Sociology Nationalism
by
Cynthia Miller-Idriss, Christian Bracho
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 July 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0037

Introduction

Nationalism has been defined in a variety of ways, but definitions are always rooted in the nation, which most scholars agree emerged during the transition to the modern industrial age, supplanting monarchies and other kinds of prior communities and groups based on kinship or tribal ties. Initially, scholars saw nations as based on primordial attachments that were understood to exist as “given” through birth into a particular geographic community or ethnic group. This understanding has evolved into a view of “imagined communities” in which nations are based on a sense of attachment to one another among individuals dispersed across space and time and likely never to meet each other but who share customs, language, traditions, culture, or residence within a set of borders. Because these attachments are imagined by individuals and groups of individuals, neither nations nor the identities attached to them can be understood as essentialized, stable, or static. Instead, nations today are thought to be imagined, constructed, and negotiated. Nationalism exists in these moments of imagination and construction of the nation, which take many forms. The simple expression of national identity, efforts to make political and national units congruent, or xenophobic treatment of outsiders in favor of those deemed to belong to the nation are all examples of nationalist forms. Nationalism can be official and ceremonial (as in the singing of national anthems at presidential inaugurations) or banal (as in the quotidian nationalist symbols people encounter in their everyday lives, from national flags in school buildings to postage stamps displaying national heroes). Over the last several decades—particularly since a resurgence of interest in nationhood in the 1980s and 1990s—the focus of research has been on elite perspectives—that is, how the nation is mediated and constructed through parliamentary speeches, presidential speeches, or public school textbooks and curricula. More recently there has been a movement toward the study of everyday nationhood, which is discussed in greater detail in this article.

Textbooks and Core Readings

There are dozens of core texts and readers on nationalism. This section offers brief descriptions of texts that are most commonly assigned in specialized courses on nations and nationalism at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Such texts offer definitions of nation and nationalism as well as chapters or overall emphases on the relationship between nationalism and key concepts. Hearn 2006 pays particular attention to power, Guibernau and Hutchinson 2001 adds an emphasis on ethnicity and religion, and Balakrishnan 1996 weighs in on class and gender. Hutchinson and Smith 1994 focuses on nation building and international relations, and Eley and Suny 1996 embeds analyses of nationalism within cultural studies, focusing on issues such as memory and symbolic systems. McCrone 1998 pays particular attention to recent nationalist and neo-nationalist movements, while Delanty and Kumar 2006 adds an emphasis on how nations are changing in the global era.

  • Balakrishnan, Gopal, ed. 1996. Mapping the nation. London: Verso.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection, with an introduction by Benedict Anderson, aims to “map the terrain” of contemporary debates in nationalism studies. Early chapters, which focus on the term “nation” as it developed in the 19th century, set the stage for chapters on class, gender, and national belonging in the 20th century. The volume includes contributions by Ernest Gellner, Miroslav Hroch, Eric Hobsbawm, and Bankim Chatterjee.

    Find this resource:

    • Delanty, Gerard, and Krishan Kumar, eds. 2006. The SAGE handbook of nations and nationalism. London: SAGE.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      An exhaustive anthology of readings with contributions by classic and contemporary theorists. Part 1 explores the numerous approaches to studying the nation, including historical, cultural, sociolinguistic, and gender frameworks. Part 2 includes thematic chapters on topics such as ethnicity, sport, and migration. Part 3 examines the changing nature of nations in the “global age.”

      Find this resource:

      • Eley, Geoff, and R. G. Suny, eds. 1996. Becoming national: A reader. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Explores the link between nationalism and cultural studies, arguing that nations, deeply rooted in memory and social imagination, provide complex symbolic systems for demarcating territory and defining personhood, that is, “becoming national.”

        Find this resource:

        • Guibernau, Montserrat, and John Hutchinson, eds. 2001. Understanding nationalism. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The volume, invited by the Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism (ASEN), addresses discussions of ethnicity and religion in relation to national identity, the “gendering” of nations via symbols and myths, and the impact of global processes in shaping nation-states. Contributors also argue for longer historical case studies and explorations of myth-symbol complexes within nations.

          Find this resource:

          • Hearn, Jonathan. 2006. Rethinking nationalism: A critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            A survey of nationalism studies, with specific attention to the debate between primordialism and modernism. Hearn alternates between expository chapters that flesh out key concepts and critical chapters that “rethink” those concepts (e.g., power and culture). Defines nationalism as a set of claims to identity, jurisdiction, and territory.

            Find this resource:

            • Hutchinson, John, and Anthony D. Smith, eds. 1994. Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              An authoritative, interdisciplinary collection of key readings about nationalism by renowned scholars. Plots theoretical debates in the field with emphases on nation building, international relations, and nationalisms both within and outside Europe. Section 2 extensively reviews theories of nationalism.

              Find this resource:

              • McCrone, David. 1998. The sociology of nationalism: Tomorrow’s ancestors. London: Routledge.

                DOI: 10.4324/9780203428856Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                McCrone reviews key debates and trends in the study of nationalism from the 19th century to the present, covering key topics, such as the relationship between the nation and ethnicity or the state and paying particular attention to recent nationalist and neo-nationalist forms. Chapter 3 provides a particularly detailed overview of the use and mobilization of history in the construction and invention of nations.

                Find this resource:

                Peer-Reviewed Journals

                Several peer-reviewed journals specialize in nationalism or topics closely related to nationalism. The flagship journal for nationalism studies is Nations and Nationalism, which is edited by Anthony Smith, one of the most esteemed nationalism scholars globally. At least two other journals are broadly general in terms of focus: Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, which focuses on nationalism as it relates to ethnicity and intergroup relations, and National Identities, which specifically focuses on studies of national identity rather than on nationalist political movements. Several specialty journals have a more narrow focus, but they still publish many articles on nationalism: Nationalities Papers focuses on eastern Europe and the former Soviet states as well as bordering areas; Ethnicities focuses on ethnic groups, identity, and minority rights; Citizenship Studies focuses on citizenship but publishes papers about nationhood in that context; and Ethnic and Racial Studies focuses on nationalism in relation to race and ethnicity.

                Associations and Internet Resources

                Several national and international associations focus on the study of nations and nationalism. The Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism, housed at the London School of Economics, is one of the oldest and best known, having hosted an annual conference for over twenty years and focusing broadly on ethnicity and nationalism. Two other associations—the Association for the Study of Nationalities and the Association for Research on Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Americas, focus on regionally specific nationalism studies (in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union and in the Americas and the Atlantic World, respectively). H-Nationalism is an online discussion forum for scholars interested in nationalism and related areas.

                Classic Approaches

                There are a number of classical theoretical approaches to the study of nationalism. These scholars generally share a view of nations and nationalism as historically contingent rather than God given. Scholarly works such as Hobsbawm 1992, Gellner 1983, and Kohn 1944 generally conceptualize nationalism as being rooted in efforts to reach congruence between political and national units. But these and other classical theorists are not in complete agreement about the causal relationships among states, nations, and other historical forces. There are at least two major points of contention. First, scholars disagree about whether nations create states or states create nations. Kohn 1944 argues, for example, that nationalism is the desire, resulting from cultural and political awakening of the masses, for the formation of a nation-state, while Hobsbawm 1992 argues that nations do not make states; rather, he suggests that states are as likely to invent nations. Second, scholars differ on the relationship between cultural, economic, and social factors and the emergence of nationalism. While works such as Gellner 1983 and Kohn 1944 suggest that nationalism emerged as a result of transitions to modern society, Greenfeld 1992 argues that nationalism itself created those changes. Nationalism’s emergence, Liah Greenfeld argues, preceded every aspect of modernization and is therefore constitutive of it. Ernest Renan’s classic Sorbonne lecture in 1882 emphasizes how nations are created through individuals’ sense of shared history and commitment to a shared future (Renan 1996). Despite Eric Hobsbawm’s call for the study of nationalism “from below,” classical theorists have been largely elite-focused and do not offer much in the way of explanation in terms of how nations are invented or constructed. Moreover, in their focus on the origins of nationalism and their creation, classical theorists have largely overlooked the ways nations are continually reimagined and reinvented over time. These are topics that Benedict Anderson (see Anderson 1991, cited in The “Imagined Community”) and colleagues take up in the tradition of the “imagined community.”

                • Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Argues that the origins of nationalism are rooted in the new form of social organization that emerged as a result of the transition from agrarian to industrial society and the shift in the locus of “high culture” from the church to the state.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five roads to modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Greenfeld’s seminal work traces the history of nationalism, examining the development of national consciousness in England, France, Russia, Germany, and the United States and argues that nations are the constitutive element of modernity. Rather than merely reflecting modernization, Greenfeld argues that nationalism helped define modernity.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Hobsbawm, Eric. 1992. Nations and nationalism since 1780. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Hobsbawm traces the uses and transformations in the concept of “the nation” over time and argues for a view of the nation as constructed and invented. He calls for more study of nations “from below,” that is, not only from the point of view of governments and nationalist movements but also ordinary people.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Kohn, Hans. 1944. The idea of nationalism. New York: Collier.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Kohn places the origins of nations in the late 1700s, arguing that the first major nationalist phenomenon was the French Revolution. Nationalism is seen not as a “natural” manifestation but as a product of historical, social, and intellectual factors.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Renan, Ernest. 1996. What is a nation? In Becoming national. Edited by G. Eley and R. Suny, 41–55. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          In this 1882 lecture at the Sorbonne, Renan emphasizes the historical contingency of nations and the extent to which they are built on a sense of solidarity and shared memory rather than on race, ethnicity, or language. He calls for a rethinking of national belonging as determined by individuals’ choices to be a part of the nation, not by inherited membership.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Smith, Anthony. 2001. Nationalism: Theory, ideology, history. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Smith’s text, an introduction to the concept of nationalism, uses an interdisciplinary approach to describe the unique “rhythms, rules, and memories” of a nation. The book reviews key concepts and debates in the field and calls for an ethno-symbolic approach to the study of nations, emphasizing the link between myth, memory, and tradition.

                            Find this resource:

                            The “Imagined Community”

                            Taking as a starting point the notion that nations are imagined and invented, during the early 21st century a broad consensus emerged among nationalism scholars, who now recognize that nations are, as Benedict Anderson claims, “imagined communities” (Anderson 1991) of individuals who are deemed to belong to one another because of shared ethnicity, territory, language, or culture. In this view, nations do not exist or emerge automatically on the basis of primordial ties to a collective; rather, they are constructed, and reconstructed, through socialization processes in schools, families, and other societal institutions—such as the national print and television media or shared national languages. Scholars have examined a variety of contexts and cultural underpinnings that undergird the construction of nations. Brubaker 1992 notes the critical role that national citizenship policies play in the construction and reflection of a nation’s sense of belonging, while Weil 2008 contends that citizenship and national identity should be decoupled, arguing that nationality policies are grounded not in notions of national identity but in complex policy rationales. Billig 1995 highlights the importance of everyday practices, such as flag waving. Shavit 2009 shows how new media and technology enable diaspora communities to imagine nations from afar. By examining such cultural underpinnings of nations, scholars have come to see nations as works in progress, as emergent and contested entities that are continually reimagined rather than established at one prior point in time.

                            • Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Anderson proposes a definition of the nation an imagined political community that is both inherently limited and sovereign. Of particular note is his emphasis on the role of print languages, censuses, maps, and museums in defining, constructing, and sustaining national communities. Overall, the book aims to trace the origins of national consciousness and the role of cultural elements in the continued construction of nations.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Billig, Michael. 1995. Banal nationalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Billig challenges nationalism scholars to consider the ways nations are reproduced not only through extreme or secessionist movements but also through daily banal activities, such as flag-waving. The everyday ways nations are reproduced during people’s daily activities are critical for understanding national identity and the continued salience of nations.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Brubaker, Rogers. 1992. Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Brubaker argues that French and German definitions of citizenship are rooted in different understandings of nationhood. While France has had a state-centered and assimilationist model of national citizenship, Germany’s approach has been ethnocentric and differentialist. His aim is to understand and illuminate the origins and workings of national citizenship, particularly as it relates to conceptions of the nation.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Shavit, Uriya. 2009. The new imagined community: Global media and the construction of national and Muslim identities of migrants. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Shavit argues that new global technologies, such as satellite television and the Internet, make it possible for immigrants to continue consuming “homeland media,” thereby still “imagining” their nations from afar. Shavit also explores how Arab-Muslim scholars imagine a Muslim nation (ummah), using new media to share this vision with Muslim communities in the West.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Weil, Patrick. 2008. How to be French: Nationality in the making since 1789. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Offering the first comprehensive history of French nationality law, Weil traces three stages in French nationality policy, showing how policy reforms were additive rather than corrective, resulting in a current-day policy allowing the establishment of French nationality in diverse ways. Weil argues that nationality cannot be understood as a reflection of stereotypical images of national identity but rather is grounded in complex policy rationales.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      Everyday Nationhood

                                      Taking seriously Hobsbawm’s call to study nationalism “from below,” a recent trend in the field has emphasized “everyday” nationhood, examining the quotidian understandings and experiences of the nation by ordinary people. These scholars argue that it is not enough to understand how elites think about the nation; we also need to understand how ordinary people think about and experience the nation in their everyday lives. There are two major trajectories within this body of work. First, a broad group of scholars studies the everyday practice of nationhood, aiming to decenter elite sites for nationalist expression (such as parliamentary debates) in favor of everyday performances of nationhood, such as those exhibited in street signs (see Azaryahu and Kook 2002), postage stamps (Cusack 2005), activism and protest or religious and national symbols (see Zubrzycki 2006, cited in Memory and Memorialization ). Second, scholars have studied how ordinary people, in contrast to political elites or lawmakers, understand and talk about the nation (Condor 2000, Fein 2005). In this effort, scholars argue that less attention should be paid to how elites and intellectuals construct the nation while more attention should be given to how common people receive, reject, process, and transform national narratives, myths, and messages. Studying everyday nationhood requires a different kind of research methodology than previous scholars had used. It requires extensive qualitative research, particularly in terms of interviews, focus groups, and in-depth ethnographic observation of the quotidian practices, experiences, and understandings of ordinary people in their everyday lives.

                                      • Azaryahu, Moaz, and Rebecca Kook. 2002. Mapping the nation: Street names and Arab-Palestinian identity; Three case studies. Nations and Nationalism 8.2: 195–214.

                                        DOI: 10.1111/1469-8219.00046Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Azaryahu and Kook focus on the way the naming of streets helps construct the nation by looking at Arab Palestinian street names at three key historical junctures and locations. The authors argue for the importance of understanding how ideas about nationhood and heritage are manifested in the choice of street names.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Condor, Susan. 2000. Pride and prejudice: Identity management in English people’s talk about ‘this country.’ Discourse and Society 11.2: 175–202.

