman W., and Andreas Schneider. 2009. Critiquing models of emotion. Social Methods and Research 37:560–589.

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                                                                                            In a systematic test of four popular emotion models, the results reveal no support for classifications that distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary emotions. However, results do point the utility of distinguishing between emotions that have two dimensions of affective meaning, as opposed to three.

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                                                                                            Methods for Studying Emotion

                                                                                            Sociologists use several different types of methods to study emotion, ranging among in-depth interviews, ethnographies, surveys, content analysis, experiments, and simulations. This collection of readings speaks to some of the methodological challenges unique to the study of emotion. Kleinman and Copp 1993 and Prosser 2015 both seek to remind scholars that emotions are highly subjective and their researchers’ own emotions are worthy of investigation and, thus, should be taken seriously as both part and parcel of the academic enterprise. Along with Prosser, Anleu, et al. 2015; Bellocchi 2014; Godbold 2014; and Patulny 2014—also see Clay-Warner and Robinson 2015 (cited under Classifications and Measurement)—round out a special issue of Emotion Review, where scholars introduced new and innovative methodological approaches to the sociological study of emotion. The majority of these articles adopt multiple methods in their attempts to capture emotions within complex settings.

                                                                                            • Anleu, Sharyn Roach, Stina Bergman Blix, and Kathy Mack. 2015. Researching emotion in courts and the judiciary: A tale of two projects. Emotion Review 7.2: 145–150.

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                                                                                              These two studies pair a variety of methods together in order to triangulate how emotion operates within a judicial setting. For instance, they illustrate how ethnography, followed by in-depth interviews, allows them to ask more meaningful, directed questions and their respondents to provide richer, situationally relevant responses.

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                                                                                              • Bellocchi, Alberto. 2014. Methods for sociological inquiry on emotion in educational settings. Emotion Review 7.2: 151–156.

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                                                                                                This article outlines a multimethod approach for studying emotion in classroom settings. In addition to relying on basic observation and self-report, Bellocchi introduces the use of facial expression analysis (FACES) and a variety of measures for verbal and nonverbal conduct, including tonality, rapidity, and cadence of speech that are often overlooked in sociological studies of emotion.

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                                                                                                • Godbold, Natalya. 2014. Researching emotions in interactions: Seeing and analysing live processes. Emotion Review 7.2: 163–168.

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                                                                                                  Godbold encourages sociologists to incorporate insights from ethnomethodology when studying emotional communities or groups. Using her own research as a guide, Godbold encourages scholars to study emotions as ongoing products of social interactions, not as predetermined outcomes. She also argues for detailed insider understanding, to ensure the capture of jargon and shared meanings—particularly those not labeled as emotion per se.

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                                                                                                  • Kleinman, Sherryl, and Martha A. Copp. 1993. Emotions in fieldwork. Qualitative Research Methods Series 28. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4135/9781412984041Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    A classic among qualitative scholars studying emotions. This short volume not only helps scholars understand their own emotions within fieldwork, but also encourages them to make their own emotional responses—to the degree that emotions act as signals—part of the analysis.

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                                                                                                    • Patulny, Roger. 2014. Exposing the “wellbeing gap” between American men and women: Revelations from the sociology of emotion surveys. Emotion Review 7.2: 169–174.

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                                                                                                      Drawing on insights from his own work detailing the gender gap in wellbeing among US women and men, Patulny invites emotion scholars to include feeling states that might not meet standard definitions of emotion—such as interest or tiredness—but, in fact, may lead to reductions in overall well-being and happiness. He also recommends the adoption of a two-stage data collection method of using real-time, open-ended emotion diaries to collect a deeper understanding of respondents’ own emotional realities, before issuing standard surveys to capture emotion heavily influenced by a priori theory.

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                                                                                                      • Prosser, Brenton. 2015. Knowledge of the heart: Ethical implications of sociological research on emotion. Emotion Review 7.2: 175–180.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/1754073914554787Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Harkening back to Kleinman and Copp 1993, Prosser offers a modern take into how emotions are embedded in the subjectivities of those who experience them, and in the researchers who record and respond to them, encouraging scholars to take into account the ways in which they themselves cocreate the reporting and the understanding of respondents’ emotional experiences.

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                                                                                                        Social Structure

                                                                                                        The structural approach to the study of emotion has its roots in the positivist perspective—that is, the idea that emotions have some biological basis and can be best understood as a result of one’s position within the social structure. Perhaps the best-known proponents of this approach, Theodore Kemper (Kemper 1978) and Randall Collins (Collins 2009, Collins 1981; Collins 2005; also see Kemper and Collins 1990, Kemper 2014) assume that individuals’ emotional reactions occur as a result of their positions within the social structure, and that particular emotions can be predicted based on the outcomes of social interactions (that is, whether or not individuals experience more or less status or power than they expected going to the interaction). This perspective, similar to Affect Control Theory and other cybernetic models of emotion/identity, suggests that individuals are motivated to maintain what they think they deserve in any particular social interaction. Although still structural in nature, the analysis in Hochschild 1979 takes a somewhat different stance. Hochschild’s focus is not only on emotional experience per se, but also on emotional expression; and rather than examining how the social structure is maintained instantaneously via discrete but oft-repeated social interactions, she examines how the social structure is maintained intergenerationally via parents’ socialization of their children with certain types of emotional capital. Collins’s works are best known for their attempts to link the micro-interactions from which emotions arise to broad-scale macro trends and structures. Thus, these works, more than other traditions within the sociology of emotion, have been adopted by scholars investigating stress and social movements (see Simon and Nath 2004, cited under Sex and Gender).

                                                                                                        • Collins, Randall. 1981. On the micro-foundations of macro-sociology. American Journal of Sociology 86:984–1014.

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                                                                                                          Assuming that humans have limited cognitive capacity, Collins suggests that we continuously negotiate social coalitions in chains of interaction rituals in which conversations create symbols of group membership. Every encounter is a marketplace in which individuals tacitly match conversational and emotional resources acquired from previous encounters. Social stratification is maintained through these micro-interactions.

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                                                                                                          • Collins, Randall. 2005. Interaction ritual chains. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                            In his most accessible treatise to date, Collins proposes that successful rituals create symbols of group membership and pump up individuals with emotional energy, while failed rituals drain emotional energy. These interaction ritual chains not only reify existing status hierarchies but also shape everyday activities.

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                                                                                                            • Collins, Randall. 2009. Conflict sociology: A social classic updated. Edited by Stephen K. Sanderson. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

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                                                                                                              Original edition, Conflict Sociology: Towards an Explanatory Science (New York: Academic Press, 1975). Collins brings together the best features of the Marxian and Weberian conflict traditions and connects them to microsociological principles derived from the Durkheimian tradition and Erving Goffman, thus forging a connection between the micro-interactions through which emotions occur and the larger social structure in which these interactions are embedded.

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                                                                                                              • Hochschild, Arlie R. 1979. Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology 85:551–575.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/227049Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Hochschild introduces the notions that emotions are subject to management, and that middle-class jobs require more emotion work than lower-class jobs. Because middle-class parents value emotion management more than working-class parents do, social stratification is maintained. This article paved the way for the studies of Socialization and Labor.

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                                                                                                                • Kemper, Theodore D. 1978. A social interactional theory of emotions. New York: Wiley.

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                                                                                                                  Kemper argues that all emotions arise along two fundamental dimensions of interaction: status and power. When individuals’ status and power expectations are confirmed in a given interaction, they are expected to experience contentment, but they are expected to experience a particular—and predictable—emotion when expectations are not met.

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                                                                                                                  • Kemper, Theodore D. 2014. Status, power, and felicity. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 155–178. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                    In his latest articulation of status-power theory, Kemper addresses the relationship between power-status outcomes and the emotion/feeling of felicity (happiness, satisfaction, contentment, or well-being). He does so by reviewing the theory, including an updated conceptualization of happiness-relevant outcomes, including meaningfulness.

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                                                                                                                    • Kemper, Theodore D., and Randall Collins. 1990. Dimensions of microinteraction. American Journal of Sociology 96:32–68.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/229492Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Here, Kemper and Collins consolidate their perspectives into one coherent theory of structural interaction in which there are but two central relational dimensions of microinteraction—power and status—that can be generalized upward to macro conditions.

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                                                                                                                      Culture

                                                                                                                      The cultural approach to the study of emotion is focused on what Steven Gordon has termed “emotional culture.” The emotional culture of any society is made up by the rules and norms, which govern emotional experience and expression.

                                                                                                                      US Culture

                                                                                                                      Many of the studies cited here offer a historical account of a particular emotion (Clark 1997, Clark 1987) or a set of emotional norms to show how the norms have changed over time or as a result of a particular historical shift (Cancian and Gordon 1988, Stearns and Stearns 1986). The two most common are the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of women into the paid labor force. Although many scholars acknowledge the futility of trying to separate culture from structure, there are several studies within the subfield that take emotional norms as their starting point and focus. To date, most of the work in emotion has been based on US data. Notably, both the cultural and structural approaches are found throughout all the research cited in this bibliography. Coming more from a sociology of culture perspective than a sociology of emotions perspective, per se, Illouz 2012 illustrates how romantic love, as opposed to being an individual or even interpersonal experience, is rooted in society’s most sweeping institutions. In a review of the literatures on emotion and culture, Illouz, et al. 2014 identifies overlapping themes and directions for new scholarship.

                                                                                                                      • Cancian, Francesca M., and Steven L. Gordon. 1988. Changing emotion norms in marriage: Love and anger in U.S. women’s magazines since 1900. Gender and Society 2:308–342.

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                                                                                                                        Based on content analysis, Cancian and Gordon show how 20th-century US women’s magazine texts socialized readers to the “proper” expression of love and anger in marriage between 1900 and 1979. Although emotion norms became less rigid, gender differences persisted, with women remaining largely responsible for maintaining intimate relationships.

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                                                                                                                        • Clark, Candace. 1997. Misery and company: Sympathy in everyday life. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226107585.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Clark reveals that “sympathy” has a history, logic, and life of its own. She illustrates that we are not born knowing when, for whom, and in what circumstances sympathy is appropriate, but rather, we learn elaborate and highly specific rules that govern the amount we feel, display, claim, and accept it.

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                                                                                                                          • Clark, Candace. 1987. Sympathy biography and sympathy margin. American Journal of Sociology 93:290–321.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1086/228746Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Here, Clark details how sympathy margins exist as a right of group membership. The size of one’s sympathy margin, however, varies with, among other factors, one’s sympathy biography or past adherence to sympathy etiquette. Individuals who fail to adhere to these rules are considered deviant sympathizers (also see Deviance).

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                                                                                                                            • Illouz, Eva. 2012. Why love hurts. Malden, MA: Polity.

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                                                                                                                              A sweeping cultural analysis of romantic love in the United States. Inherently sociological, Illouz’s analysis illustrates how love is not an individual phenomena. Rather, love is rooted in social relations and institutions; moreover, love is subject to—and informed by—the market-like inequalities that exist between potential, current, and former romantic partners.

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                                                                                                                              • Illouz, Eva, Daniel Gilon, and Mattan Shachak. 2014. Emotions and cultural theory. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 221–244. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                In one of the first reviews of its kind, Illouz, Gilon, and Shachak bring together emotion scholarship and cultural theories, identifying current overlaps and new directions for study. Themes involve normative, discursive, and ritual approaches to emotions, and the relatively new form of emotionality produced by new information technologies, ranging from fiction to virtual representations.

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                                                                                                                                • Lois, Jennifer. 2003. Heroic efforts: The emotional culture of search and rescue volunteers. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                  Based on years of participant observation, Lois details the concept of heroism and, in so doing, describes the emotional culture of search and rescue volunteers. She makes important distinctions between the types of emotion management performed by volunteers, as well as the differential expectations placed on male and female volunteers (also see Management).

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                                                                                                                                  • Stearns, Carol Z., and Peter N. Stearns. 1986. Anger: The struggle for emotional control in America’s history. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Carol and Peter Stearns trace the two-hundred-year development of anger, beginning with premodern colonial America. Offering an entirely new approach to the study of emotion, the authors inaugurate a new field of study, “emotionology,” which distinguishes collective emotional standards from the experience of emotion itself.

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                                                                                                                                    Cross-Cultural

                                                                                                                                    Among cross-cultural studies of emotion, Kitayama, et al. 2006 shows that Japanese and US cultures foster markedly different emotions, and Kofler 1997 finds that Europeans in Vienna and Americans in Florida experience fear and anxiety in different ways. Panayiotou 2004 reminds us of how language is a crucial part of how we experience emotion. Finally, Klein 1995 examines the social and cross-cultural aspects of masculinity through an ethnographic study of a Mexican League baseball team. Matsumoto, et al. 1988 suggests that while the antecedent/evaluation process seems remarkably similar for North Americans and Japanese, there are noticeable differences in reactive/expressive aspects of emotion, which are most likely due to differences in socialization. Wei 2014 (cited under Globalization) is a cultural analysis of emotional display on China’s Next Top Model, and it reveals that emotions and their display are cross-culturally transmitted through popular media.

