Sociology Military Sociology
by
Morten G. Ender
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 February 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0079

Introduction

Military sociology is a subfield of sociology. Military sociology is similar to medical sociology and other institutional studies such as the sociologies of education, family, sport, and religion, taking organization matters as the main focus and studying them systemically. Military sociology as a substantive field within sociology transcends the institutional and examines a broad range of social activities. Military sociology is sociological in the sense of capturing the breadth and depth of the field of sociology to include social psychology and small groups to management and leadership to societies and cultures. One perspective is within the organization and culture of the military. Another perspective looks outward at the intersection of the military and the larger society. Analyses within military sociology include the micro, mezzo, and macro levels. Military sociology is military in the sense that it captures the full range of human armed services activities from the management of violence and peacekeeping to soldier and civilian attitudes about defense matters. Military sociology can be traced to studies in the United States during and immediately after World War II (WWII). The field matured during the early 1960s at the University of Michigan and the University of Chicago, and by the 1980s graduate programs in the United States including those at the University of Maryland, Northwestern University, and Texas A&M University regularly began producing MAs and PhDs in military sociology. Military sociology is an international discipline, with military sociologists around the world, including in western and eastern Europe, Latin and Central America, Australia, India, Japan, Russia, and Canada. Since the end of the 20th century, generalist sociologists have been noted for researching military matters, as have been specialized sociologists such as marriage and family specialists, cultural sociologists, demographers, and theorists among others. Military sociology is interdisciplinary as well, with sociologists working closely with sister disciplines in military psychology and military anthropology in addition to political science and history.

General Overviews

Military sociologists have long attempted to synthesize and unify the field. Kurt Lang provided some baseline reviews—first in Lang 1965, a brief journal article, and later in a lengthier book, Lang 1972. Some disciplinary legitimacy was later garnered by Moskos 1976, an Annual Review of Sociology (ARS) selection highlighting some of the main substantive focuses of our field. Segal and Segal 1983 is another ARS article, anchoring military sociology in classical Weberian rationality. Specific ARS topics include life course research and the military, in MacLean and Elder 2007, and an examination of research on race relations within the military, in Burk and Espinoza 2012. Kestnbaum 2009 is an ARS article expanding the substantive field of the sociology of war and the military. For post–World War II (WWII) America military sociology, few exceed the exhaustive review provided by Boëne 2000 in terms of richness and thoroughness. Finally, Caplow and Hicks 2002 provokes sociologists to consider how war, peace, and the military can be linked to a whole host of areas in social life.

  • Boëne, Benard. 2000. Social science research, war and the military in the United States: An outsider’s view of the field’s dominant national tradition. In Military sociology: The richness of the discipline. Edited by Gerhard Kümmel and Andreas D. Prüfert, 149–254. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

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    A comprehensive review of US military sociology pre-9/11. Included are 1,000 in-text references referencing 4,228 publications between 1892 and 1992. Topics include theories of war, contributions of sociology to the WWII effort, war as a social institution, revolution and terrorism, key military sociologists and affiliations, and the study of war.

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    • Burk, James, and Evelyn Espinoza. 2012. Race relations within the US military. Annual Review of Sociology 38:2.1–2.22.

      DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145501Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Reviews race-relations research within the military and reveals some ongoing racial disparities. The authors review the literature in five areas: racial patterns in enlistment, officer promotion rates, administration of military justice, risk of death in combat, and health care for wounded soldiers. The authors conclude that racism exists more than less in terms of bias and institutional mechanisms. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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      • Caplow, Theodore, and Louis Hicks. 2002. Systems of war and peace. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.

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        An approachable book that covers a breadth of topics associated with war, peace, social conflict, and the military institution. Included are peace and war as social institutions, military organization, culture, technology, and war’s associated effects on a bevy of social areas, among them the family, science, leisure, education, and religion.