                                          DOI: 10.1177/0957926500011002003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Uses conversation analysis to uncover how ordinary citizens make banal national references in interviews. Respondents employed a variety of conversational forms (e.g., hedges, repeats) as they expressed carefully worded sentiments about national pride and avoided statements that could be interpreted as insensitive or prejudiced. Makes strong case for conversation as an object of analysis in nationalism studies.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Cusack, Igor. 2005. Tiny transmitters of nationalist and colonial ideology: The postage stamps of Portugal and its empire. Nations and Nationalism 11.4: 591–612.

                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8129.2005.00221.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Cusack studies the influence that national postage stamps have had on nation building. Postage stamp imagery reflects particular selections of historical myths and heroes and establishes national territories in the selection of particular maps or landscapes. The author focuses on the historical Portuguese case, examining the stamps of Portugal and its empire.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Fein, Lisa C. 2005. Symbolic boundaries and national borders: The construction of an Estonian Russian identity. Nationalities Papers 33.3: 333–344.

                                              DOI: 10.1080/00905990500193196Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Through an analysis of oral histories, focus groups, and ethnographic observation in Estonia, Fein argues that Russians living in Estonia construct symbolic boundaries in order to create a unique, distinguishable identity that is different both from Estonians and from Russians in Russia.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Fox, Jon, and Cynthia Miller-Idriss. 2008. Everyday nationhood. Ethnicities 8.4: 536–562.

                                                DOI: 10.1177/1468796808088925Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Fox and Miller-Idriss call for the creation of a subfield within nationalism studies, which they call “everyday nationhood.” They suggest there are four key areas in which the nation is produced and reproduced in everyday life: “talking the nation,” “choosing the nation,” “performing the nation,” and “consuming the nation.”

                                                Find this resource:

                                                Thematic Areas

                                                Studies of nationalism are deeply interconnected with a wide variety of other fields and subfields. Nationalism is closely related to studies of extremism; patriotism and national pride; war, conflict, and postconflict; ethnicity, race, and regionality; secessionist and nationalist movements; gender; youth; the state; schooling; memory and memorialization; sporting events; transnationalism, migration, and globalization; and postcolonialism. These subsections explore each of these thematic areas in greater detail.

                                                Extremism

                                                Although there is a variety of ideological underpinnings for extremist groups (such as religion or racism), extremist movements often pursue nationalist agendas or draw on nationalistic ideologies. The most extreme forms of nationalist extremism historically have resulted in genocides and widespread “ethnic cleansing,” in which millions of citizens and residents of particular nations have been exterminated or been the victims of forced migration, rape, and other abuses in the name of nationalist expansion or homogeneity. Greenfeld and Chirot 1994 draws on historical case studies across a broad geographic span to explore and explain nationalist aggression. Simi and Futrell 2010 studies Aryan hate groups in the United States, examining individuals’ socialization within groups who argue, among other contentions, that they are fighting a war against a government they believe wants to eradicate the white race. Blee 2010 looks at right-wing and conservative movements in the United States, comparing these movements with the German case, while Miller-Idriss 2009 looks at how right-wing extremist youth in Germany are drawn to the nation in part as a way of breaking taboos. For a related topic, see War, Conflict, and Postconflict and Secessionist and Nationalist Movements.

                                                • Blee, Kathleen. 2010. Conservative and right-wing movements. Annual Review of Sociology 36:269–286.

                                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102602Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  A review of “rightist” movements in the United States with a focus on strategies for mobilization and comparisons with Germany. Argues that conservative movements in the United States emphasize patriotism and moral values, while right-wing groups express racist, xenophobic views.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Greenfeld, Liah, and Daniel Chirot. 1994. Nationalism and aggression. Theory and Society 23.1: 79–130.

                                                    DOI: 10.1007/BF00993674Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Draws on several case studies to reveal how resentment (e.g., hostility, jealousy, or sense of inferiority) can influence national development and legitimize aggressive actions. Examples include Russia under Peter the Great, Iraq after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and Cambodia during the regime of the Khmer Rouge.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Miller-Idriss, Cynthia. 2009. Blood and culture: Youth, right-wing extremism, and national belonging in contemporary Germany. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Uses ethnographic data drawn from three vocational schools in Berlin to reveal ongoing “reimaginings” of German national identity in the postunification era. Reveals how younger generations of Germans grapple with taboos on national pride and gravitate toward the right wing as a form of resistance.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Simi, Pete, and R. Futrell. 2010. American swastika: Inside the white power movement’s hidden spaces of hate. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Simi and Futrell draw on over a decade of ethnographic research and extensive interviews with Aryan hate groups in the United States. They focus primarily on a rich description of Aryan “free spaces” (the key sites of socialization to racist and nationalist beliefs) in an effort to show how the white power movement is produced and reproduced.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        Patriotism and National Pride

                                                        Nationalism is often contrasted with patriotism, which some take to be a more positive expression of national identity. Appiah 1997 argues that people can be both cosmopolitan and patriotic toward a particular nation, while Jauregui 1999 similarly argues that Europeans are not moving toward a postnational society but rather can hold a sense of Europeanness and national pride and identity simultaneously. Survey research scholars typically study national pride in the form of scaled responses, measuring to what degree individuals agree or disagree with statements expressing pride in the nation. Evans and Kelley 2001, for example, look at quantitative data from twenty-four countries and argue that national pride is not declining, as some might have expected in today’s increasingly global environment. Hjerm 1998 uses cross-national quantitative data to examine how xenophobia and national pride are connected in four countries. Sports are frequently linked to national pride, as Majer-O’Sickey 2006 shows in an analysis of Germans’ widespread patriotic expressions while hosting the World Cup in 2006.

                                                        • Appiah, Kwame Anthony. 1997. Cosmopolitan patriots. Critical Inquiry 23.3: 617–639.

                                                          DOI: 10.1086/448846Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Appiah asserts that individuals can be liberal and cosmopolitan while remaining loyal and rooted in a national patria. Contends that the United States lacks a centering national culture, respecting instead self-autonomy, freedom of association, and “cultural heterogeneity.” Maintains that modern nations ought to share a political culture but not require strict conformity to it.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Evans, M. D. R., and J. Kelley. 2001. National pride in the developed world: Survey data from 24 nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 14.3: 303–338.

                                                            DOI: 10.1093/ijpor/14.3.303Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            The authors reject claims that national attachments are on the decline, using data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) to show that people in twenty-four countries still articulate national pride across multiple dimensions, such as sports, science, arts, and the economy. Quantitative analysis of the data reveals great international variance in how people in small, large, and rich nations feel pride.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Hjerm, Mikael. 1998. National identities, national pride, and xenophobia: A comparison of four Western countries. Acta Sociologica 41.4: 335–347.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Uses data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) to examine the relationship between xenophobia and national pride in Sweden, Australia, Germany, and Britain; comparison reveals unique conceptualizations of citizenship, national belonging, and multiculturalism. Holds that civic nationalism produces less xenophobia than ethnic formulations of national identity.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Jauregui, Pablo. 1999. National pride and the meaning of “Europe”: A comparative study of Britain and Spain. In Whose Europe? The turn towards democracy. Edited by Dennis Smith and Sue Wright, 257–287. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Skeptical of “postnationalism” in Europe; claims that nationalism and Europeanism are not incompatible forces. Uses Spain and Britain to study how nations reacted to inclusion in the European Union; for Spain the move was upwardly mobile, in Britain membership symbolized national decline. The volume questions how Europeanization creates barriers to citizenship and builds bridges between nations and groups.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Majer-O’Sickey, I. 2006. Out of the closet? German patriotism and soccer mania. German Politics and Society 24.3: 82–97.