                                                                                                                                    • Kitayama, Shinou, Batja Mesquita, and Mayumi Karasawa. 2006. Cultural affordances and emotional experience: Socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:890–903.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.5.890Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Results reveal that Japanese culture encourages socially engaging emotions (e.g., friendly feelings and guilt), whereas North American culture encourages socially disengaging emotions (e.g., pride and anger). Moreover, Japanese report a greater sense of overall well-being. Illustrates the need for more cross-cultural studies of emotion.

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                                                                                                                                      • Klein, Alan M. 1995. Tender machos: Masculine contrasts in the Mexican Baseball League. Sociology of Sport 12:370–388.

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                                                                                                                                        The institution and meaning of machismo are examined here along three indices of emotion: expression of vulnerability, reactions to children, and expression of physicality. Cross-cultural analysis suggests that the stereotypical view of Mexican men is overly one-dimensional, and that Mexican players express more tender emotions than their Anglo counterparts.

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                                                                                                                                        • Kofler, Angelika. 1997. Fear and anxiety across continents. Innovation 10:381–404.

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                                                                                                                                          Speaking to the need for more cross-cultural qualitative studies of emotion, results reveal that Americas and Europeans express feelings of fear and anxiety differently, and that Americans’ social norms make the anxiety taboo stronger than it is in Europe. American tendencies toward expressiveness are noted.

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                                                                                                                                          • Matsumoto, David, Tsutomu Kudoh, Klaus Scherer, and Harold Wallbat. 1988. Antecedents of and reactions to emotions in the United States and Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 19:267–286.

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                                                                                                                                            Results reveal that the antecedents and experience of felt emotions do not vary by culture, but that the reactivity and expression do. This article, along with others in this section, points to the need to do more cross-cultural work in emotion, particularly in terms of socialization processes and expression.

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                                                                                                                                            • Panayiotou, Alexia. 2004. Bilingual emotions: The untranslatable self. Estudios de Sociolinguista 5:1–19.

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                                                                                                                                              Based on interviews with Greek-English bilingual-bicultural informants, the results suggest that there are certain emotions that are specific to certain languages and cultures (e.g., the Greek stenahoria, loosely translated as “discomfort/sadness/suffocation”). Raises interesting questions about the generalizability of “nationally representative data.”

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                                                                                                                                              Socialization

                                                                                                                                              Given that each society has its own emotional culture, it is no surprise that scholars soon turned their attention to emotional socialization (Gordon 1989). Although most of the articles in the Culture section attend in some degree to emotional socialization (see Cancian and Gordon 1988 and Clark 1997 under US Culture, in particular), the studies cited in this section attend to the actual processes of emotional socialization: who does it, how it is done, and to what purpose. Following in the steps of social psychological studies on socialization, the earliest of these studies focused on children (Leavitt and Power 1989, Pollack and Thoits 1989). However, as is the case with other forms of socialization, it soon became clear that emotional socialization continues beyond childhood (Simon, et al. 1992). Notably, most of the studies of emotional socialization in adulthood occur either in professional schools (Cahill 1999, Smith and Kleinman 1986) or in the workplace (see Hochschild 1983, cited under Managing Your Own Emotions and Pierce 1995, cited under Gender Differences).

                                                                                                                                              • Cahill, Spencer E. 1999. Emotional capital and professional socialization: The case of mortuary science students (and me). Social Psychology Quarterly 62.2: 101–116.

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                                                                                                                                                Based on ethnographic observations of mortuary science students, Cahill explains the differences between successful and unsuccessful students’ emotional reactions to the work of funeral direction in terms of emotional capital (i.e., biographical history). Implications for professional socialization, occupational selection and exclusion, and the social reproduction of status distinctions are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                • Gordon, Steven. 1989. Socialization of children’s emotions: Toward a social constructionist theory. In Children’s understanding of emotion. Edited by Carolyn Saarni and Paul Harris, 38–57. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                  Building on the work of George Herbert Mead (see Mead 1934, cited under Classic Works), Gordon sets forth a model of emotional socialization—one’s ability to take the role of the other and to see oneself as both actor and object. Often credited for introducing the term “emotional culture.”

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                                                                                                                                                  • Leavitt, Robin Lynn, and Martha Bauman Power. 1989. Emotional socialization in the postmodern era: Children in day care. Social Psychology Quarterly 52:35–45.

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                                                                                                                                                    In this ethnography of children in day care and their caregivers, Leavitt and Power illustrate how emotional socialization occurs in institutional settings. They find caregivers often deny the legitimacy of children’s emotions and encourage children to reconstruct their emotions.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Pollack, Lauren H., and Peggy Thoits. 1989. Processes in emotional socialization. Social Psychology Quarterly 52:22–34.

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                                                                                                                                                      Pollack and Thoits observed the emotional socialization of disturbed children in a therapeutic school, finding that children were routinely and explicitly instructed (via Thoits’s Four-Factor Model of Emotion) to interpret their feelings, identify what emotions are appropriate to feel and display, and modify their expressive behaviors.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Simon, Robin, Donna Eder, and Cathy Evans. 1992. The development of feeling norms underlying romantic love among adolescent females. Social Psychology Quarterly 55:29–46.

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                                                                                                                                                        This study shows how female adolescents acquired cultural knowledge about love through peer discourse, as opposed to from parents, teachers, or other adults. These girls routinely evaluated, negotiated, and sometimes defied feeling norms, providing evidence that although emotion norms may constrain female adolescents’ affect and behavior, they do not determine them.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Allen C., and Sheryl Kleinman. 1986. Managing emotions in medical school: Students’ contacts with the living and the dead. Social Psychology Quarterly 52:56–69.

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                                                                                                                                                          In this ethnographic study, Smith and Kleinman show how medical students learn to manage inappropriate feelings. Adhering to a “hidden curriculum,” students draw on aspects of their training to manage their emotions. In so doing, students reproduce the perspective of modern Western medicine and its consequent doctor-patient relationship.

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                                                                                                                                                          Deviance

                                                                                                                                                          As it became clear that there are as many rules regarding what we should feel or display in a given situation as there are situations—and that these rules also vary according to one’s personal characteristics and one’s place within the larger social structure—sociologists began to turn their attention to those people who fail to (or are incapable of) experiencing or expressing emotion in normative ways. Based on labeling theory, which supposes that individuals are labeled by people on the outside, Thoits 1985 introduced the notion of self-labeling, or the conditions under which individuals come to self-label as emotionally deviant when they fail to experience or express feelings in accordance with what they consider to be society’s view of what is normal (also see the discussion of deviant sympathizers in Clark 1987, cited under US Culture). Taking Thoits’s ideas, which are largely theoretical, Lois 2009 and Taylor 1996 applied them to the experiences of homeschoolers and women suffering post-partum depression, respectively. Also see Francis 1997 (cited under Managing the Emotions of Others). The review in Clay-Warner 2014 extends sociologists’ focus on deviance only to also cover the nexus between emotion and crime.

                                                                                                                                                          • Clay-Warner, Jody. 2014. Crime and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 473–494. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                            A relatively understudied topic within the sociology of emotion, Clay-Warner reviews existing scholarship on emotions and crime. Topics include the role of emotion in theories of criminal behavior, emotions and desistance, and fear of crime. A cogent and comprehensive review, Clay-Warner sets a theoretically informed agenda for future research in this area of study.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Lois, Jennifer. 2009. Emotionally layered accounts: Homeschoolers’ justifications for maternal deviance. Deviant Behavior 30:201–234.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/01639620802069783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Lois identifies four ways in which homeschooling mothers are accused of maternal deviance and the four justifications they used in response. On the surface, critics objected to the behavior of homeschooling; however, their specific accusations, and the accounts they engendered, revealed that it was mothers’ (alleged) emotions that were at issue.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Taylor, Verta. 1996. Rock-a-by baby: Feminism, self-help, and postpartum depression. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                Rock-a-by baby examines the postpartum depression support group movement and explores the relationship among gender, the ideas and strategies of women’s self-help groups, and feminism. Utilizing Thoits’s theory of emotional deviance as a frame, Taylor illuminates conflicts played out in the arena of women’s self-help.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Thoits, Peggy A. 1985. Self-labeling processes in mental illness: The role of emotional deviance. American Journal of Sociology 93:221–249.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1086/228276Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Building on Thomas Scheff’s labeling approach to mental illness, which is based on reaction of others to “residual rule-breaking,” Thoits develops a theory of self-labeling to account for the unexplained phenomenon of voluntary treatment seeking—that is, counseling. Residual rules are expanded here to include “emotion rules.”

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                                                                                                                                                                  Management

                                                                                                                                                                  The literature on emotion management is a natural extension from the existing scholarship on emotion culture and emotional deviance. As Hochschild proposed (see Social Structure), and as has been seconded by numerous scholars since, when individuals find themselves feeling outside of what they expected to feel (or should feel) in a given situation, they are expected to engage in emotion management. When individuals fail to bring their feelings in line with existing emotion norms, they may come to see themselves as emotionally deviant (see Thoits 1985, cited under Deviance). To date, most of the studies of emotion management can be divided into two types: managing your own emotional state, usually through cognitive means, and managing the emotions of others.

                                                                                                                                                                  Managing Your Own Emotions

                                                                                                                                                                  Emotion management refers to the attempt of individuals to move back in line with existing feeling norms; unlike labor, which occurs at work and has paid value, emotion work occurs in private and is deemed to have “use-value” (Hochschild 1983). To date there have been hundreds of qualitative studies on emotion management, or the attempts that individuals make to manage their own emotions in every day life for their own purposes. Goodrum 2008 is somewhat anomalous in that she examines emotion management among a population little studied by sociologists; her work also illustrates clearly the dynamic nature of emotion norms and how they are actively constructed between actors and their audience. Although most studies of emotion management focus on cognitive strategies, Gottschalk 2003 reminds us that some emotion management is also embodied and, when carried out over time, may result in social psychological symptoms (or cultural stereotypes). Keys 2010 studies emotion management within the context of ideology (see also Hochschild 2003, cited under Family), finding that women use both behavioral and cognitive techniques to manage their emotions when facing the prospect of abortion. Schrock, et al. 2009, on the emotion work of male-to-female transsexuals, introduces a temporal component to emotion work that has long been missing from qualitative and quantitative studies.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Goodrum, Sarah. 2008. When the management of grief becomes everyday life: The aftermath of murder. Symbolic Interaction 31:422–442.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1525/si.2008.31.4.422Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Based on in-depth interviews with thirty-two people who had recently lost a loved one to murder, this study examines how others indicate that our emotions violate social norms, and how the so-called norm violators feel about and respond to those.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Gottschalk, Simon. 2003. Reli(e)ving the past: Emotion work in the Holocaust’s second generation. Symbolic Interaction 26:355–380.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Gottschalk suggests that the social psychological symptoms of the “second generation” may result from four interrelated types of “deep acting” they continuously feel compelled to perform, and that these types of deep acting constitute adjustments and reactions to problematic emotional dynamics characterizing their survivor families.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1983. The managed heart: The commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                        In Part 1, Hochschild introduces and defines emotion management as the cognitive “work” that individuals do to bring their feelings in line with existing feeling and display rules, makes important theoretical distinctions between surface and deep acting, and distinguishes emotion management from emotional labor. This is the most influential book in the subfield.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Keys, Jennifer. 2010. Running the gauntlet: Women’s use of emotion management techniques in the abortion experience. Symbolic Interaction 33:41–70.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Drawing on in-depth interviews with forty women who have terminated a pregnancy, this study examines how the clashing emotion culture of abortion politics shapes women’s feelings about abortion. Findings indicate that women use behavioral as well as cognitive techniques to transform unpleasant physiological reactions, inappropriate expressive gestures, and problematic emotional labels.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Schrock, Douglas, Emily M. Boyd, and Margaret Leaf. 2009. Emotion work in the public performances of male-to-female transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38:702–712.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9280-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            In this qualitative study of male to female transsexuals, Schrock and colleagues introduce the notions of prepatory, in situ, and retrospective emotion work, capturing the process through which individuals engage in emotion work before, during, and after stressful events.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Managing the Emotions of Others

                                                                                                                                                                            Building up insights from early studies of emotion management and emotional labor (see Hochschild 1983, cited under Labor) and research on social support, scholars soon turned their attention to interpersonal emotion management, or the strategies that individuals use to manage other people’s emotions. Using data collected from a psychodrama group, Thoits 1996 shows how therapists manipulate the four factors of emotion in order to create the desired emotional response, even it means taking the client through more extreme feeling states. Also in a therapeutic vein, Francis 1997 illustrates how therapists change people’s identities—this time in terms of relative evaluation, potency, and activation—in order to create emotional well-being (see also Classifications and Measurement and Affect Control Theory). Although the majority of those studies of interpersonal emotion management refer to the attempts of one actor to change the emotional state of another, some scholars have also examined emotion management strategies that are more collective; Staske 1996 and Staske 1998 illustrate how intimate pairs engage in collective emotion management via talk, and Lively 2000 shows that the emotion management performed by similar others is often governed by norms of reciprocity (also see Clark 1987, cited under US Culture). Coser 1959 and Francis 1994 explore humor as a unique form of interpersonal emotion management. Humor, unlike other forms of emotional support, has the ability to bring out a desired emotional state in both parties simultaneously. Looking at the phenomena of emotional amplification, the analysis in Hallett 2003 illustrates how the process of emotional feedback occurs in social interaction. Also see Smith 2008, cited under Gender Differences.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Coser, Rose Laub. 1959. Some social functions of laughter: A study of humor in a hospital setting. Human Relations 12:171–182.