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        • Kestnbaum, Meyer. 2009. The sociology of war and the military. Annual Review of Sociology 35:235–254.

          DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-120004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Reviews scholarship on waging war at the intersection of state, armed forces, and society concentrating on reviews of literature associated with sociology and the military. Topics include mobilization, enemies, signification, the state, memory, the militarized self-armed, and civilians and citizenship. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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          • Lang, Kurt. 1965. Military sociology. Current Sociology 13.1: 1–26.

            DOI: 10.1177/001139216501300101Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            An overview of military sociology dating to works of Herbert Spencer in the 19th century and William Graham Sumner to the 1960s. It annotates the military sociology literature sociology around four areas: (1) military organization, (2) the military system, (3) civil-military relations, and (4) the sociology of war. Sample topics include stratification, attitudes, and national loyalty. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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            • Lang, Kurt. 1972. Military institutions and the sociology of war: A review of the literature with annotated bibliography. Beverly Hills, CA, and London: SAGE.

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              Reviews five substantive areas: (1) the profession of arms, (2) military organization, (3) the military system, (4) civil-military relations, and (5) war and warfare. The second half includes 1,325 sources with brief but useful descriptions. The author includes journal special issues as well. Useful author and subject indexes are included.

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              • MacLean, Alair, and Glen H. Elder. 2007. Military service in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology 33:175–196.

                DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131710Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Reviews the more recent literature intersecting veterans and their life courses from WWII to the present. Areas of focus include four: criminal careers, marital status, health, and socioeconomic status. A major conclusion from the review is that veterans with combat exposure suffer more than noncombat veterans and nonveterans more generally. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                • Moskos, Charles C., Jr. 1976. The military. Annual Review of Sociology 2:55–77.

                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.02.080176.000415Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Reviews extant literature at the intersection of armed forces and society from the standpoint of types of soldiers: the power elite, the professional, the common, the third-world, and the citizen. Reviews themes of professionalism, peacekeeping, military enlisted military culture, combat, race relations, military socialization, selective service, the all-volunteer force, veterans, and Third World soldiers. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                  • Segal, David R., and Mady Wechsler Segal. 1983. Change in military organization. Annual Review of Sociology 9:151–170.

                    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.09.080183.001055Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Anchors military sociology in the tradition of Weberian rationalization. Compares individual and collectivist approaches to military orientation. Sample topics include the roots of military history and military sociology, including affectivity, solidarity, symbols, econometrics, willingness to fight, military unionism, military professionalism, leadership, management, the utilization of women, military families, communities, and scientific research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                    Foundational Works

                    Founding fathers of sociology granted the military a proper place in society and in their writings. In Comte 1976, Frenchman August Comte tracks the change in the military and war across human history. In Spencer 2002, Englishman Herbert Spencer presents an evolution of social institutions and treats the military and war under the rubric of political institutions. Mosca 1965 focuses significantly on the military and officers in society. Finally, and arguably the most classic work referencing the military, is by German sociologist Max Weber, especially his study of bureaucracy and rationalization in Weber 1947.

                    • Comte, Auguste. 1976. System of positive philosophy. 4 vols. New York: Burt Franklin.

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                      Known as the father of sociology—essentially coining the term—Comte published a number of volumes outlining his positivist philosophy and anchoring sociology among the sciences. He addresses change in warfare among and between societies and within the military, including the topic of conscription.

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                      • Mosca, Gaetano. 1965. The ruling class. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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                        Mosca examines the role of the military in societies and sees it as a significant feature, devoting an entire chapter to “Standing Armies.” Some argue that this volume is a kind of precursor to Mills’ The power elite (Mills 1956, cited under Theoretical and Conceptual Developments). Indeed, Mills references Mosca’s discussion of officers and civilian control of the military.

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                        • Spencer, Herbert. 2002. The principles of sociology. 3 vols. New York: Transaction.