                                                                  DOI: 10.3167/104503006780441601Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Argues that in 2006, as hosts of the World Soccer Championship, Germans expressed intense pride and love for their country previously held as nationalist and taboo due to residual shame from the Holocaust and World War II. Suggests international sports competitions as venues for articulating “positive patriotism.”

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  War, Conflict, and Postconflict

                                                                  A broad range of scholarship exists on nationalist conflicts and on the reconstruction of nations postconflict. Much of this scholarship attends to the role of competing ethnic groups or ethno-national movements, such as the Blitz 2006 analysis of the former Yugoslavia. Tiryakian 2004 traces the role of ethnicity in a variety of violent settings, including intrastate and religious conflict, examining the role that power, elites, religion, or postcolonial issues play in nationalist wars. Other scholars look at nationalist tensions in border regions, where claims to the same territory by different nations has led to protracted and bloody conflicts, such as the Ganguly 2001 examination of the disputed region of Kashmir.

                                                                  • Blitz, Brad K. 2006. War and change in the Balkans: Nationalism, conflict and cooperation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Contributions examine classic arguments about the collapse of Yugoslavia, such as the conflict of competing ethno-national claims, and counterarguments that explore core-periphery power struggles and the influence of external actors. Provides a framework for understanding the Yugoslavian “transition” and how the former republics dealt with becoming “new” nations.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Ganguly, Sumit. 2001. Conflict unending: India-Pakistan tensions since 1947. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Argues that elites in India and Pakistan have widely divergent ideological views, creating tensions exacerbated by territorial skirmishes over the disputed region of Kashmir. Ganguly claims that both nations maintain a “chauvinist nationalism” that underestimates the other state’s power and will, evidenced by four Indo-Pakistani wars since partition in 1947.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Tiryakian, Edward A. 2004. Introduction: Comparative perspectives on ethnicity and ethnic conflicts. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 45:147–159.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0020715204049590Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Tiryakian introduces the volume, a series of articles produced by members of the Fulbright commission’s 2003 New Century Scholars Group. Topics include the role of ethnicity in intrastate violence, common factors of ethnic conflicts (e.g., religion, strong collective identities, postcolonial conditions) and best practices in peace processes. National cases include Yugoslavia, South Africa, Indonesia, and the Ukraine.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        Ethnicity, Race, and Regionality

                                                                        There has been significant attention among nationalism scholars to the ways understandings of ethnicity, regionality, or race and racism might underpin constructions of the nation or of national identity. Brubaker, et al. 2006 and Brubaker 2006 show how ethnic groups can construct competing views of the nation, while Glaeser 2000 highlights the importance of regional identities. Balibar and Wallerstein 1991 takes up many of the theoretical arguments about the interconnections between race, nation, and class. Some theorists, such as Eric Hobsbawm (see Hobsbawm 1992, cited in Classic Approaches), have argued that nationalism should be understood as separate from ethnicity. Benedict Anderson (see Anderson 1991, cited in The “Imagined Community”) argues that nationalism and racism are separate entities. Evidence from studies of particular national cases, however, indicates that race and ethnicity are more deeply intertwined in the construction of the nation than previously acknowledged. Peck 1996, for example, argues that the romantic conception of a German Volk has failed to capture the reality of the modern German nation, while Räthzel 1990 focuses on the ways the return of “ethnic” Germans post-1989 forced a rethinking of German nationhood. Waters 1990, meanwhile, examines the symbolic ethnicity of white Americans who desire a connection to ancestral homelands.

                                                                        • Balibar, Etienne, and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1991. Race, nation, class: Ambiguous identities. London: Verso.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          The authors engage in a dialogue about the links between race, class, and nation after World War II. In Part 1 the authors debate whether racism is rooted in capitalism or nationalism; in Part 2 they explore the social formations of such terms as “people” and “race.” The latter half of the book explores questions of class, Marxist orthodoxy, and social conflict.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Brubaker, Rogers. 2006. Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Brubaker seeks to account for ethnicity and national identity in everyday life practices without falling into traps of constructivism and what he calls “groupism”: the tendency to reify groups as bounded wholes. Rather, ethnicity should be approached as a set of relations and processes. Brubaker also problematizes “identity” as a term in the social sciences and criticizes the civic-ethnic binary in studies of nationalism.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Brubaker, Rogers, Jon Fox, Margit Feischmidt, and Liana Grancea. 2006. Nationalist politics and everyday ethnicity in a Transylvanian town. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The text draws on empirical data taken from five years of ethnography in Cluj, Romania, eschewing elite perspectives dominant in nationalism studies to reveal how ordinary citizens experience ethnicity and nationhood in everyday life. Also shows how ethnic groups offer competing views of the nation.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Glaeser, Andreas. 2000. Divided in unity: Identity, Germany, and the Berlin police. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                An ethnographic study of police officers in Berlin illustrating how they mediate and negotiate regional identities via everyday activities and encounters. Glaeser focuses on identity formation and the creation of the “Other,” showing how police officers hold on to East-West identities in the postunification era.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Peck, Jeffrey. 1996. Rac(e)ing the nation: Is there a German home? In Becoming national. Edited by Geoff Eley and Ronald G. Suny, 481–492. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Peck argues that Germany is learning to deal with race and multiculturalism. Unification, and the sudden wave of migration to West Germany, revealed incongruities of the German notion of Volk and the impossibility of Heimat, the mythical German homeland. These romantic myths fail to capture the new diversity Germany confronts as a unified nation and a member of the European Union.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Räthzel, Nora. 1990. Germany: One race, one nation? Race and Class 32.3: 31–48.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    The author focuses on migration to West Germany to show how European integration makes borders permeable within the European community but solidifies boundaries at the periphery to exclude and prohibit entry. The return of “ethnic” Germans after the fall of the Berlin Wall challenged the notion of what it meant to be German, requiring revisions of the nation’s vision of itself.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Waters, Mary. 1990. Ethnic options: Choosing identities in America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Waters’s study of two suburban neighborhoods, one in California and the other outside Philadelphia, reveals how white Americans voluntarily maintain ethnic identifications. This “symbolic ethnicity” allows white Americans to feel connected to an ancestral homeland. Provides compelling evidence that ethnicity persists over generations, in spite of assimilation. Also discusses census as a device for describing the nation.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      Secessionist and Nationalist Movements

                                                                                      Nationalism, when revealed through efforts to make the national unit congruent with the political unit, can result in movements to create new and separate states. Nationalist movements typically aim for political self-determination and autonomy, often on the basis of an existing nation that is not a state, as Moore 1998 makes clear in its emphasis on whether and how territorially based “people” can make claims to nationhood. There has been significant scholarship on the post-1990 nationalist movements in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, such as the Tuminez 2003 analysis of the breakup of the Soviet Union and Brubaker 1996 on European integration and the collapse of the Soviet Union, but scholars have also examined secessionist and nationalist separatist movements elsewhere. Fournier 2001 looks at the role academics play in nationalizing Quebec, for example, while Edles 1999 studies Basque and Catalan nationalism in Spain. Fox and Vermeersch 2010 takes a look at post-Soviet nationalism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries in Poland and Hungary, arguing that European Union accession has created a back door for nationalist sentiments to be realized. Keating and McGarry 2001 examines the relationship between globalization and the strengthening of minority nationalisms.