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                                                                                                                                                                              In perhaps the first study of emotion management, Coser argues that humor helps hospital patients manage their emotions regarding institutional life; further, humor serves the function of institutional and emotional socialization. However, since humor provides a “corrective” in perception only, unsatisfactory situations may persist.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Francis, Linda. 1994. Laughter, the best mediation: Humor as emotion management in interpersonal interaction. Symbolic Interaction 17:147–163.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1525/si.1994.17.2.147Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Francis casts humor as an expert cultural performance that strengthens or restores the feeling norms of a situation and also creates amusement in the self and others. It also generates positive sentiments among members of an interacting group by bonding them and/or reducing an external threat.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Francis, Linda. 1997. Ideology and interpersonal emotion management: Redefining identity in support groups. Social Psychology Quarterly 60:153–171.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Illustrating the process of interpersonal emotion management, Francis focuses on how two radically different support groups for dealing with spousal loss use a largely identical process of interpersonal emotion management in order to redefine not only the event of spousal loss, but also the sufferer’s very identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hallett, Tim. 2003. Emotional feedback and amplification in social interaction. Sociological Quarterly 44.4: 705–726.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2003.tb00532.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Based on ethnography, Hallett reveals an often-overlooked side of emotion management—that is, emotional feedback and amplification. His work illustrates how emotions can feedback on one another during the course of social interaction, becoming stronger and potentially even more disruptive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lively, Kathryn J. 2000. Reciprocal emotion management: Working together to maintain stratification in private law firms. Work and Occupations 27:32–63.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Using interview data from paralegals and legal assistants employed by private firms, Lively introduces the concept of reciprocal emotion management and the role that it plays in the reproduction of status inequality in hierarchically ordered work settings (also see Coser 1959).

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Staske, Shirley A. 1996. Talking feelings: The collaborative construction of emotion in talk between close relational partners. Symbolic Interaction 19:111–142.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/si.1996.19.2.111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Based on forty-four half-hour videotaped and transcribed conversations of interactants discussing an emotionally influential issue, Staske showed that interactants’ emotional experiences were interactively constructed through (1) downgrading and upgrading emotional expressions, and (2) developing characteristics of the situation seen to have produced the emotion so as to justify it.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Staske, Shirley A. 1998. The normalization of problematic emotion in conversations between close relational partners: Interpersonal emotion work. Symbolic Interaction 21:59–92.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/si.1998.21.1.59Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Analysis of conversations between romantic partners, same-sex friends, and cross-sex friends illustrates conversants’ use of both direct (e.g., defining the experience as a product of the ordinary human world) and indirect (e.g., partner-matching) interactive strategies to “normalize” emotional experiences, which are seen as problematic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Thoits, Peggy A. 1996. Managing the emotions of others. Symbolic Interaction 19:85–109.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on participant observation of a psychodrama-based encounter group, Thoits identifies interpersonal emotion management strategies, which, when used sequentially, first produced emotional loss of control in the individual and then positive emotion, suggesting that some emotional shifts may be more easily made through intervening emotional states.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Labor

                                                                                                                                                                                            Starting with the publication of Hochschild 1983, sociologists have been fascinated by the concept of emotional labor. Undoubtedly one of the most researched and highly debated aspects of emotion among sociologists, “emotional labor” refers to the cognitive attempts that individuals (usually service workers) make in order to elicit a desired emotional outcome from another (usually a customer or client). Although the processes of emotional labor and emotion management are virtually identical, Hochschild argued that when emotion management processes (which tend to occur in the public sphere and are initiated and controlled by the individual, who benefits from his or her adherence to socially mandated feeling norms) are transmuted into emotional labor (which tends to occur in public settings and is initiated and controlled by corporations, which are the ones who benefit), there can be important physical and psychological costs. In particular, she theorized that service workers who routinely engaged in emotional labor (most often middle-class white women) were at a greater risk for feelings of inauthenticity and alienation than were those workers who did not. She also argued that emotional labor was a hidden (or unacknowledged) aspect of service work and therefore was largely an unpaid part of women’s work (mirroring the unpaid nature of most of women’s work in the private sphere as well; see Family). In the subsequent decades, scholars have examined nearly every assertion in The Managed Heart (Hochschild 1983), ranging from the economic costs of providing emotional labor (England, et al. 1994 and Kilbourne, et al. 1994; both cited under Economic Costs), the psychological costs (Leidner 1993, Erickson and Ritter 2001, and Erickson and Wharton 1997, all cited under Psychological Costs), its relation to moral identities (see Kolb 2014, cited under Moral Emotions and Identities), and the gendered nature of emotional labor (Cottingham 2015, Pierce 1995, and Sutton 1991, all cited under Gender Differences).

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1983. The managed heart: The commercialization of feeling. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Here Hochschild asks, “What happens when our personal system of emotion management is adapted to commercial purposes?” Introducing the concept of “emotional labor,” she vividly describes from a feminist perspective the process of estrangement from personal feelings and its role as an “occupational hazard” for one-third of America’s workforce.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Steinberg, Ronnie J., and Deborah M. Figart, eds. 1999. Emotional labor in the service economy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Leading scholars in the field of emotional labor and economic sociology discuss many aspects of emotional labor in a variety of job settings and cross-disciplinary examples. Subjects include emotional demands at work, the financial penalty for doing caring work, psychological consequences of emotional labor, and rules regulating emotional displays in the workplace.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wharton, Amy. 2009. The sociology of emotional labor. Annual Review of Sociology 35:147–165.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115944Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In this comprehensive review of the field, Wharton reviews theory and research on emotional labor with a particular focus on its contributions to sociological understandings of workers and jobs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Economic Costs

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Although several qualitative studies of emotional labor suggest that women’s emotional labor often penalizes them financially, there was at first little quantitative data to support that claim. England, et al. 1994 and Kilbourne, et al. 1994, however, used US Census data to show that both women and men earned significantly less when employed in a predominantly female field, and that jobs that required care work or “nurturing” did indeed carry a wage penalty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • England, Paula, Melissa S. Herbert, Barbara Stanek Kilbourne, Lori L. Reid, and Lori McCready Megdal. 1994. The gendered valuation of occupations and skills earning in the 1980 Census occupations. Social Forces 73:65–99.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Analysis of 1980 US census data reveals that the sex composition of an occupation affects the pay it offers, such that both men and women earn less if they work in a predominantly female occupation. Further, working in a job that requires nurturing skills carries a net wage penalty.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek, George Farkas, Kurt Bacon, Dorthea Weir, and Paula England. 1994. Returns to skill, compensating differentials, and gender bias: Effects of occupational characteristics on the wages of white women and men. American Journal of Sociology 96:32–68.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gender differences in the earnings of white US workers are decomposed using a regression model with fixed-effects and national individual-level panel data. Consistent with feminist predictions, negative returns to being in an occupation with a higher percentage of females or requiring more nurturing social skills are found.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Psychological Costs

                                                                                                                                                                                                      One of the most highly debated themes originating from Hochschild 1983 (cited under Labor) is the degree to which engaging in emotional labor carries with it psychological costs. Indeed, Hochschild, among others (see Smith and Kleinman 1986, cited under Socialization), argued that service workers who engaged in emotional labor were more likely than those who did not to experience feelings of burnout and inauthenticity—or loss of self—a state of being that was deleterious to self and to intimate relationships with others. Since around 1990, several scholars have attempted to tease out the conditions under which emotional labor does have negative consequences and when it is actually beneficial. Using qualitative data from the fast food and insurance industries, Leidner 1993 found that workers used emotional labor to protect themselves from demanding customers and to assert their will over customers. Using quantitative data, Erickson and Wharton 1997 actually found that inauthenticity mediates the relationship between interactive work conditions and depressed mood. Wharton 1993 shows that the effects of emotional labor are not uniform across all situations. Building on Wharton’s and Erickson’s earlier work, Erickson and Ritter 2001 distinguishes between types of emotional labor, finding that not only do work conditions matter, but also the type of emotional labor performed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Erickson, Rebecca J., and Christian Ritter. 2001. Emotional labor, burnout, and inauthenticity: Does gender matter? Social Psychology Quarterly 64:146–163.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using survey data, the authors examine the experience and management of positive, negative, and agitated emotions, by gender. Although managing feelings of agitation increases burnout and inauthenticity—and inauthenticity is most pronounced among those experiencing the highest level of agitation—the effects do not differ by sex.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Erickson, Rebecca J., and Amy Wharton. 1997. Inauthenticity and depression: Assessing the consequences of interactive service work. Work and Occupations 24:188–213.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0730888497024002004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Using survey data from 629 service workers, the authors test Hochschild’s supposition that feelings of inauthenticity may lead to psychological distress. Notably, they find that inauthenticity mediates the relationship between interactive service work conditions and depressed mood. Erickson and Wharton’s work has given tremendous insight into the relationship between emotional labor and well-being.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Leidner, Robin. 1993. Fast food, fast talk: Service work and the routinization of everyday life. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leidner’s ethnographic study of two different types of service occupations revealed that the degree of occupational routinization affects the type, the depth, and the consequence of emotional labor that employees performed. Moreover, her ethnography highlighted several positive aspects of emotional labor absent in Hochschild 1983 (cited under Labor).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wharton, Amy S. 1993. The affective consequences of service work. Work and Occupations 20:205–232.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Investigating Hochschild’s claim that service work negatively affects workers’ emotional well-being, Wharton uses survey results from workers employed in two industries to show that performance of emotional labor does not have uniformly negative consequences. Instead, effects are conditioned by workers’ level of job autonomy, job involvement, and their self-monitoring abilities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gender Differences

                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of the most pervasive themes throughout the literature on emotion, generally, and emotional labor is certainly no exception, is gender. Based on Hochschild’s assumption that women are more attuned than men to others’ feelings and trade their “care” and “nurturing” for economic stability (see Hochschild 1979, cited under Social Structure), scholars immediately assumed that women were more likely to engage in emotional labor than men were. This notion was furthered by the assumption that emotional labor was more likely to occur in middle-class and/or “pink collar” service jobs (Hochschild 1983, cited under Labor). In the decades that followed, scholars began widening their scope of inquiry to include not only high-status professionals, such as attorneys (Pierce 1995), but also professions that were disproportionately male (Stenross and Kleinman 1989, Pierce 1995, Sutton 1991). Even in similar occupations, females are more likely to be doing emotional labor that requires more care work or nurturing—work that is considered to have lower value—whereas men are more likely to be engaging in emotional labor that requires more affective neutrality or emotions that make them seem more powerful. Stenross and Kleinman 1989 found that female detectives were often left the undesirable task of dealing with victims of crime, while their male counterparts performed the glorified tasks of dealing with perpetrators. Similarly, Pierce 1995 found that female paralegals, as well as female attorneys, were held to a different standard of emotionality, one that required more emotional labor and kept them away from structural opportunities and rewards within law firms. In a follow-up to Hochschild’s chapter on bill collectors (see Hochschild 1983, cited under Labor), Sutton 1991 confirmed that bill collectors, who were disproportionately male, were required to stifle their more tender or sympathetic feelings and to appear unmoved and unyielding when dealing with debtors. Stepping out of the typical white-collar working environment, Smith 2008 shows how professional wrestlers jointly engage in passion work, a highly gendered form of emotional labor designed to heighten the wrestler’s performance in the ring; implications for reward structures are discussed (see also Managing the Emotions of Others.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cottingham, Marci D. 2015. Learning to “deal” and “de-escalate”: How men in nursing manage self and patient emotions. Sociological Inquiry 85.1: 75–99.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cottingham’s analysis specifically examines the links between men’s emotion management in a caring profession and theory on masculine emotionality. Drawing on men’s diaries and interviews, Cottingham describes emergent emotion-based processes that characterize men’s emotional labor. Implications for masculinity and emotion management theory are explored.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pierce, Jennifer. 1995. Gender trials: Emotional lives in contemporary law firms. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pierce documents how sexual double standards and sexist attitudes continue to plague women lawyers and paralegals. This gendered division of labor, particularly emotional labor, benefits men politically, economically, and personally; however, not surprisingly, female lawyers and paralegals develop creative strategies for resisting and disrupting the male-dominated status quo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Smith, Tyson. 2008. Passion work: The joint production of emotional labor in professional wrestling. Social Psychology Quarterly 71:157–176.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Based on an ethnographic study of professional wrestling participants, Tyson introduces a gendered form of emotional labor, passion work, which is designed to elicit a strong response from subjects through the impression of extreme states such as pain. Successful passion work is tied to intrinsic rewards and is jointly produced and shaped (see also Managing the Emotions of Others).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Stenross, Barbara, and Sherryl Kleinman. 1989. The highs and lows of emotional labor: Detectives’ encounters with criminals and victims. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 17:435–452.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Despite the increasing number of female detectives, the emotional labor of detectives is highly gendered. Male detectives are more likely to do the emotional labor that comes with interrogating suspects, while leaving the emotional labor of dealing with victims to female detectives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sutton, Robert. 1991. Maintaining norms about expressed emotion: The case of bill collectors. Administrative Science Quarterly 36:245–268.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Building on Hochschild’s brief discussion of bill collectors (Hochschild 1983, cited under Labor), Sutton draws upon field research and content analysis to establish the norms about the emotions that collectors are required to convey to debtors, and how firms maintain such norms given that collectors’ expressed emotions are simultaneously influenced by their inner feelings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Globalization