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                          In this theoretical and empirical set of three volumes, Spencer outlines social facts and sociological variables via classifying different types of societies. In his examination of British society, he provides a treatment of the military and weapons. Originally published 1874–1896.

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                          • Weber, Max. 1947. The theory of social and economic organization. Translated by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

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                            In this work, Weber treats the military as a central component in the modern organization of the bureaucratic state. Aspects of the military examined include recruitment, change, organization, technology, officers, authority, duty ethic, leadership, and training.

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                            Classic Works

                            American and European contemporary classics in military sociology trace back to World War II (WWII) and in situ qualitative studies. Pipping 2008 is one of the earliest studies. A Finnish sociologist, Knut Pipping served as a noncommissioned officer in a Finnish machine gun unit during World War II. He used the opportunity to conduct an indigenous ethnography and in 1947 assembled the work into his doctoral dissertation. Shils and Janowitz 1948 likewise used the authors’ position as intelligence officers to gather information about German prisoners of war (POWs), publishing their “findings” (the production of which violated international human research conventions) in the journal Public Opinion Quarterly. Two of four seminal books in military sociology published as Studies in Social Psychology in World War II, known popularly as the American Soldier series, are Stouffer, et al. 1949a and Stouffer, et al. 1949b. The multimethod works are tremendous, comprehensive, seminal, and significant for their coverage of military life, combat, and the aftermath of combat. Military sociologists owe a huge debt to Goffman 1960 for its conception of total institutions. Janowitz 1960 is a seminal sociological study of the US military officer, and Moskos 1970 did the same for the American enlisted man. Coates and Pellegrin 1965 puts military sociology on the proverbial teaching map as the discipline’s first textbook. Segal and Burk 2012 is a four-volume set of classics in military sociology.

                            • Coates, Charles H., and Ronald J. Pellegrin. 1965. Military sociology: A study of American military institutions and military life. University Park, MD: Social Science Press.

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                              This textbook provides a mid-20th-century baseline of military sociological knowledge. Topics include an introduction to American military sociology, the role of the American military institution, military institutions and the American public, and sociological topics related to the military, such as bureaucracy, professionalism, minority groups, stratification, and military life among others.

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                              • Goffman, Erving. 1960. Asylums. New York: Anchor.

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                                In this important work, Goffman examines total institutions. Specifically, he lays out the characteristics of total institutions, including among them the military and specifically military basic training. After defining the five types of total institutions, which include military organization, he examines the resocialization of the inmate world, the staff world, and institutional ceremonies. The second half of the book is a participant observational study of patients in a mental hospital.

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                                • Janowitz, Morris. 1960. The professional soldier: A social and political portrait. Chicago: Free Press.

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                                  Here, Janowitz provides the ultimate how-to book for success in the American officer corps. A monumental work, the book examines the professionalization of the American military officer corps. Janowitz examines the military organization, careerism, the military community, identity and ideology including military conservatism, political behavior, and the role of civilians, concluding with the constabulary concept.

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                                  • Moskos, Charles C., Jr. 1970. American enlisted man. Hartford, CT: Russell Sage Foundation.

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                                    The enlisted man’s equivalent of Janowitz 1960. Moskos observes American troops around the world and notably Vietnam during the war. He writes of American public perceptions of soldiers from media portrayals, military organization, enlisted culture, service overseas, race relations, soldier behavior in Vietnam, and the military establishment, concluding with a personal statement on the war.

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                                    • Pipping, Knut. 2008. Infantry company as a society. Translated by Petri Kakäle. Helsinki: Department of Behavioural Sciences, National Defence Univ.

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                                      This is an indigenous ethnography of the author’s own military company during WWII. Published as a dissertation, it is in situ study of a small military unit. Features include a social history of the company, WWII experiences, social groups, informal and formal norms and attitudes, and fighting in Lapland.