                                                                                      • Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism reframed: Nationhood and the national question in the new Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511558764Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Brubaker argues that European integration and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s produced a set of “new nationalisms” that need to be explored as categories of practice, as relational processes that call on images of homeland or national unity to legitimize state power.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Edles, Laura Desfor. 1999. A culturalist approach to ethnic nationalist movements: Symbolization and Basque and Catalan nationalism in Spain. Social Science History 23.3: 311–355.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Compares Basque and Catalan notions of nationalism in the post-Franco era, using a culturalist approach to explain why the former expresses secessionist ideologies (legitimizing the use of terrorism) while the latter has embraced politics of consensus since the democratic transition. Maintains the importance of historical symbols, myths, and narratives in fostering regional attitudes to the nation-state: that is, autonomy, self-rule, and “Spanish” identity.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Fournier, Marcel. 2001. Quebec sociology and Quebec society: The construction of a collective identity. Canadian Journal of Sociology 26.3: 333–347.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Uses Quebec as a case study of how “marginalized collectivity” generates nationalist sentiments; outlines how academics studied Quebec in the 20th century, influencing secessionist movements via their attempts to “nationalize” Quebec sociology, that is, to highlight the cultural specificity of Quebec society.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Fox, Jon E., and Peter Vermeersch. 2010. Backdoor nationalism. European Journal of Sociology 51:325–357.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0003975610000159Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              The authors argue that European Union accession created a “back door” in which nationalist sentiments could be realized by Polish and Hungarian political parties and groups in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Instead of eradicating eastern European nationalist ambitions in favor of new, postnational forms of belonging, the European Union has provided the context for nationalist revival in the region.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Keating, Michael, and John McGarry, eds. 2001. Minority nationalism and the changing international order. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/0199242143.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                The editors argue that globalization advances “postnationalist” thinking via economic, cultural, and political exchanges that weaken the power of the state, fostering the development of minority nationalisms. Contributors further this argument via discussions of cosmopolitanism, immigration, and national languages in geographic contexts, such as the European Union and the former Soviet Union.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Moore, Margaret, ed. 1998. National self-determination and secession. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1093/0198293844.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Moore’s edited volume outlines numerous theoretical debates about whether or not territorially based “people” can make claims to nationhood and if universal parameters make sense for determining the value of secession claims in particular national contexts. Contributions also interrogate the potential “demonstration effect” of secession for other minority groups and the underlying liberal principles that inform theories of nationalism and self-determination.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Tuminez, Astrid. 2003. Nationalism, ethnic pressures, and the breakup of the Soviet Union. Journal of Cold War Studies 5.4: 81–136.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1162/152039703322483765Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Overview of the Soviet Union’s collapse, pointing to weaknesses in center-periphery relations, surges of separatist nationalism, and ethnic conflicts in the 1980s as exacerbating factors. Analyzes how debates between Yeltzin and Gorbachev, which revealed differing views of the importance of Russia as the center of power, contributed to the union’s disintegration.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    Gender

                                                                                                    The nation is deeply gendered, meaning that it affects men and women differently, in part because of the different expectations the nation has held for men and for women. While males are expected to be willing to die for the nation through military service during warfare (Nagel 1998), women are expected to “birth” the nation, reproducing it by bearing and mothering children and raising future citizens, as Kanaaneh 2002, about women’s bodies in Palestine, makes clear. Until quite recently, as Patrick Weil demonstrates, a woman’s own nationality (and assumed national loyalty) in many places was tied not to her own residency or parentage but to that of her husband (see Weil 2008, cited in The “Imagined Community”). Yuval-Davis 1997 argues that nation and gender are mutually constitutive, while Breuer 2008 traces this mutual construction in the historical German context, looking at the role of German fraternities that idealized masculine honor. Hillman and Henfry 2006 looks at masculinity and the Chinese nation, while Gutiérrez Chong 2008 shows how the sexual violence of the Spanish conquest helps frame contemporary national Mexican narratives. Mondal 2002 argues that essential notions of womanhood have been used to construct Indian national identity since colonialism. Patil 2009 takes up the relationship between gender, nation, and colonialism more directly. Blom, et al. 2000, on the intersection of gender and nationalism, is a comprehensive overview of the key issues. While there is some variation in how gender and nationalism intersect in different national contexts, there is agreement among scholars that gender and gendered ideas significantly influence national identity and national myths (Gutiérrez Chong 2008).

                                                                                                    • Blom, Ida, Karen Hagemann, and Katherine Hall. 2000. Gendered nations: Nationalisms and gender order in the long nineteenth century. Oxford: Berg.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Part 1 of the anthology provides an introduction to the intersection of gender and nationalism studies. Part 2 uses a case study approach to illuminate how gender operates in different nations: for example, questions of citizenship in France, military order in South Africa, and gendered images of the nation in Latvia.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Breuer, Karin. 2008. Competing masculinities: Fraternities, gender, and nationality in the German Confederation, 1815–30. Gender and History 20.2: 270–287.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0424.2008.00521.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Argues that nationalism and masculinity were “mutually constituted” during Germany’s restoration period, claiming that German fraternities symbolically linked gender and national identity in various discourses that idealized masculine honor and virtue.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Gutiérrez Chong, Natividad. 2008. Symbolic violence and sexualities in the myth making of Mexican national identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31.3: 524–542.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/01419870701568809Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Mexican national identity draws on symbolic allusions to the brutal sexual violence of the Spanish conquest and the mestizo race it generated. These “origin myths” frame contemporary Mexican narratives that demarcate ethnic difference, exalt national unity, and regulate sexual activity.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Hillman, Ben, and Lee-Anne Henfry. 2006. Macho minority: Masculinity and ethnicity on the edge of Tibet. Modern China 32.2: 251–272.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0097700405286186Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            The authors use in-depth interviews with dozens of Tibetan and Han Chinese people to uncover how each group expresses unique conceptions of masculinity and the Chinese nation, often in opposition to ideals of the other ethnic group. Hillman and Henfry also argue that a “virility myth” around masculinity sustains narratives about the nation’s strength and character.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Kanaaneh, Rhoda Ann. 2002. Birthing the nation: Strategies of Palestinian women in Israel. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              As a social practice, family planning for Palestinians in the Galilee region mediates attitudes about the nation, gender, and modernity. Kanaaneh’s ethnography examines how women’s bodies are coded as “reproducers of the nation,” shaped by discourses about development and demography in this charged sociopolitical context. The religious and cultural hybridity of the region also complicates notions of national identity.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Mondal, Anshuman. 2002. The emblematics of gender and sexuality in Indian nationalist discourse. Modern Asian Studies 36:913.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Responds to Bankim Chatterjee’s arguments about women as cultural signs in Indian discourse; illustrates how “womanhood” has been used to consolidate and essentialize Indian national identity since the colonial period. Traces how Gandhian discourses reveal evolving views about modernity and the role of women in the new nation.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Nagel, Joane. 1998. Masculinity and nationalism: Gender and sexuality in the making of nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21.2: 242–269.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/014198798330007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Nagel calls for an investigation of men in relation to the nation, claiming that masculine discourses, such as the sexualized nature of warfare, the male urge to defend national honor and territory, and the allure of adventure and heroism, prop up nationalism. Contends that early discourses about the nation in the 19th century were linked to resurgent conceptions of manhood, an epistemological coupling that bolsters modern nation-states.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Patil, Vrushali. 2009. Contending masculinities: The gendered (re)negotiation of colonial hierarchy in the United Nations debates on decolonization. Theory and Society 38:195–215.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s11186-008-9076-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Analyzes United Nations General Assembly debates between 1946 and 1960 using a transnational feminist perspective to argue that decolonization efforts exposed competing national visions of masculinity: one paternalistic, the other grounded in resistance. Advances discussion of a global hegemonic masculinity that mimics European imperialist models of manhood, grounded in images of penetration and conquest.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Yuval-Davis, Nira. 1997. Gender and nation. London: SAGE.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      A widely cited text that condemns “hegemonic theorizations about nations and nationalism” for disregarding gender as a critical dimension of nationhood. Nation-states employ strict regimes regulating how people of different sexes perform gender and sexuality. Yuval-Davis treats gender and nation separately before tackling their mutual construction, a relation process through which race, ethnicity, and other variables of “difference” are also negotiated.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      Youth