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Although this is not a core area within the sociology of emotion yet, increasingly scholars are beginning to look at the implications of globalization for emotion and emotional labor. The social critic Barbara Ehrenreich and the sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild brought attention to this matter in their edited volume, Ehrenreich and Hochschild 2002. Although there are numerous occupations in which displaced women find themselves that require emotional labor, one that has gained the most attention of sociologists and family scholars alike is domestic labor. The term “transnational motherhood” has been coined to describe the experiences of women (e.g., domestic workers) who leave their own children behind with friends, family, and perhaps husbands, so that they can come to more economically stable regions (such as the United States and Europe) and care for other (that is, wealthier) people’s children. In an era when the United States has become increasingly hard on its immigrant workers—particularly Mexican workers who have well-established migration routes into global cities like Los Angeles—Hondagneu-Sotelo 2001 has pointed out that North Americans benefit more from the social reproduction work and emotional labor of these women than their home countries do from the paltry remittances they are able to send back. Drawing with cultural studies, Wei 2014 illustrates how frames regarding emotional displays are also circulated globally through media—in this case, reality television.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Russell Hochschild. 2002. Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy. New York: Metropolitan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Containing original research ranging from the fate of Vietnamese mail-order brides to the importation of Mexican nannies in Los Angeles, Global Woman draws our attention to how emotions, family, and work are increasingly shaped by mass migration and economic exchange.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierriette. 2001. Doméstica: Immigrant workers cleaning and caring in the shadows of affluence. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Adopting the stance of a sociologist-activist, Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo highlights the voices, experiences, and views of Mexican and Central American women who care for other people’s children and homes, as well as the outlooks of the women who employ them in Los Angeles. Winner of the C. Wright Mills Sociological Imagination Award.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wei, Junhow. 2014. Mass media and the localization of emotional display: The case of China’s Next Top Model. American Journal of Cultural Sociology 2.2: 197–220.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Drawing on an analysis of the television program China’s Next Top Model, Wei describes three strategies that frame emotional displays in ways that align their meanings with local ideologies and cultural values. Framing strategies are defined as the mechanisms through which global formats and local culture jointly shape mass-mediated emotional performances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Workplace

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Although the majority of attention has gone to labor, some has been paid to the experience of emotion in the workplace more generally (Lively 2006; Meanwell, et al. 2008; Wharton 2014). Sloan 2008 and Sloan 2007, for example, examine how workplace status and one’s sense of self affects one’s emotional experience as well as potential feelings of inauthenticity (also see Psychological Costs). In particular, Sloan 2008 finds that interaction with others exacerbates workplace anger, and that individuals’ self-reported self-orientation may mediate feelings of inauthenticity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lively, Kathryn J. 2006. Emotions in the workplace. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 569–590. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lively summarizes research since Hochschild 1983 (cited under Labor), not only as it relates to emotional labor but also to emotion more generally. She concludes by positioning the workplace as a natural laboratory for the testing and development of social psychological theory and identifying new directions for future scholarship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Meanwell, Emily, Joseph D. Wolfe, and Tim Hallett. 2008. Old paths and new directions: Studying emotions in the workplace. Sociology Compass 2.2: 537–559.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00077.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Excellent summary of existing literature on emotions in the workplace. Meanwell and Hallett provide a nice grounding of the current work in classical theory, particularly that of Durkheim and symbolic interaction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sloan, Melissa M. 2007. The “real self” and inauthenticity: The importance of self-concept anchorage for emotional experiences in the workplace. Social Psychology Quarterly 70.3: 305–318.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Using the 1996 Emotions Module (GSS), Sloan analyzes workers’ self-orientation as a potential moderator of the relationship between emotion management in the workplace and feelings of inauthenticity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sloan, Melissa M. 2008. Emotion management and workplace status: Consequences for well-being. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion 2.3: 236–255.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1504/IJWOE.2008.019425Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using nationally representative survey data, Sloan examines the relationships among extensive interactions with others on the job, occupational status, and the experience and expression of anger. She finds that individuals who spend much of their time interacting with others at work report workplace anger more frequently than do others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wharton, Amy S. 2014. Work and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathon Turner, 335–358. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In one of the most up-to-date reviews of the literatures on work and emotion, Wharton engages a number of topics by bringing in insight both from sociology and organizational studies. In so doing she illustrates the inherent interdisciplinary nature of both work and emotion and calls for a more interdisciplinary understanding of emotion and work moving forward.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Family

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Compared to studies of emotion in the workplace, there has been scant attention paid to emotions in the family; however, see DeVault’s discussion of the degree to which emotion work, that is, carework, pervades domestic work and almost always falls to the purview of wives and mothers (DeVault 1991, Lois 2013). Not inconsistent with DeVault’s findings, the most developed line of research stems from Hochschild’s ethnography of dual-career parents (Hochschild 2003), and from subsequent survey-based studies of the psychosocial costs of perceived inequity in the household division of labor, in which scholars, many of them using data from the National Survey of Family and Households, began testing the relationship between perceived household inequity and depression, often framing their analysis in terms of equity theory (as seen in Equity and Justice). Glass and Fujimoto 1994 finds that men and women both react negatively when faced with inequity, though men were more reactive when facing inequity in paid work. Lennon and Rosenfield 1994 reports that wives who experience their situations as unfair, and who perceive fewer options, are more likely to report feeling depressed than those who perceive their situation as fair and who have other options. Building upon this early work on depression (Glass and Fujimoto 1994, Lennon and Rosenfield 1994), Lively, et al. 2008 and Lively, et al. 2010 show how over- and under-benefiting in intimate relationships are related to a number of different emotions, depending in large part on the nature of the inequity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DeVault, Marjorie. 1991. Feeding the family: The social organization of caring as gendered work. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DeVault examines the different types of emotion work performed at home; her analysis focuses on the gendered nature of emotion work with families and extends the discussion of emotion work to include various forms of care work, including food preparation and other forms of social reproduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Glass, Jennifer, and Tetsushi Fujimoto. 1994. Housework, paid work, and depression among husbands and wives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 35:179–191.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2137364Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors use data from the National Survey of Families and Households (cited under Data Sources) to test competing explanations of how the distribution of housework and paid work among couples affects depression. Results confirm that paid employment is associated with reduced depression for both, whereas time spent in housework is universally associated with increased depression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 2003. The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Penguin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In an ethnographic study of dual-income parents, Hochschild introduces the idea of the “second shift.” Both husbands and wives create “family” myths to manage mismatches between their gender ideologies and their particular situation. Hochschild’s analysis implies that both husbands and wives suffer emotionally in the face of enduring inequity. Originally published in 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lennon, Mary, and Sarah Rosenfield. 1994. Relative fairness and division of housework: The importance of options. American Journal of Sociology 100:506–531.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/230545Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using data from the 1987–1988 National Survey of Families and Households (cited under Data Sources), the authors find that women who have fewer alternatives to marriage and less economic resources are more likely to view a given division of housework as fair, while women with more alternatives view the same division as unjust. Women who perceive an unequal situation as unfair experience lower psychological well-being.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lively, Kathryn J., Brian Powell, Glaudia Geist, and Lala Carr Steelman. 2008. Equity among intimates. Advances in Group Processes 25:87–116.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/S0882-6145(08)25005-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Using multiple datasets, the authors address how advances in equity theory and in family research both have a great capacity to enrich each other. They summarize key findings as a prelude to future scholarship in the United States and globally (also see Cross-Cultural).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lively, Kathryn J., Lala Steelman, and Brian Powell. 2010. Equity, emotion, and the household division of labor. Social Psychology Quarterly 73:358–379.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0190272510389012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Using the 1996 GSS Emotions Module (see General Social Survey, cited under Data Sources), the authors explore the emotional costs of perceived inequity in the home. They find general support for principles of equity theory: that is, emotions are closely tied to perceived inequity in the division of household labor. However, they also find that this pattern differs by specific emotions, the type of inequity, and sex (see also Equity and Justice).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lois, Jennifer. 2013. Home is where the heart is: The emotional labor of mothering. New York: Univ. of New York Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on in-depth interviews and field notes, Lois documents the experiences of homeschooling mothers. Through careful and unbiased analysis, Lois reveals how homeschooling mothers routinely answer charges of emotional deviance, manage emotional and psychological stressors associated with being both teacher and parent, and manipulate time in order to change their emotional response.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      At Work and at Home