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                                      • Segal, David, and James Burk. 2012. Military sociology. 4 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

                                        DOI: 10.4135/9781446262559Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        In this four-volume set of 72 reprints, mostly articles and book chapters, the authors select seemingly classic works in a survey of military sociology and build around four major themes: (1) military organization, (2) civil-military relations, (3) the experience of war, and (4) the use and control of force.

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                                        • Shils, Edward, and Morris Janowitz. 1948. Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht of World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly 12.2: 280–315.

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                                          In this lengthy selection, the authors present “data” garnered from the denazification of German prisoners of war (POWs) during World War II. The authors found that one’s connection to the primary group to be the best predictor of fighting on or surrendering. The authors present the social structure of the German Army, the meaning of cultural artifacts and symbols, and Nazi ideology of the time. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                          • Stouffer, Samuel A., Edward A. Lumsdaine, Marion Harper Lumsdaine, et al. 1949a. The American solder. Vol. 2, Combat and its aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                            The authors address a range of social psychological topics including precombat attitudes toward combat and combat behavior, a dense description of ground combat in WWII, the motivations of ground combat soldiers, fear and social control in combat, individual troop replacements, attitudes toward the rear echelons and the home front, morale, psychological problems, redeployment, discharge, postcombat adjustment, and veteran status.

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                                            • Stouffer, Samuel A., Edward A. Suchman, Leland C. DeVinney, Shirley A. Star, and Robin M. Williams Jr., 1949b. The American soldier. Vol. 1, Adjustment during Army life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                              The researchers report on comparisons between the US Army as it was before and during WWII, the varied adjustments of military personnel to Army life generally and by specific social characteristics and experiences in the Army, social mobility in the Army, and job assignment and satisfaction in the Army. Notable chapters include one on social control mechanisms and an excellent chapter titled “Negro Soldiers.”

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                                              Cross-National Studies

                                              A number of volumes in military sociology bridge nations. The works are sometimes thematically based cross-national comparisons. Others simply involve scholars from around the world contributing contemporary thinking on a topic at a particular time. A few studies are noted under Theoretical and Conceptual Developments. These include Moskos and Wood 1988, which deals with the institutional-versus-occupational (I/O) thesis mostly across European nations; Moskos, et al. 2000, which examines a new stage in civilian and military relations cross-nationally following the end of the Cold War; and Soeters and van der Meulen 1999, which compares Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Israel, and South Africa. Ouellet 2005 (cited under Military Life) is an edited volume with cross-national contributions. Three other thematic books include Caforio 2001, Moskos 1988, and Kümmel and Prüfert 2000. Two notable books published in 2009 honor the deaths of significant military sociologists. Kümmel, et al. 2009 is an international volume in honor of the late Jürgen Kuhlmann, and Caforio 2009a and Caforio 2009b are a similar two-volume set with international orientations honoring the late Charles Moskos.

                                              • Caforio, Giuseppe, ed. 2001. The flexible officer: Professional education and military operations other than war, a cross-national analysis. Rome: Artistic Publishing.

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                                                In this edited work, contributors share their findings based on a similar research instrument examining nontraditional military operations. The authors evaluate officer educational types and postgraduation military training against military experience in military operations other than war (MOOTW). The countries studied include Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States.

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                                                • Caforio, Giuseppe, ed. 2009a. Advances in military sociology: Essays in honour of Charles C. Moskos, part A. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

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                                                  The volume begins with an introductory chapter tribute to Charles Moskos, and another on the growing interdependency of soldiers and scholars. Chapters classified in topics: building and sustaining peace; international military cooperation and peacekeeping operations; and social, professional, and political aspects of asymmetric warfare. Contributor countries include Switzerland, Korea, Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, and Austria, among others.

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                                                  • Caforio, Giuseppe, ed. 2009b. Advances in military sociology: Essays in honour of Charles C. Moskos, part B. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

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                                                    A continuation of Caforio 2009a, with chapters classified in topics: conscription, diversity, professionalism, public opinion, women, gender integration, military families, and the military in Asia. Contributor countries include Slovenia, Finland, Greece, Germany, Sudan, Philippines, Taiwan, Pakistan, India, and Turkey, among others.