                                                                                                                      Youth are often prominently involved in nationalist mobilization. Several scholars document transformations in national understandings across generations. Beck and Beck-Gernsheim 2009, for example, suggests that today’s younger generation makes meaning via local and global symbolic frameworks. Lee 2006 argues that young South Koreans reject the politics of the nation’s older generation and express a new kind of ethnic nationalism. Cheney 2007 shows how Ugandan children embody national narratives and global discourses about social change and human rights. Youth in the digital age also have access to transnational narratives and movement ideology, borrowing strategies from similar groups and movements (Watts 2001). Scholars also trace the relationship between youth, citizenship, and consumption as it relates to the nation (Lukose 2009) and, as Straker 2009 shows, the ways youth can be the protagonists of national development narratives.

                                                                                                                      • Beck, Ulrich, and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. 2009. Global generations and the trap of methodological nationalism: For a cosmopolitan turn in the sociology of youth and generations. European Sociological Review 25.1: 25–36.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcn032Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        The authors reject “methodological nationalism” in favor of a cosmopolitanism better equipped to understand contemporary experiences of youth around the globe. In “transnational generations,” individuals make meaning via local and global symbolic frameworks made available through media, migration, and tourism.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Cheney, Kristen. 2007. Pillars of the nation: Child citizens and Ugandan national development. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Cheney’s study posits Ugandan children as “discursive objects” that embody national narratives about development and social change (usually linked to global discourses about human rights). Her ethnographic approach examines children in their own social worlds (e.g., schools and festivals) as a means of taking them seriously as social actors within the context of nation building and identity formation.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Lee, Sook-Jong. 2006. The assertive nationalism of South Korean youth: Cultural dynamism and political activism. SAIS Review 26.2: 123–132.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/sais.2006.0036Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Claims that South Korean youth express ethnic nationalism that largely rejects alliance with the United States and embraces inter-Korean nationalism. This younger generation disdains the politics of the nation’s elders, supports egalitarian principles, and favors pragmatic foreign relations.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Lukose, Ritty A. 2009. Liberalization’s children: Gender, youth, and consumer citizenship in globalization India. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Lukose’s ethnography of a coeducational college in Kerala reveals how Indian youth grapple with the forces of liberalization and globalization in their everyday lives. She links youth consumption practices to new notions of national identity and citizenship, arguing that young women particularly embody anxieties about modernization, transnationalism, and youth allegiance to the nation.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Straker, Jay. 2009. Youth, nationalism, and the Guinean Revolution. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Straker reveals how youth became a focal point of nationalist politics after the Guinean Revolution led by President Sékou Touré. Youth became the protagonists of national development narratives, expected to turn away from colonial thought and practices in favor of an “authentic” Guinean identity. Schooling and militant theater programs encouraged youth radicalism, but many youth resisted Touré’s authoritarian rule.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Watts, Meredith K. 2001. Aggressive youth cultures and hate crime: Skinheads and xenophobic youth in Germany. American Behavioral Scientist 45.4: 600–615.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/00027640121957376Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Contends that global social and digital networks commercialize skinhead culture and make it increasingly available to youth through internationalization and adaptation of its associated style and symbols. Youth participation in subcultures may be motivated by economic dislocation and desires to resist authority or engage in daring behavior.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  The State

                                                                                                                                  The state is deeply connected to the nation, even though they are analytically separate entities—one focused on the bureaucratic regulation of the lives of individuals within a given territory and the other on the “imagined community” and sense of belonging among a group of people. Breuilly 1993 argues for a typology of nationalisms that can be understood based on their relationship to the state. Brading 2001 shows how archaeological excavations and monuments simultaneously aestheticize national identity and legitimize the Mexican state. McCrone and McPherson 2009 looks at the role that commemorative national days play in constructing national identity. Olick 2003 looks specifically at how state actors use memory to construct the nation by aiming to create particular desired images of nationhood.

                                                                                                                                  • Brading, D. A. 2001. Monuments and nationalism in modern Mexico. Nations and Nationalism 7.4: 521–531.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/1469-8219.00031Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Archaeological excavations in the early 20th century helped shape and aestheticize a consensus national identity in postrevolutionary Mexico. Monuments created a sense of temporal continuity between the nation’s pre-Columbian past, the Spanish colonial period, and the postrevolution era—a historical fiction that elides class and ethnic conflicts and legitimizes the Mexican state.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Breuilly, John. 1993. Nationalism and the state. Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Breuilly argues that nationalism must be analyzed as a form of politics intimately linked to the modern state. He articulates a typology of nationalisms—including separatist, reform, and unification movements—and uses comparative case studies (e.g., China, Kenya, Egypt) to emphasize the role of the state in nation formation and the consolidation of power.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • McCrone, David, and Gayle McPherson, eds. 2009. National days: Construction and mobilising national identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        The volume investigates how “national days” operate as commemorative devices that amplify or silence narratives about national identity through festivals, paraphernalia, and other cultural productions. National days index economic, political, and cultural relationships for consumption by both internal and external audiences. Contributions explore construction and reimagining of national days in Scotland, South Africa, Germany, and others.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Olick, Jeffrey K. 2003. States of memory: Continuities, conflicts, and transformations in national introspection. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Olick describes the “peculiar synergy” of memory and nation, setting a foundation for social memory studies. State actors employ mnemonic practices to construct the nation but do not always succeed in creating the desired image of the nation. Cases look at the Spanish Civil War, China’s Cultural Revolution, and the memory of Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          Schooling

                                                                                                                                          Public schools are the primary state institution where national identities are produced and reproduced, and many scholars have focused on connections between schooling and nationalism. Advani 2009 shows how English language education in India is linked to the modern nation. A strong tradition of scholarship has focused on the use of education by the state to produce particular kinds of citizens and nationals who will serve the state’s interests. Althusser 1971 argues that schools are the dominant ideological state apparatus, having the obligatory attention of all children. Durrani and Dunne 2010 uses classroom observations, student drawings, and state textbooks to trace the connection between Pakistani national identity and Islamic religious identity. Several scholars look at national textbooks and curricula. Goodson 1990, for example, studies how curricular reforms in the United Kingdom were linked to the notion of national economic competitiveness, Schissler and Soysal 2005 focuses on case studies of history textbooks in Europe in the post–World War II period to understand the tension between universalism and particularism in relation to the nation, and Vom Hau 2010 studies hegemonic nationalist constructions in Latin American textbooks. Other scholars examine the role of daily nationalist performances in schools, such as the Rippberger and Staudt 2003 study of flag ceremonies in the El Paso–Juarez region. Feinberg 2000 looks at the challenge of teaching pluralism together with national identity. Vickers and Jones 2005 examines how history education relates to national identity in East Asia.