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Given the parallels between emotion work performed at home and emotional labor, it is perhaps unsurprising that scholars soon turned their attention to both. In her third book, The Time Bind (Hochschild 1997), Hochschild turned her attention to why parents employed in one of America’s Fortune 500 companies almost universally chose work over family life, whereas Wharton and Erickson 1995, continuing on their path to understand the psychological effects of emotional labor, investigated how performing emotional labor at work affected one’s ability and/or willingness to perform it at home; they found that women’s emotional labor at work negatively affected their emotion work at home. Using the GSS Emotions Module, Lively and Powell 2006 examines the degree to which status norms regarding emotional expression operate similarly across work and family, and to what degree they differ for women and men. They find that although the status norms do operate similarly across work and family, there are no differences for men and women once the effects of culture and structure are controlled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Erickson, Rebecca J. 2005. Why emotion work matters: Sex, gender identity, and the division of household labor. Journal of Marriage and Family 67:337–351.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00120.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using survey data from 335 employed, married parents, Erickson examines the relative influence of economic resources, time constraints, gender ideology, sex, and gender on the performance of housework, childcare, and emotion work. Results indicate that gender construction—not sex—predicts the performance of emotion work and that this performance reflects a key difference in men’s and women’s gendered constructions of self.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1997. The time bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Metropolitan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Based on an ethnography of Fortune 500 employees, Hochschild found that although every parent said “family first,” few questioned their long hours or took the company up on chances for flex time, paternity leave, or other “family-friendly” policies, largely because the emotional rewards of home and work had reversed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lively, Kathryn J., and Brian Powell. 2006. Emotional expression at work and at home: Domain, status or individual characteristics? Social Psychology Quarterly 69:17–38.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/019027250606900103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Using the 1996 GSS Emotions Module (see General Social Survey, cited under Data Sources), the authors examine strategies that individuals use to express anger. Notably, analyses indicate that social domain (work or family) and status differences eclipse the influence of other individual characteristics, including gender. Moreover, the relative effects of culture and structure are virtually identical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wharton, Amy, and Rebecca Erickson. 1995. Consequences of caring: Exploring the links between women’s jobs and family emotion work. Sociological Quarterly 36:301–324.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1995.tb00440.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is the first study to examine the relationship between emotional labor at work and emotion work at home. Performance of family emotion work has negative consequences for women’s job-related well-being; however, women who perform some emotional labor at work are more likely than others to perform family emotion work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mental Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are many parallels in the literature on emotions and on mental health, though there have been very few attempts to merge the two (see Simon 2007 and Simon 2014). The empirical articles cited here are exceptions. Just as Lawler has been at the forefront of merging social exchange and emotions research, Peggy Thoits has been at the forefront of the interaction between emotion and mental health. In addition to her classic work on emotional deviance, which was derived from Thomas Scheff’s theory of labeling and mental health, Thoits also draws important parallels between emotion management and coping and interpersonal emotion management and social support (Thoits 1984). The renewed call for scholars to explore the potential nexus between research on mental health and emotion is echoed in Simon 2007, and is realized in an empirical investigation of the relationship between particular dimensions of anger and depression (Simon and Lively 2010). Coming at emotion from a strict stress model approach, which has its roots in social structure and personality research, Schieman 2000; Schieman, et al. 2006; and Mabry and Kiecolt 2005 (cited under Race) examine the social distribution of anger, highlighting the effects of age, neighborhood characteristics, and race, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Schieman, Scott. 2000. Education and the activation, course, and management of anger. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41.1: 20–39.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using population survey data, Schieman argues that education, as a source of stratification (status) and as a personal resource (human capital), organizes the conditions that influence anger-related processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Schieman, Scott, Leonard I. Pearlin, and Stephen C. Meersman. 2006. Neighborhood disadvantage and anger among older adults: Social comparisons as effect modifiers. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 47:156–172.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/002214650604700205Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Using data from a sample of 1136 adults ages 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, the authors examine the association between neighborhood structural disadvantage and levels of anger; one of the first studies to tie emotions directly to neighborhood characteristics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Simon, Robin W. 2007. Contributions of the sociology of mental health for understanding the social antecedents, social regulation, and social distribution of emotion. In Mental health, social mirror. Edited by William R. Avison, Jane D. McLeod, and Bernice Pescosolido, 239–274. New York: Springer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-36320-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In a masterful review, Simon presents a thorough and cogent analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and complementariness of the sociology of mental health and sociology of emotions. This piece brings much-needed coherence to these two bodies and identifies important directions for future research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Simon, Robin W. 2014. Mental health and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 429–450. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Simon provides a detailed overview of scholarship on marital status and socioeconomic status difference in emotion and emotional well-being/distress among adults in the United States, highlighting important methodological innovations, substantive findings, and key theoretical developments that have emerged in the sociologies of mental health and emotions from the late 1970s to the early 21st century. Several gaps in the literature are identified and direction for future research is provided.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Simon, Robin W., and Kathryn J. Lively. 2010. Sex, anger, and depression. Social Forces 88:1543–1568.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/sof.2010.0031Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from the sociology of emotion, mental health, and biology, Simon and Lively suggest that women’s intense and persistent anger plays a pivotal role in their high rate of depression. The extent to which sex differences in these emotions are a function of social factors, biological factors, or a complex interaction between them is discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Thoits, Peggy A. 1984. Coping, social support, and psychological outcomes: The central role of emotion. In Review of personality and social psychology. Edited by P. Shaver, 219–238. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In this comprehensive review of the literature on coping, social support, and psychological outcomes, Thoits makes a compelling case for the role of emotion. Further, she draws out the parallels between mental health research and emotions and sets forth an ambitious agenda for future research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Equity and Justice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Generally speaking, equity theory presumes that when one experiences an inequity—in either direction—one is likely to experience some sort of emotional distress (Homans 1974). Justice theory focuses not on the distribution of resources, but rather on the processes through which the allocations were made (Hegtvedt and Parris 2014). Although the general principles of equity theory and justice theory were developed in laboratory settings and dealt almost exclusively with composite scores of emotions, recently scholars have been pointing to the need to explore them in naturalistic settings, such as the workplace (Clay-Warner 2006) or the family (Lively, et al. 2008, cited under Family) and to address a wider range of emotions (Sprecher 1986, Sprecher 1992). Although Homans 1974 stresses the importance of distinguishing between two different forms of distress, anger and guilt, Sprecher 1986 shows that positive emotions can be influenced by perceptions of equity as well. Building on all of these recommendations, Lively, et al. 2010 examines men’s and women’s emotional reactions to perceived inequity in the household division of labor; consistent with equity theory as well as structural theories of emotion (see Social Structure and Affect Control Theory), one’s emotional response depends upon the nature of the inequality, whether one over- or under-benefits, the emotion being considered, and the sex of the perceiver. Coming more from a justice perspective, Hegtvedt 1990 and Hegtvedt and Caitlin 1999 bring in the importance of considering relationship structure as well as how perceptions of procedural justice may also influence individuals’ emotional reactions to perceived inequity. These two works also reveal that individuals’ responses to equity and equality are affected not only by the relative power and status of the interactants, but also by different types of justice procedures. Although general principles of equity and justice remain well supported, recent studies reveal subtle nuances when investigated in naturally occurring settings or relationships (Clay-Warner 2006; Hegtvedt and Caitlin 1999; Lively, et al. 2010; Sprecher 1986; and Sprecher 1992) or when applied to vignettes describing complex interactions (Hegtvedt 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clay-Warner, Jody. 2006. Procedural justice and legitimacy: Predicting negative emotional reactions to work place injustice. Advances in Group Processes 23:207–227.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/S0882-6145(06)23008-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Highlighting the interplay between legitimacy and procedural justice, Clay-Warner underscores the necessity of studying procedural justice within group contexts. She also argues for the examination of discrete emotions, because the combined effects of legitimacy and procedural justice vary depending upon the emotion in question.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hegtvedt, Karen A. 1990. The effects of relationship structure on emotional responses to inequity. Social Psychology Quarterly 53:214–228.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/2786960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This role-play study, using written vignettes, examines the influence of reward equity, relative power position, and status on general feelings of distress as well as the specific emotions of deserving, gratefulness, resentfulness, helplessness, and guilt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hegtvedt, Karen A., and Killian Caitlin. 1999. Fairness and emotions: Reactions to the process and outcomes of negotiations. Social Forces 78:269–303.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/3005797Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This article examines how the negotiation context affects evaluations of procedural and distributive justice, which in turn influence emotional reactions to the bargaining process and the final outcome distribution. The authors emphasize the importance of differentiating types of justice and emotions to understand reactions to negotiations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hegtvedt, Karen A., and Christie L. Parris. 2014. Emotions in justice processes. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 103–126. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  One of the most up-to-date reviews of the literatures to date, Hegtvedt and Parris outline the complex role of emotions in justice processes. They begin by examining the core definitions and theoretical tenets of justice perspectives, before turning their attention to empirical patterns both in individual- and group-level emotional responses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Homans, George. 1974. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Here, Homans proposed the basic tenet of equity theory: individuals who experience inequity—in either direction—are expected to experience some form of distress. Notably, he also stressed the importance of distinguishing between sadness (in the case of under-benefiting) and guilt (in the case of over-benefiting). Originally published in 1961.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lively, Kathryn J., Lala Steelman, and Brian Powell. 2010. Equity, emotion, and the household division of labor. Social Psychology Quarterly 73:358–379.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0190272510389012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using the 1996 GSS Emotions Module (see General Social Survey, cited under Data Sources), the authors explore the emotional costs of perceived inequity in the home. They find general support for principles of equity theory; however, in intimate relations, pattern differs by specific emotions, the nature of the inequity, and the sex of the perceiver (see Family).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sprecher, Susan. 1986. The relationship between inequity and emotions in close relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly 49:309–321.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/2786770Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using survey data from 502 college undergraduates, the relation between perceived inequity and the experience of a variety of emotions in close heterosexual relationships is examined. The results indicate that inequity is related, in the directions predicted, to positive and negative emotions experienced in the relationship, even controlling for other determinants of emotions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sprecher, Susan. 1992. How men and women expect to feel and behave to inequity in close relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly 55:57–69.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/2786686Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Survey questionnaires were administered to 569 college undergraduates in a large convenience sample to test predictions derived from equity theory regarding emotion, which leads to actions to restore equity, and to examine gender differences in exchange orientation in reaction to perceived inequity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Status in Groups

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Since small groups are often viewed as microcosms of the broader social structure, it is little wonder that sociologists studying groups turned their attention to emotion. Driskell and Webster 1997 reviews the bulk of the literature in this area (also see Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin 1999, cited under Sex and Gender), providing an excellent introduction. While Driskell and Webster provide a more general view, Ridgeway and Johnson 1990 draws our attention to the relationship between status and socioemotional behavior in task groups, and Lovaglia and Houser 1996 investigates the effect of status on emotional reactions, showing that not only are high-status individuals more likely to express powerful negative emotions, such as anger, but also that individuals who express powerful negative emotions are more likely to be accorded high status by others. In an investigation of humor in small task groups, Robinson and Smith-Lovin 2001 examines humor as a status-related activity and suggests that humor plays an important role in creating and dissipating status hierarchies. Consistent with insights from sociology of emotion, men’s use of humor in task discussions tend to be differentiating, whereas the humor employed by women tends to be less differentiating and more cohesive in nature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Driskell, James E., and Webster Murray Jr. 1997. Status and sentiment in task groups. In Status, network, and structure: Theory development in group processes. Edited by J. Szmatka, J. Skvoretz, and J. Berger, 179–200. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A thorough and detailed review of the intersection between emotions and task groups. Provides a valuable theoretical view as well as directions for new research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lovaglia, Michael J., and Jeffrey A. Houser. 1996. Emotional reactions and status in groups. American Sociological Review 61:867–883.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on four experiments using college undergraduates, results show that emotional reactions compatible with status characteristics reduce status differences among group members, while incompatible emotional reactions increase status differences. Based on their results, the authors introduce the possibility of beneficial interventions in task-related work groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ridgeway, Cecilia, and Cathryn Johnson. 1990. What is the relationship between socioemotional behavior and status in task groups? American Journal of Sociology 95:1189–1212.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/229426Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This important overview covers existing theories of status hierarchies, task group interactions, equilibrium processes, group performance expectations, and socio-motor behavior. Propositions are advanced that explain disagreement and expression of both negative and positive socioemotional behavior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Robinson, Dawn T., and Lynn Smith-Lovin. 2001. Getting a laugh: Gender, status, and humor in task discussions. Social Forces 80:123–158.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1353/sof.2001.0085Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Joking in task discussions is a status-related activity. Humor may serve to form a status hierarchy early in a group’s development and dissipate task-related tension later in the discussion. Notably, a higher proportion of men’s humor is differentiating while a higher proportion of women’s humor is cohesion building.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Webster, Murray, Jr., and Lisa Slattery Walker. 2014. Emotions in expectations states theory. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 127–154. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Webster and Walker review scholarship on the role of emotion in expectations states. Their review presents a cogent and clear treatment of the foundational theory as well as later elaborations and variants, including legitimation, reward expectations, personality attributions, and norm enforcement. New directions for future research are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exchange

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As it became clear that emotions permeated all areas of social life, the role that emotions played in social exchange became the next logical extension of sociological study. Pioneered mainly by Edward Lawler and his colleagues (Lawler 2001; Lawler and Thye 1999; and Lawler, et al. 2014), sociologists began investigating the ways in which emotions were generated by exchange or affected exchange relationships (Lawler and Yoon 1998), and how these exchange networks in turn affect, create, and reproduce existing social structures and the role that emotions play at every level of interaction, from dyads, to groups, to organizations (Lawler, et al. 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lawler, Edward J. 2001. An affect theory of social exchange. American Journal of Sociology 107:321–352.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/324071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lawler explains how and when emotions produced by social exchange generate stronger or weaker ties to relations, groups, or network. Social units are perceived as a source of feelings, contingent on the degree of “jointness” in the exchange tasks. Implications for group solidarity, cohesion, and transformation are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lawler, Edward J., and Shane R. Thye. 1999. Bringing emotions into social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology 25:217–244.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.217Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lawler and Thye systematically explore how research on emotion and emotional phenomena can elaborate and improve contemporary social exchange theory. After identifying six approaches from the psychology and sociology of emotion, they show how these ideas bear on the context, process, and outcome of exchange in networks and groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lawler, Edward J., Shane R. Thye, and Jeongkoo Yoon. 2009. Social commitments in a depersonalized world. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Building on their previous work on emotion, exchange, and networks, the authors consolidate years of thinking into a single study of interpersonal and group ties. In so doing, they propose a new theory of social commitments, showing that emotional attachment, among other factors, is essential for creating and sustaining alignments between individuals and groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lawler, Edward J., Shane R. Thye, and Jeongkoo Yoon. 2014. Emotions and group ties in social exchange. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathon Turner, 77–102. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In this systematic review of their ongoing research agenda, Lawler, Thye, and Yoon begin with the following: Under what conditions can purely instrumental exchange generate relations and groups that become objects of value in their own right, that is, ends that people value in and of themselves? This review builds upon previous work that elaborates how and why the emotional dynamics of microprocesses are involved in or connected to macrosocial structures by (1) elaborating the empirical foundation from which this theoretical understanding is based and (2) developing the broader implications of this work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lawler, Edward J., and Jeongkoo Yoon. 1998. Network structure and emotion in exchange relations. American Sociological Review 63:871–894.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Experimental studies involving forty-eight four-person groups indicate that dyadic cohesion develops through an emotional-affective process in equal-power relations, but not in unequal-power relations; and an overarching group identity reduces the degree to which central actors exploit peripheral ones but does not affect dyad-level cohesion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Social Movements

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of the fastest-growing areas within sociology that has made emotions central is that studying social movements; however, most of the literature in this area does not actually draw on insights from sociology of emotion. Goodwin, et al. 2001 has been credited for singlehandedly bringing emotions back into political sociology (also see Jasper 2011, Jasper and Owens 2014)—particularly anger (Jasper 2014). The theoretical Summers-Effler 2002, as well as the empirical Britt and Heise 2000; Gould 2009; and Schrock, et al. 2004 (see Emotion in Transgender Communities), however, are unique in that they draw explicitly on insights from—and contribute to—the sociology of emotion (also see Taylor 1996, cited under Deviance).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Britt, Lory, and D. Heise. 2000. From shame to pride in identity politics. In Self, identity, and social movements. Edited by Sheldon Stryker, Timothy Owens, and Robert White, 252–268. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using an affect control theory approach, the authors show how identity movement leaders move participants through a series of emotions in order to promote movement participation (also see Lively and Heise 2004, cited under Classifications and Measurement; and Francis 1994, cited under Managing the Emotions of Others).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Goodwin, Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta. 2001. Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226304007.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With this collection of essays, Jeff Goodwin, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta reincorporate emotions such as anger, indignation, fear, disgust, joy, and love into research on politics and social protest.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gould, Deborah. 2009. Emotion and ACT UP’s fight against AIDS. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226305318.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the first book to analyze the emergence, development, and decline of the direct-action AIDS movement, ACT UP, draws on interviews with activists, extensive archival research, and personal memories of her own involvement in the movement to illustrate how the organization experienced, harnessed, and provoked emotion. She also introduces the concept of emotional habitus—that is, a social grouping’s collective and only partially conscious social dispositions that can—and does—influence political action.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jasper, James. 2011. Emotions and social movements: Twenty years of theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology 37:285–303.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-081309-150015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article offers a typology of emotional processes in order to illustrate the diverse ways in which emotions operate; it also encourages research into how different emotions interact with one another within the context of social movements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Jasper, James. 2014. Constructing indignation: Anger dynamics in protests movements. Emotion Review 6.3: 202–207.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Drilling into existing scholarship on emotional dynamics in protest movements, Jasper’s more recent review points to the central role of anger. He turns his attention specifically to processes related to solidarities, mobilization, moral shocks, gender, and indignation. He also addresses how emotions combine (as in the case of shame and pride) or operate in terms of sequences. The implications of and challenges to fully incorporating anger into scholarship on movements is discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Jasper, James M., and Lisa Owens. 2014. Social movements and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathon H. Turner, 529–548. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In this more recent review of the literature on social movements and emotions, Jasper and Owens address the role of emotions in a series of interactive arenas: recruitment, identification, rituals, and leadership, among others. They also address a number of special topics related to emotion and protest, such as the pride of recognition, the fusion of ends and means, the effects of place, and the impact of protest on emotion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Summers-Effler, Erika. 2002. The micro potential for social change: Emotion, consciousness, and social movement formation. Sociological Theory 20:41–60.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Extending Randall Collins’s interaction ritual theory (see Social Structure) and synthesizing it with Norbert Wiley’s model of the self, Summers-Effler suggests how the emotional dynamics between people and within the self can explain social inertia as well as the possibility for resistance and change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sex and Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Given the gendered nature of emotion and sociologists’ unwavering attention to sex difference in the experience and expression of emotion, it seems largely redundant to have a section dedicated entirely to sex and gender. Indeed, the majority of articles and books cited in this bibliography deal in some way with issues of gender in addition to other areas of inquiry (see Schrock and Knop 2014 and Simon 2014 for two more-recent reviews). The papers represented in this section have sex and gender at their core (Cancian 1987, Lively 2008, Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin 1999, Simon and Nath 2004), beyond any particular context or setting. Cancian distinguishes between stereotypical male and female emotions and proposes a model of development in which both women and men have equal ability to access their masculine and feminine characteristics. Once individuals become more androgynous, or more highly developed, they will be able to create more stable unions. Although her study is based on families, her argument is much broader, particularly her discussion of historical changes in the workplace and the effect that these changes have had on men’s and women’s respective gender roles. Just as Cancian finds that men and women are becoming more similar, owing in large part to changing social arrangements, other scholars also report that the gender differences identified in many qualitative studies may in fact be overstated. In their copious review of task group research, Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin conclude that most gender differences in interaction (and thus emotion within interaction) is really a function of other aspects of the interaction (also see Lively and Powell 2006, cited under At Work and at Home). Simon and Nath 2004, in perhaps the most sweeping and systematic investigation of emotions to date, also finds few gender differences that cannot be explained by women’s and men’s differential position within the social status hierarchy or living conditions. In an attempt to reconcile the qualitative research that consistently reports gender differences and emotions and the quantitative and experimental research that increasingly reports no gender differences, Lively 2008 examines the correlations between emotions, tapping into the process of emotion management and interpersonal emotion management (see Managing the Emotions of Others). Lively’s results suggest that men’s and women’s shortest paths between emotions are consistent with existing qualitative studies of men’s and women’s emotional experiences. As noted, questions regarding sex, sex differences, and gender are pervasive in the sociology of emotion; thus, there are other sections in this bibliography that contain work dealing with sex and gender. Vacarro, et al. 2011 turns our attention to the ways that men in hyper-masculine settings—in this case, mixed martial arts gyms and competitions—manage their “emotional manhood.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cancian, Francesca M. 1987. Love in America: Gender and self-development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cancian compares newer images of close relationships with “traditional” forms of marriage, showing that many modern American couples succeed in combining self-development with commitment, making interdependence the ideal. Thus, images of love in America have shifted from polarized gender roles toward more flexible roles and interdependence, thus fostering both love and self-development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lively, Kathryn J. 2008. Emotional segues and the management of emotion, by women and men. Social Forces 87:911–936.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1353/sof.0.0133Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using the 1996 GSS Emotions Module (see General Social Survey, cited under Data Sources), Lively examines the structure of emotion by sex, finding that women’s most common emotional pathways are longer, more complex, and more likely to use more positive and less powerful emotions than those most common to men. Implications for interpersonal emotion management are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ridgeway, Cecilia, and Lynn Smith-Lovin. 1999. The gender system in interaction. Annual Review of Sociology 25:191–216.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In this comprehensive and sweeping review, Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin conclude that any theory of gender difference and inequality must accommodate three basic findings from research on interaction, which create very real interaction effects that are often confounded with gender. A must-read for anyone interested in emotion, interaction, gender, or all three.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Schrock, Douglas, and Brian Knop. 2014. Gender and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 411–428. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Schrock and Knop provide an overarching view of the intersections between the sociological literatures of gender and emotion. They organize their review around three areas of research: socialization, intimate relationships, and organizations. Relying almost exclusively on studies, which utilize qualitative or survey data, the authors approach this body of work from the broad perspective of critical interactionism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Simon, Robin W. 2014. Sociological scholarship on gender differences in emotion and emotional well-being in the United States: A snapshot of the field. Emotion Review 6.3: 196–201.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1754073914522865Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article provides a brief overview of scholarship on gender differences in emotion and emotional well-being among adults in the United States, highlighting major substantive findings, methodological innovations, and theoretical developments that have emerged in the sociologies of emotion and mental health.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Simon, Robin W., and Leda K. Nath. 2004. Gender and emotion in the United States: Do men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior? American Journal of Sociology 109:1137–1176.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1086/382111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using the GSS, the authors investigate whether men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior. Notably, self-reports do not support cultural beliefs about gender and emotion. Men and women do, however, differ in the frequency of certain positive and negative feelings, which is explained by structural considerations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vacarro, Christian A., Douglas P. Schrock, and Janice M. McCabe. 2011. Managing emotional manhood: Fighting and fostering fear in mixed martial arts. Social Psychology Quarterly 74.4: 414–437.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0190272511415554Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Based on two years of fieldwork and over one hundred interviews, the authors analyze mixed martial arts fighters’ fears, how they managed them, and how they adopted intimidating personas to evoke fear in opponents. They conceptualize this process as “managing emotional manhood,” which refers to emotion management that signifies, in the dramaturgical sense, masculine selves.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Emotion, Sexual Behavior, Sexualities, and Sexual Assault

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A relatively new area of research among emotions scholars is that of sexualities. To date, much of this literature focuses on sexualities and sexual behavior on college campuses (Wilkins and Dalessandro 2013), including sexual assault (Boyle and McKinzie 2015). Perhaps unsurprisingly, many of the manuscripts dealing with these issues also touch upon Identity, especially as it relates to sexual trauma or practice (Boyle and McKinzie 2015, Creek 2013). Doan, et al. 2015 is the exception, in that it deals specifically with general patterns of sexuality, emotions, and attributions within a national sample of adults.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Boyle, Kaitlin M., and Ashleigh E. McKinzie. 2015. Resolving negative affect and restoring meaning: Responses to deflection produced by unwanted sexual experiences. Social Psychology Quarterly 78.2: 151–172.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0190272514564073Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Drawing on insight from affect control theory, Boyle and McKinzie analyze 115 narratives of female college students detailing accounts of unwanted sexual experience. They find that respondents frame events in ways that protect the other person or their own self-meanings, which are affective in nature. Additional analysis reveals that event reframings reduce deflection (that is, a sense of unlikelihood, which is typically experienced as emotion).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Creek, S. J. 2013. “Not getting any because of Jesus”: The centrality of desire management to the identity work of gay, celibate Christians. Symbolic Interaction 36.2: 119–136.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1002/symb.58Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Turning attention to a relatively understudied group—gay, celibate Christians or “Side B” individuals—Creek explores the emotion of desire. Findings illustrate the relationship between the conceptualization of an emotion and a set of feeling rules and emotion management strategies as well as how such rules and strategies can serve as a source of boundary heightening, or alternatively, as a bridge between seemingly disparate groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Doan, Long, Lisa R. Miller, and Annalise Loehr. 2015. The power of love: The role of emotional attributions and standards in heterosexuals’ perceptions of lesbian and gay couples. Social Forces 94.1: 401–425.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/sf/sov047Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Here, Doan, Miller, and Loehr investigate the degree to which US citizens attribute emotions differently to members of particular social groups and, if so, whether these differences have any bearing on formal and informal forms of social recognition. Using data from a nationally representative survey experiment, they find that heterosexuals differentially attribute love to different types of romantic couples—that is, heterosexual, gay, and lesbian—and that these differences are related to willingness to grant social recognition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wilkins, Amy C., and Cristen Dalessandro. 2013. Monogamy lite: Cheating, college, and women. Gender & Society 27.5: 728–751.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0891243213483878Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Using in-depth peer interviews with college students, Wilkins and Dalessandro investigate the meanings and practices of “monogamy” and “cheating” for college women. College women use ideas about age, class, and gender to construct collegiate sexuality as a kind of “monogamy lite” exempt from the “rules” of adult sexuality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Emotion in Transgender Communities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Potentially a subsection of the scholarship on gender, sociological interest is growing in the emotional experience of transgendered individuals. Whereas the majority of scholarship in this area focuses on the emotional experiences (Nordmarken 2014) and emotion management strategies of transgendered individuals (Schrock, et al. 2009) and Schrock, et al. 2004 focuses attention on the emotion work of transgendered support groups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nordmarken, Sonny. 2014. Becoming ever more monstrous: Feeling transgender in-betweenness. Qualitative Inquiry 20.1: 37–50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1077800413508531Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In this autoethnography, Nordsmarken analyzes the interpersonal aspects of transgender life by narrating everyday interactions living in a gender-ambiguous body during a sex transition from female to more masculine. Nordsmarken analyzes affective experiences in moments of geographic and gendered transit, encountering instances both of social rejection and connection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Schrock, Douglas, Emily M. Boyd, and Margaret Leaf. 2009. Emotion work in the public performances of male-to-female transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38.5: 702–712.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9280-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on in-depth interviews with male-to-female transsexuals regarding public performances, Schrock and colleagues disaggregate emotion management into three distinct phases: preparatory, in situ, and retrospective. Through the lens of emotion management, Schrock and colleagues reveal many of the interpersonal and affective challenges faced by male-to-female transsexuals and the strategies they engage in to resolve them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schrock, Douglas, Daphne Holden, and Lori Reid. 2004. Creating emotional resonance: Interpersonal emotion work and motivational framing in a transgender community. Social Problems 51.1: 61–81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/sp.2004.51.1.61Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In this article, Schrock and colleagues examine how interpersonal emotion work in a transgender support group and motivational framing of transgender social movement organizations together constructed favorable conditions for emotional resonance—that is, the emotional harmony and/or disjuncture between collective action frames and the emotional lives of potential recruits. Results suggest that transgendered people joined support groups hoping to find relief from shame, fear, powerlessness, alienation, and inauthenticity. Transgender activists and nascent social movement organizations, however, used motivational framing to promise targeted recruits a more permanent emotional resolution—one that could draw them into the movement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Race