                                                                                                                                          • Advani, Shalini. 2009. Schooling the national imagination: Education, English, and the Indian modern. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Advani links debates around English language education in India to broader discussions about the nation and modernity. The author argues that, as a postcolonial nation, India struggles with how to incorporate English study into its educational system. She also claims that schools are primary sites of “national imagining” and analyzes textbooks and classroom observations for nationalistic representations.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Althusser, Louis. 1971. Ideology and ideological state apparatuses. In Lenin and philosophy and other essays. By Louis Althusser, 127–186. Translated by Ben Brewster. New York: Monthly Review.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Althusser argues that the education system is the most significant of those institutions he regards as ideological state apparatuses (ISAs), which aid in the reproduction of power and inequality through the use and mediation of ideology.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Durrani, Naureen, and Mairead Dunne. 2010. Curriculum and national identity: Exploring the links between religion and nation in Pakistan. Journal of Curriculum Studies 42.2: 215–240.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/00220270903312208Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Through an analysis of extensive classroom observations, student drawings, and government-issued textbooks, the authors find Pakistani national identity deeply rooted in Islamic religious identity. This national-religious construct erases ethnic differences but also highlights the “Other”—internal and external enemies of the state. A compelling empirical analysis of education as a medium for nation building and imagining.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Feinberg, Walter. 2000. Common schools/uncommon identities: National unity and cultural difference. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  The author explores how public education ought to deal with competing claims about pluralism and multiculturalism in American society. Feinberg argues that schools, as sites of imagining community and moral education, are obligated to teach children a common identity while also supporting the expression of minority subcultures. Includes compelling discussion of national identity and citizenship education in liberal societies.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Goodson, Ivor F. 1990. “Nations at risk” and “national curriculum”: Ideology and identity. Journal of Education Policy 5.5: 219–232.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/02680939008549073Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    National curriculum in the United Kingdom transformed as a response to the notion that the nation was “at risk,” falling behind educationally and economically. The 1980s curricular reforms in the United Kingdom were designed to boost economic production, reshape national identity, and reassert the nation-state as the locus of control within the context of European integration.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Rippberger, Susan J., and Kathleen A. Staudt. 2003. Pledging allegiance: Learning nationalism at the El Paso–Juarez border. London: Taylor and Francis.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      The authors explore the “pedagogy of nationalism” in the metropolitan region of El Paso and Juarez, cities divided by a border but united through families, commerce, and other forms of exchange. In their respective public schools, students learn to be “American” or “Mexican” through a variety of pedagogical and social practices, but these messages do not match the social realities of borderland life outside the classroom.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Schissler, Hanna, and Yasemin Nuhoğlu Soysal. 2005. The nation, Europe, and the world: Textbooks and curricula in transition. Oxford: Berghahn.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        The volume examines history textbooks since World War II with attention to temporal and spatial configurations of the nation. Case studies examine how European countries resituate national narratives in the context of Continental unity and diminished power in the postwar period. National histories in textbooks draw on universalistic frameworks while narrating particularistic visions of the nation’s past and future.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Vickers, Edward, and Alisa Jones. 2005. History education and national identity in East Asia. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          The editors contend that 19th-century nationalism provided a mechanism for East Asian countries to modernize and reimagine the nation. Chapter 1 considers the influence of Confucian thought in the region; subsequent chapters examine textbook controversies in China, Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the two Koreas, exploring the link between national identity and history education.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Vom Hau, Matthias. 2010. Unpacking the school: Textbooks, teachers, and the construction of nationhood in Mexico, Argentina, and Peru. Latin American Research Review 44.3: 127–154.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/lar.0.0105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Comparative study of textbook constructions of the nation in three Latin American countries, revealing similar attitudes about indigenous people, the glory of civilization, and “independence.” Teacher practice operates as a mechanism for mediating and contesting the hegemonic nationalism articulated in textbooks; in Argentina and Peru teachers actively organized in opposition to national curriculum.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            Memory and Memorialization

                                                                                                                                                            A significant body of scholarship examines the politics of memory as it relates to the construction and memorialization of the nation and its past, from the politics of street names to the establishment, destruction, or resignification of monuments and statues or memorial sites. Hosking and Schöpflin 1997 looks at the role that national myths play in the construction of collective identity. Olick and Robbins 1998 offers a theoretical framework for social memory studies. Several works look at particular cases, such as the Schudson 1992 examination of how American collective memory treats the Watergate story, the Zubrzycki 2006 examination of the erection of hundreds of crosses outside a Catholic convent near Auschwitz in late 1980s Poland, and the Spillman 1997 comparison of nationalist commemorations in the United States and Australia. Schwartz and Kim 2010 argues that the approaches taken by Western memory studies scholars do not adequately address the phenomenon of memory in Northeast Asia.

                                                                                                                                                            • Hosking, Geoffrey, and George Schöpflin, eds. 1997. Myths and nationhood. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Collection of essays investigating mythology in both “civil” and “ethnic” nations as a mechanism for cultivating collective identity. Chapters examine how national myths operate in a variety of contexts, with special attention to cases from eastern Europe and chapters on South Africa and the United States. Includes contributions by Smith and Fulbrook.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Olick, Jeffrey K., and Joyce Robbins. 1998. Social memory studies: From “collective memory” to the historical sociology of mnemonic practices. Annual Review of Sociology 24:105–140.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Establishes a theoretical paradigm for social memory studies, claiming the field has lacked a center; provides a strong overview of the historical development of “memory” and memory studies across many disciplines. Articulates what kinds of mnemonic practices comprise social memory and identity formation and how different groups vie for memory space. Remarks that nationalism gave rise to new kinds of “mnemotechnologies.”

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Schudson, Michael. 1992. Watergate in American memory: How we remember, forget, and reconstruct the past. New York: Basic Books.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Offers a theoretical framework for understanding how nations remember the past, arguing that the Watergate story, interpreted and transmitted via numerous forms of media, continues to resonate as a “flash point” in American collective memory. The Watergate narrative resonates in textbooks and in speech—exemplifying how social memory operates in everyday banal activities.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Schwartz, Barry, and Mikyoung Kim. 2010. Northeast Asia’s difficult past: Essays in collective memory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The editors argue that Western memory studies cannot adequately address Northeast Asia’s “memory problem,” arguing that the region grapples with distant and recent history—especially Japan’s actions in World War II—and the appropriate manner to express remorse for the past. Contributions focus on memory studies in Japan, Korea, and China, addressing shrine visits, national anthems, and trauma.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Spillman, Lynette. 1997. Nation and commemoration: Creating national identities in the United States and Australia. Cambridge, UK: Univ. of Cambridge Press.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511520938Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Spillman’s comparative analysis of two “settler countries,” the United States and Australia, examines the nations’ centennial and bicentennial commemorations, positing them as venues for the articulation of national identity. The celebrations draw on symbolic repertoires to make claims about the nation, unite disparate social groups, and express the nation’s vision of itself and in relation to the community of nations.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      • Zubrzycki, Geneviève. 2006. The crosses of Auschwitz: Nationalism and religion in post-Communist Poland. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        An in-depth analysis of the “War of the Crosses” in Poland in 1989, an event that revealed tensions about state authority, sovereignty, religion, and secularism. Polish Catholics raised hundreds of crosses outside a Catholic convent near Auschwitz; the controversy stirred deep debates about Polish national identity and Jewish social memory after the fall of Communism.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        Sporting Events

                                                                                                                                                                        Sporting events are one of the foremost sites for nationalist performance, and there is a wealth of scholarship focused on the relationship between sports and the nation. Allison 2000 looks at the relationship between nations, prestige, status, and global sports competitions. Bairner 2001 focuses on the expression of nationalist sentiments through sporting competitions. Fox 2006 argues that sporting competitions are venues for national commemoration and propaganda, focusing on how audiences consume such nationalist performances. Markovits and Rensmann 2010 examines sports culture as a variable in the construction of national identity, while Wong and Trumper 2002 focuses on soccer and hockey to show how athletes can be national icons and transnational celebrities who simultaneously embody national narratives.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Allison, Lincoln. 2000. Sport and nationalism. In Handbook of sports studies. Edited by Jay Coakley and Eric Dunning, 344–355. London: SAGE.