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In recent years scholars have finally turned their attention one of the most understudied areas in sociology of emotion, the effect of race on emotional experience. Because of the early focus on white women and emotional labor (see Hochschild 1983, cited under Labor), the experiences of racial minorities have largely been ignored. Building on Feagin 1991, the classic ethnography of the experience of middle-class blacks in public places, Evans 2013, Harlow 2003, and Wingfield 2010 provide us with rare glimpses into the emotional experiences of African American professionals as they are subject to different types of emotional labor than their white counterparts. Coming at the effects of race on emotional labor from the opposite end of the transaction, Kang 2003 shows how the race of the customer can affect the type of emotional labor that is provided via the service provider, in this case Korean immigrant nail salon employees. Taken together, these papers show how race intersects with every part of the service encounter. Taking a more stress-related approach (or an approach more rooted in social structure and personality), Mabry and Kiecolt 2005 assesses the degree to which African Americans experience more anger than whites, when controlling for issues of mastery or control, and Sloan, et al. 2013 examines whether black and white workers differ in the number of ties they have to coworkers, the quality of those ties, and the effects of social support on workplace emotional experiences.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Evans, Louwanda. 2013. Cabin pressure: African American pilots, flight attendants, and emotional labor. Perspectives on a Multiracial America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In a long-overdue investigation of the airlines industry, which moves race to the forefront, Evans draws on provocative interviews with African Americans in the flight industry to examine the emotional labor of pilots and attendants alike.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Feagin, Joe. 1991. The continuing significance of race: Anti-black discrimination in public places. American Sociological Review 56:101–116.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2095676Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Drawing primarily on thirty-seven in-depth interviews with black middle-class respondents in several cities, discrimination in public accommodations and other public places is examined. Although not focused on emotion management per se, emotion management is a necessary component of black Americans’ response to perceived racism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harlow, Roxanna. 2003. “Race doesn’t matter, but . . .”: The effect of race of professors’ experiences of emotion management in the undergraduate classroom. Social Psychology Quarterly 66:348–363.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/1519834Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research has shown how black scholars’ experiences differ from those of their white counterparts in regard to research and service, with little attention paid to their experiences teaching. Here, Harlow finds that black professors’ work in the classroom is different and more complex than that of their white colleagues because “being black” requires extensive emotion management.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kang, Miliann. 2003. The managed hand: The commercialization of bodies and emotions in Korean immigrant-owned nail salons. Gender and Society 17:820–839.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kang shows how the race/ethnicity of the client can shape the type of care and body work provided by service workers in Korean immigrant women-owned nail salons in New York City. She introduces the concept “body labor” to designate a type of gendered work that involves emotion management in body-related service provision (also see Management).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mabry, J. Beth, and K. Jill Kiecolt. 2005. Anger in black and white: Race, alienation, and anger. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46:85–101.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/002214650504600107Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Using the GSS and the Chicago Crowding Study, the authors find that when age and gender are controlled, African Americans neither feel nor express more anger than whites, despite having a lower average sense of control and higher mistrust—partly because the effects of sense of control and mistrust on anger differ by race (see also Mental Health).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sloan, Melissa M., Ranae J. Evenson Newhouse, and Ashley B. Thompson. 2013. Counting on coworkers: Race, social support, and emotional experiences on the job. Social Psychology Quarterly 76.4: 343–372.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0190272513504937Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Using data from a random sample of state employees, the authors find that compared to their white counterparts, African Americans are disadvantaged in terms of workplace social ties and perceived coworker support. Although race differences in job characteristics do not explain these differences, there is some evidence that the racial composition of the workplace may influence the formation of workplace social ties.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wingfield, Adia Harvey. 2010. Are some emotions marked “whites only”? Racialized feeling rules in professional workplaces. Social Problems 57.2: 251–268.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/sp.2010.57.2.251Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Building directly upon Feagin’s work on middle-class blacks, Wingfield examines how the normative feeling rules that guide emotional performance in professional workplaces are racialized rather than neutral or objective criteria. Based on twenty-five semi-structured interviews, she contends that feeling rules have different implications for black professionals and reinforce racial difference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Intersectionality

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Following Hochschild’s 1979 early lead (see Hochschild 1979, cited under Social Structure), the majority of scholarship focused on gender, with little attention paid to race—despite that most studies of gender, per se, were disproportionately studies of white service workers. Although interest is growing in the emotional experiences of racial minorities—most often African Americans—there has been very little attention paid to issues of how intersecting systems of oppression affect the experience and expression of emotion. Jackson 2012 and Jackson and Wingfield 2013 turn their attention specifically to the experience of black college-aged men, whereas Durr and Wingfield 2011 sheds light on the experiences of African American women. Wilkins and Pace 2014 draws our attention to the many ways race and class, combined, affect emotion by drawing on the literatures on emotion management and race and class. Other empirical exemplars of this type of work include the scholarship on transnational mothering, which takes into consideration, gender, nationality, motherhood, and, in some cases, legal status (see also Globalization).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Durr, Marlese, and Adia M. Harvey Wingfield. 2011. Keep your “n” in check: African American women and the interactive effects of etiquette and emotional labor. Critical Sociology 37.5: 557–571.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Here, Durr and Wingfield document the experience of black professional women who report that they must transform themselves to be welcomed and accepted, especially in predominantly white workplaces. Their experiences are characterized by performance weariness both in verbal and nonverbal communicative interaction-exchanges and heightened visibility, in which they feel judged for appearance, personal decorum, communication skills, and emotion management in addition to productivity. The authors conclude that black women comingle etiquette and emotion management to gain acceptance and promotions, in ways that strengthen race/ethnic group solidarity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Jackson, Brandon A. 2012. The bonds of brotherhood: Emotional and social support among college black men. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 642:61–71.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Based on two years of observation, Jackson analyzes how a group of black college men promoted, ritualized, enforced, and enacted brotherhood on a predominantly white campus. The notion of brotherhood enabled the men to express their emotions, violating some of the dominant cultural tenets of manhood. Although black men face many obstacles in white-dominated middle-class social worlds, these men did not passively accept those troubles. Instead, they came together and collectively created a brotherhood to help them survive and succeed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jackson, Brandon A., and Adia Harvey Wingfield. 2013. Getting angry to get ahead: Black college men, emotional performance, and encouraging respectable masculinity. Symbolic Interaction 36.3: 275–292.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This article draws on two years of ethnographic fieldwork to explore how a group of black men on a college campus displayed anger in order to encourage other black men to adopt a respectable form of masculinity. The authors uncover the contexts in which black men were comfortable expressing feelings of anger, frustration, annoyance, and irritation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wilkins, Amy C., and Jennifer A. Pace. 2014. Class, race, and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 385–410. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In this review of the literature, Wilkins and Pace weave together the existing emotions literature, addressing race and class with other scholarship on race and class inequalities. In doing so, they generate staring points for a more “robust” sociology of race, class, and emotions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Identity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The relationship between identity and emotion is a complex one. Although identity is indicated in most—if not all discussions of emotion (Wilkins 2008, cited under Moral Emotions and Identities; and Wilkins and Dalessandro 2013 and Creek 2013, both cited under Emotion, Sexual Behavior, Sexualities, and Sexual Assault)—some theories have tied emotion to identity processes in more systematic and formal ways (Burke 1991, cited under Identity Theory; Heise 1979 and Heise 2010, both cited under Affect Control Theory; and Stryker 2004, cited under Symbolic Interaction).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Symbolic Interaction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In perhaps the simplest statement of the relationship between self and emotion, Rosenberg 1990 ties emotionality directly to Mead’s notion of role-taking and reflexivity (also see Shott 1979, cited under Positivist versus Interactionist Approaches: The Early Years). Most qualitative scholars, who often claim an affinity with Blumer’s Symbolic Interaction, use this approach (see Smith 2008, cited under Gender Differences; Creek 2013 and Wilkins and Dalessandro 2013, both cited under Emotion, Sexual Behavior, Sexualities, and Sexual Assault; and Wilkins 2008 and Kolb 2014, cited under Moral Emotions and Identities for a range of examples), if only implicitly. In Stryker 2004, the author reviewed all of the major theories of identity, including his own structural symbolic interaction, and the role that emotion might play in identity processes. A review by perhaps the most prolific and cogent of living identity theorists, Stryker 2004 is a must-read for students interested in the relationship between identity and emotion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rosenberg, Morris. 1990. Reflexivity and emotions. Social Psychology Quarterly 53:3–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rosenberg makes a clear link between emotions and reflexivity, arguing that one’s ability to see oneself as an object (and to act upon oneself accordingly) produces a fundamental change in the nature of human emotions via emotional identification, display, and experience.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stryker, Sheldon. 2004. Integrating emotion into identity theory. Advances in Group Process 21:1–23.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  One of the most important social psychologists of our time, Stryker reviews the general literatures on emotion, the symbolic interactionist literature on emotion, identity theory, and characteristics of social sentiments and emotional outbursts. He develops a number of expectations about the potential, theoretical relationship between sentiments, emotional outbursts, and identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Affect Control Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Affect control theory is a cybernetic model of identity suggesting that individuals experience emotion when their identities are disconfirmed in situated interaction (Heise 2010, MacKinnon 1994). According to affect control theory, emotion is a function of the direction of the disconfirmation; thus, positive disconfirmation, at least initially, will lead to positive emotions, and negative disconfirmation will lead to a negative emotion (see Robinson, et al. 1994 for a complete treatment of the role of emotion in affect control theory). In Heise 1979, David Heise introduced the basic theory, which has undergone tremendous growth over the following thirty years. A complete bibliography of all of the existing published and presented work pertaining to the development and application of Affect Control Theory can be found at the INTERACT website. Given that most of the early writing on Affect Control Theory was considered by most to be theoretically and mathematically dense—predications from Affect Control Theory are made with rather complicated mathematical models (MacKinnon 1994)—in 2010 Heise published Expressive Order, where he separates the fundamentals of the latest incarnation of the theory from its mathematical underpinnings. And in 2014, Lively and Heise 2014 expanded the theory to include a more developed model of emotion, illustrating the theories core contributions to the study of emotion more generally (also see Robinson 2014). One of the many impressive qualities of the theory is the degree to which its computer-based simulations are replicated in various experimental settings and in studies using nationally representative data and convenience samples (see Francis 1994 and Francis 1997, cited under Managing the Emotions of Others; Lively and Powell 2006, cited under At Work and at Home; and Lively, et al. 2008 and Lively, et al. 2010, cited under Equity and Justice). In Robinson, et al. 1994, researchers test predictions from affect control theory in a courtroom setting. Their results reveal that sentencing decisions are shaped in large part by emotional display, because jurors associate certain types of emotional displays in certain types of situations with certain types of identities—that is, people. Their experimental results are consistent with predictions from INTERACT. Boyle and McKinzie 2015 (cited under Emotion, Sexual Behavior, Sexualities, and Sexual Assault) uses insights from the theory to explain victims’ responses in the aftermath of sexual assault. Recent theoretical work in Rogers, et al. 2014 suggests that Affect Control Theory may provide the ideal platform for interdisciplinary work on emotion. A fully archived list of publications is available at the Affect Control Theory Readings list, a website to date hosted by Indiana University.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Affect Control Theory Readings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This website contains the most up-to-date references for affect control theory. Substantive sections include, but are certainly not limited to Surveying Affective Meaning, Impression Formation, ACT Computer Simulation, Emotions, Health & Life Course, Deviance, and Social Structure & Social Change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Heise, David R. 1979. Understanding events: Affect and the construction of social action. American Sociological Association Rose Monographs. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Human behavior, Heise argues, normally promotes the maintenance of a steady emotional state. Should events produce undue strain, the individual attempts to anticipate subsequent developments, formulate a course of action, and create new events designed to confirm his established sentiments. This book is the original statement of affect control theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Heise, David R. 2010. Expressive order: Confirming sentiments in social actions. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This book introduces affect control theory to lay readers of sociology and guides sociologists into the theory’s deep structure. It also provides the reader with the most comprehensive, up-to-date bibliography in print of the empirical and theoretical work associated with affect control theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • INTERACT.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A computer-based simulation program that utilizes the mathematical models upon which affect control theory is based.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lively, Kathryn J., and David Heise. 2014. Emotions in affect control theory. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathon Turner, 51–76. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Here Lively and Heise develop affect control theory’s model of emotion. They also organize affect control theory’s empirical and theoretical contributions to the sociological study of emotion, as well as the sociological study of emotion’s contributions to affect control theory. New findings are shared, new concepts—such as ineffable and characteristic emotions—introduced, and new questions raised. Directions for future research are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • MacKinnon, Neil J. 1994. Symbolic interactionism as affect control. New York: State Univ. of New York Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In this now classic introduction to affect control theory, MacKinnon presents the theory in a series of well-formulated, concise propositions. He also situates the theory not only in terms of its relation to both classical and contemporary theory, but also to the Iowa and Chicago schools of symbolic interaction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Robinson, Dawn T. 2014. The role of cultural meanings and situated interaction in shaping emotion. Emotion Review 6.3: 189–196.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This article briefly reviews findings from contemporary research traditions about four types of social affect—cultural sentiments, characteristic emotions, structural emotions, and consequent emotions. Simulation results illustrate how data and tools from affect control theory may be used to investigate differences in basic cultural sentiments, as well as predictions about the core types of social emotions—those associated with identities, those associated with structural relationships, and those evoked by a social event.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Robinson, Dawn T., Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Olga Tsoudis. 1994. Heinous crime or unfortunate accident? The effects of remorse on responses to mock criminal confessions. Social Forces 73:175–190.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Simulations based on affect control theory are used to develop predictions about the impact of emotional displays on identity attributions and subsequent sentencing recommendations in the context of criminal confessions. Path analyses showed that displays of remorse have an indirect effect on the severity of sentence recommendation via identity assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Robinson, Dawn T., Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Allison Wisecup. 2006. Affect control theory and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 179–202. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An excellent introduction to the role that emotion plays in affect control theory and a comprehensive review of affect control theory research that deals with or centers on emotion. This chapter would be a good for anyone new to affect control theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rogers, Kimberly B., Tobias Schröder, and Christian von Scheve. 2014. Dissecting the sociality of emotion: A multi-level approach. Emotion Review 6:124–133.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Here the authors present affect control theory as a launching point for cross-disciplinary collaboration on the basis of its empirically grounded conceptualization of social mechanisms operating at the interaction, relationship, and cultural levels, and its specification of processes linking social and individual aspects of emotion. After a brief introduction of the theory, they illustrate its correspondence with major theories of emotion construction framed at each of four analytical levels: cultural, interactional, individual, and neural.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Identity Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Similar to affect control theory, identity theory is a cybernetic theory of identity, which suggests that individuals have a way that they see themselves, generally speaking. According to identity theory, whenever a person’s identity is disconfirmed—in either direction—he or she is likely to experience distress. Unlike affect control theory, which is based on culturally held sentiments, Identity Control directly compares self-ratings to other-ratings. Burke 1991 introduced the theory, but in recent years Burke and Stets have really begun to theorize about the role of emotion and identity (Stets 2005; see Stets and Trettevik 2014 for a more recent review) and how these play out in experimental and intimate relationships. Burke and Harrod 2005, for instance, find that although individuals may prefer to be seen better than their self-ratings when dating, they prefer to be seen as they really are in more long-term relationships. Using identity control theory as a frame, Stets and Tsushima 2001 reports that some identities are more tied to emotional experiences than others, and that the identities involved influence coping. More recently, Stets and Carter 2011 (see Moral Emotions and Identities) has shown that the identity processes operate the same way for moral identities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Burke, Peter J. 1991. Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review 56:836–849.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In this article, Burke introduces the basic argument underlying identity control theory, which proposes that social stress, often conceptualized as distressing emotion, results from interruption of the feedback loop that maintains identity processes. This seminal piece lays the foundation for all other work on identity control theory and emotion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burke, Peter J., and Michael M. Harrod. 2005. Too much of a good thing? Social Psychology Quarterly 68:359–374.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Testing self-discrepancy and self-enhancement theory, Burke and Harrod use data from newly married couples to test different predictions regarding emotional reactions to personal feedback. The results indicate strong support for discrepancy theories overall; however, the discrepancy effect is larger when the relationship to the other is stronger.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stets, Jan. 2005. Examining emotions in identity theory. Social Psychology 68:39–56.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stets investigates the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals’ emotional reactions to identity nonverification (positive and negative) and identity verification, while varying the frequency of the event and the level of familiarity of the perpetrator. The findings raise interesting questions and suggest avenues of future research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stets, Jan, and Ryan Trettevik. 2014. Emotions in identity theory. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan E. Stets and Jonathon Turner, 33–50. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This chapter offers the most up-to-date summary of the theoretical and empirical work on emotion and identity theory. It begins with a brief overview of identity theory, and then discusses how emotions have become incorporated into the theory, focusing on the negative and positive emotions resulting from the verification processes as well as the factors leading to various specific emotions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stets, Jan, and Teresa M. Tsushima. 2001. Negative emotion and coping responses within identity control. Social Psychology Quarterly 64:283–295.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using individuals’ reports of anger in the 1996 General Social Survey (cited under Data Sources), the authors examine the role of emotion in recent developments in identity control theory. The findings suggest that different types of identities are related to the different dimensions of negative emotion and the ways in which people cope with their feelings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Emotion and Time