                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Allison claims that sports competitions symbolically represent contests among nations for prestige and status (e.g., the Olympics); notes the complexities of creating “national teams” for multinational states, such as Yugoslavia. Global sports and their attendant international institutions mediate social and political tensions. Part 4 of the volume offers summaries of sports and nationalism in regions such as eastern Europe and Latin America.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • Bairner, Alan. 2001. Sport, nationalism, and globalization: European and North American perspectives. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Bairner looks at “sporting nationalism” in the United Kingdom, in North America, and in Sweden, exploring the nexus between sports competitions and the expression of nationalist sentiments. Sports operate as venues for mediating and working through the nation-state’s domestic tensions and foreign relations. Argues that globalization is a significant force but has not diminished the nation-state’s importance.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Fox, J. E. 2006. Consuming the nation: Holidays, sports, and the production of collective belonging. Ethnic and Racial Studies 29.2: 217–236.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/01419870500465207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Fox’s article examines national belonging through an analysis of how Romanian and Hungarian students engage or avoid holiday celebrations or sports competitions, activities that serve as venues for national commemoration and propaganda. Fox aims to talk less about the production of these activities and more about how audiences actually consume them in the context of nationalist politics in eastern Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Markovits, Andrei, and Lars Rensmann. 2010. Gaming the world: How sports are reshaping global politics and culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                The authors argue that sports culture operates as a meaningful variable in the construction of local and national identity but postindustrial forces also induce “cosmopolitan cultural change,” making room for outsiders to become integrated via participation in sports. They explore transatlantic links between European soccer and the “big four” sports of the United States (basketball, baseball, hockey, and American football).

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Wong, Lloyd, and Ricardo Trumper. 2002. Global celebrity athletes and nationalism: Fútbol, hockey, and the representation of nation. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 26.2: 168–194.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0193723502262004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors study the Chilean soccer star Ivan Zamorano and the Canadian hockey player Wayne Gretzky to illustrate their status as both national icons and transnational celebrities. Globally recognized athletes embody national narratives while operating as transnational elite citizens, pointing to the deterritorialization of the nation and signifying the strength or status of their home nations.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  Transnationalism, Migration, and Globalization

                                                                                                                                                                                  Globalization and transnational processes such as the European Union have led scholars to focus on the relationships among immigration, migration, and diaspora communities as they relate to nationalism and national identity. Zolberg 2006 examines the role of immigration policies in nation building, focusing on the United States since the colonial era. Foner 2005 traces immigration in different regions and time periods, Khagram and Levitt 2008 focuses on transnationalism, and Levitt and Waters 2006 looks at how identities and social life transcend national borders as well as what happens to transnational practices across generations within immigrant families. Smith 2006 looks specifically at the transnational lives of Mexican migrants and their families in New York City, while Soysal 2003 examines the ways Turks in Europe are perpetually “Others” within host nations. Through a focus on West Indian immigrants, Waters 2001 explores how race, ethnicity, and immigration status intersect. A subset of scholars has focused in particular on immigrant assimilation patterns, examining whether youth assimilate in a “straight” path of upward mobility or in ways that reveal “segmented assimilation” (Portes and Zhou 1993).

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Foner, Nancy. 2005. In a new land: A comparative view of immigration. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Uses a comparative approach to describe immigration in different regions, immigrants from different countries, and migration patterns in different historical periods. Part 1 looks at New York City through the lenses of blacks and immigrants across two time periods; Part 2 focuses on Jamaican women; Part 3 looks at New York City as an immigrant city.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Khagram, Sanjeev, and Peggy Levitt, eds. 2008. The transnational studies reader: Intersections and innovations. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Transnational studies (TS) examine how social life and movement transcend national borders. The comprehensive volume sets the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and philosophical foundations of TS, which provide new avenues for thinking about identity, citizenship, and social configurations across nations. Contributions examine migration, labor, feminism, cosmopolitanism, religion, world culture, epistemic communities, and terrorist networks.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Levitt, Peggy, and Mary C. Waters, eds. 2006. The changing face of home: The transnational lives of the second generation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Part 1 examines transnational practices and the extent to which second-generation individuals identify with an ancestral homeland; Part 3 uses a transnational lens to examine second-generation experiences, such as how individuals negotiate different value systems emerging from their home and host countries. Responds to debates about immigrants’ assimilation in new nations and their attachments to home nations.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Portes, Alejandro, and Min Zhou. 1993. The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530.1: 74–96.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0002716293530001006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Advocates theory of segmented assimilation, arguing that immigrant youths’ academic adaptation is affected by the peer groups they are integrated into. While some youth experience upward mobility, others are at risk for “downward assimilation,” following a downward trajectory into the underclass.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Smith, Robert C. 2006. Mexican New York: Transnational lives of new immigrants. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Smith draws on fifteen years of ethnographic data to describe the transnational lives of Mexican migrants and their children in New York City. Chapters focus on the development of political communities by first-generation immigrants, how the second generation assimilates to the host culture but maintains identification with the home country, and gender in the context of transnational experiences.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Soysal, Levent. 2003. Labor to culture: Writing Turkish migration to Europe. South Atlantic Quarterly 102.2–3: 491–508.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1215/00382876-102-2-3-491Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Soysal’s analysis suggests that in Europe the idea of the “foreigner” becomes collapsed with that of “the Turk.” Turkish immigrants to Europe have liminal experiences as guests who cannot belong or assimilate to their host nations. The migrant is thus tied to and distant from the nation of origin, perpetually “Other.”

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo, and Mariela M. Paez, eds. 2002. Latinos remaking America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                An extensive anthology of scholarship around Latino populations in the United States, drawing on both social science and humanities approaches to Latino studies. Contributions explore immigrant experiences, US–Latin American relations, and the racialization of Latinos in the United States.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Waters, Mary C. 2001. Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explores the link between race, ethnicity, and immigration status. Waters argues that Caribbean immigrants to the United States contend with being labeled as “black,” a racial category that can limit their mobility. West Indian immigrants bring with them different histories and understandings of “blackness” due to unique colonial histories.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Zolberg, Aristide R. 2006. A nation by design: Immigration policy in the fashioning of America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Comprehensive account of immigration history in the United States since the colonial era, pointing to immigration policies as a function of nation building and state formation. American expansion relied on the work of immigrants allowed entry. Looks at early American writers, such as Benjamin Franklin and Alexis de Tocqueville. It ends with debates about Mexican immigration in the late 20th century.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Down