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The books and articles noted here introduce the role of time as it relates to emotion. Based on in-depth interviews with transsexuals, Schrock, et al. 2009 (see Emotion in Transgender Communities) delineates emotion management into three distinct phases. Building off the notion of “time work” presented in Flaherty 2003, both Lois 2010 and Mullaney and Shope 2011 illustrate how individuals and industries, respectively, use time in order to manage emotions and use emotions to manage one’s sense of time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Flaherty, Michael. 2003. “Time work”: Customizing temporal experience. Social Psychology Quarterly 66:17–33.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This paper seeks to integrate the literatures on agency and temporality by introducing the notion of “time work”—defined as individual or interpersonal efforts to create or suppress particular kinds of temporal experience. This work, although not dealing with emotion per se, has become foundational for those scholars interested in the relationship between temporality and emotion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lois, Jennifer. 2010. The temporal emotion work of motherhood: Homeschoolers’ strategies for managing time shortage. Gender & Society 24:421–446.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Drawing on fieldwork and in-depth interviews with homeschooling mothers in the Pacific Northwest, Lois reveals several ways the temporal experience of motherhood was emotionally problematic. To resolve these troublesome feelings, mothers resorted to manipulating their subjective experiences of time “temporal emotion work.” Lois suggests that the dominant form of motherhood is culturally defined as a “time-sensitive identity” and that “temporal emotions” are unique tools in managing the emotional difficulties inherent in the trajectories of some identities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mullaney, Jamie L., and Janet Hinson Shope. 2011. Paid to party: Working time and emotion in direct home sales. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Also drawing on Flaherty’s notion of “time work,” Mullaney and Shope examine how the direct homes sales industry manages employees’ experiences of time as a way to manage emotions, as well as their experiences of emotion as a way to influence their experiences of time. Other topics related to emotion are also explored, including how to manage the emotions of deviants (that is, deviant party attendees) within the context of a “party” environment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Emotion, Leisure, and Risk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the role that emotion plays in volunteer and other forms of leisure activities. Perhaps not surprisingly, much of this work has to do both with identity and the management of risk. Holyfield and Jonas 2003 and Lois 2003 examine the leisure identities of river guide and volunteer rescue workers, respectively, both of which require considerable emotion management, some of which stems from risk taking. Newmahr 2011 also examines emotion and risk; however, the researcher does so within the context of BDSM public play. Additionally, Newmahr’s second project (Newmahr 2014) draws our attention to how emotion is embodied—particularly within the erotics of Renaissance Faires. In an analysis of international travels, Husting 2015 suggests that even the simple act of travel—especially that which requires movement between two cultures—may also come with some identity-based and emotional risk. Finally, Peterson 2014 provides a long-overdue review connecting sports and emotions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Holyfield, Lori, and Lilian Jonas. 2003. From river god to research grunt: Identity, emotions, and the river guide. Symbolic Interaction 26.2: 285–306.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Drawing our attention to leisure identities—which are often assumed to the opposite of occupational identities—Holyfield and Jonas provide evidence that reveals how organizational contexts (or lack thereof) both interrupt and influence the social construction of identities. Their investigation of river running—which is one activity that provides participants with opportunities to achieve a desired identity using situated emotion cues—highlights the negotiations that runners must employ as they attempt to establish a “river” identity in contexts that distinguish their work and leisure roles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Husting, Ginna. 2015. The flayed and exquisite self of travelers: Managing face and emotions in strange places. Symbolic Interaction 38.2: 213–234.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focusing her attention on travelers who cross cultural and linguistic borders and experience recurrent failures of social competence, Husting introduces the idea of a “flayed self”—that is, a temporary, painful identity borne of one’s inability to display competence, combined with heightened, exquisite self-consciousness. Using interactionist scaffolding and travelers’ accounts, she examines the flayed self, its commitments, and resources, highlighting four techniques used to avoid flayed and exquisite selfhood: denying negative experience, externalizing the causes of that experience, engaging in the mind cure, and doing time work (see Emotion and Time).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lois, Jennifer. 2003. Heroic efforts: The emotional culture of search and rescue volunteers. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on years of participant observation, Lois details the concept of heroism and, in so doing, describes the emotional culture of search and rescue volunteers. She makes important distinctions between the types of emotion management performed by volunteers, as well as the differential expectations placed on male and female volunteers (also see Management).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Newmahr, Staci. 2011. Playing on the edge: Sadomasochism, risk, and intimacy. Bloomington, IN: Univ. of Indiana Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Drawing on in-depth interviews and participation observation, Newmahr documents the experiences of individuals embedded in a public play community. She ties the practice of BDSM—and intimacy—to emotional risk taking and edgework.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Newmahr, Staci. 2014. Eroticism as embodied emotion: The erotics of Renaissance Faire. Symbolic Interaction 37.2: 209–225.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This paper conceptualizes eroticism as emotional experience. Using the Renaissance Faire, Newmahr illustrates the construction of asexual eroticism along three dimensions: the carnal experience of Faire, its focus on physicality, and intimations of increased interpersonal access. This approach forefronts the complexity of eroticism and situates the erotic squarely in the sociology of emotion, providing a model for understanding a range of emotional, embodied, and nonsexual charges as erotic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Peterson, Gretchen. 2014. Sports and emotion. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 495–510. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This relatively short review details the literature connecting sports and emotions. Topics covered include emotion management and emotional labor; interactions, identities, and communities; gender and emotions; and emotional reactions to sports performances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Moral Emotions and Identities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There has also been increasing interest in what some scholars have referred to as moral emotions and moral identities (but see Shott 1979, cited under Positivist versus Interactionist Approaches: The Early Years). Harkness and Hitlin 2014 reviews this burgeoning field, while the empirical pieces selected here provide illustrations of the core theoretical principles and concerns. Kolb 2014 explores how moral wages allow victim advocacy and counseling allows the chronically overstressed and underpaid to maintain their understanding of themselves as good people who are doing good work and doing the right thing in the face of nearly insurmountable structural and interpersonal obstacles. Drawing on a more formal theory of identity, Stets and Carter 2011 shows that the same identity processes that apply to social role identities or achievement statuses also apply to moral identities—such as being a good or honest person. Finally, Wilkins 2008 shows how Christian students see themselves as happier than non-Christians as a result of their moral selves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Harkness, Sarah K., and Steven Hitlin. 2014. Morality and emotions. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions. Vol. 2. Edited by Jan Stets and Jonathan H. Turner, 451–472. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beginning with a discussion regarding core sociological theorizing related to morality and moral emotions, this review considers how the philosophy of morality links to modern psychological debates regarding the role emotions play in moral thought and action. Cross-cultural differences in the prevalence and affective experience of moral emotions are discussed as the authors call for a more sociological and interdisciplinary approach.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kolb, Kenneth. 2014. Moral wages: The emotional dilemmas of victim advocacy and counseling. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on in-depth interviews and participant observation, Kolb documents the dilemmas faced by those working as victim advocates for those who have experienced—or who are currently experiencing—domestic violence. The concept of moral wages refers to the feelings that these underpaid and understaffed workers experience when they are able to confirm their identity as a moral person. (Also cited under Moral Emotions and Identities).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stets, Jan E., and Michael J. Carter. 2011. The moral self: Applying identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 74.2: 192–215.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This research applies identity theory to understand the moral self (see Identity Theory). Based on the results of a two-part survey and laboratory study, this article reveals that when an identity discrepancy emerges between moral identity meanings and perceptions of oneself in a situation (or moral dilemma), negative feelings are experienced.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wilkins, Amy C. 2008. “Happier than non-Christians”: Collective emotions and symbolic boundaries among evangelical Christians. Social Psychology Quarterly 71.3: 281–301.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Using qualitative data (participant-observation and interviews) to examine happiness talk in a university-based evangelical Christian organization (University Unity), Wilkins finds that Unity Christians claim that they are happier than non-Christians. Rather than viewing their happiness as a mental health outcome of their participation in a religious organization, Wilkins frames it as a cultural phenomenon—a way of talking and thinking about their emotions. She illustrates how Unity participants learn to think of themselves as happy, learn to adjust their emotional responses and view their managed emotions as authentic, and learn to link happiness to their moral selves.

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