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                                                    • Kümmel, Gerhard, Giuseppe Caforio, and Christopher Dandeker, eds. 2009. Armed forces, soldiers, and civil-military relations: Essays in honor of Jürgen Kuhlmann. Wiesbaden, Germany: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

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                                                      Focuses around two themes: soldiers and civil-military relations, this volume includes sixteen contributions in addition to the eulogy and forward from the editors. Cross-national contributions include ones on British Army culture, the Argentinean Army, the military in Slovenia, Spanish defense policy, and Danish civil-military relations among others.

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                                                      • Kümmel, Gerhard, and Andreas Prüfert, eds. 2000. Military sociology: The richness of a discipline. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

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                                                        The editors have assembled authors who can articulate the tradition of military sociology in selected countries. These countries include the United States, Belgium, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Additionally, the volume includes chapters on international politics, culture, morals, race, class, and gender among other topics.

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                                                        • Moskos, Charles C. 1988. A call to civic service: National service for country and community. New York: Free Press.

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                                                          Moskos calls for a return to a form of national service that would reconnect public benefits with civic obligations. While focused primarily on the United States, the book has a section comparing national service in Britain, Germany, and Canada.

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                                                          Associations

                                                          A military sociologist in the United States could easily attend meetings with professional colleagues and belong to both the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society (IUS) and the Peace, War, and Social Conflict (PW&SC) section of the American Sociological Association. She could also find time to exchange ideas with colleagues in Europe as a member of the European Research Group on Military and Society (ERGOMAS) and expand her network globally with Research Committee on Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution (RC01), affiliated with the International Sociological Association.

                                                          Primary Journals

                                                          Two scholarly, peer-reviewed journals serve as the primary outlets for military sociologists: Armed Forces & Society and Political and Military Sociology: An Annual Review. First appearing in 2010, Res Militaris has found a niche among European military sociologists.

                                                          • Armed Forces & Society. 1974–.

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                                                            The official journal of Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society. AFS is a top-tier, scholarly, peer-reviewed, international, and interdisciplinary journal that publishes on the military establishment, civil-military relations, armed conflict and violence, and peacekeeping, among a range of other topics. The first issue appeared in 1974.

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                                                            • Political and Military Sociology: An Annual Review. 1973–.

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                                                              Political and Military Sociology is a reorganized and relaunched version of the Journal of Political and Military Sociology, a peer-reviewed and scholarly journal that had appeared semiannually, beginning in 1973. The relaunched journal is an annual publication of articles and book reviews.

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                                                              • Res Militaris. 2010–.

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                                                                The newest journal serving as an outlet for military sociology, Res Militaris is a bilingual online-only social science journal that publishes articles about military and security matters broadly defined. The first issue appeared in 2010.

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                                                                Secondary Journals

                                                                There are also secondary journals that serve as scholarly outlets for military sociologists. The American Journal of Sociology and Social Science Quarterly have been such journals. Likewise, military sociologists publish in sister discipline journals of military history such as Minerva Journal of Women and War, Military Psychology, and War & Society. Military sociologists also publish in in-house military journals such as Military Review and Parameters. Finally, some military sociologists are oriented toward studying peace and have published in the Journal of Peace Research. More recent journals have also emerged, filling a scholarly niche in the post-9/11 era, including Critical Military Studies and Military Behavioral Health.

                                                                Theoretical and Conceptual Developments

                                                                Military sociology has been criticized for being fairly atheoretical, as discussed in Siebold 2001. However, military sociologists have made significant contributions to the civil-military debate to include the early work Mills 1956 and the more recent work Schiff 1995. Cockerham 2003 has placed some military sociology squarely under the rubric of one of the three faces of social psychology—symbolic interactionism. Further, Moskos and Wood 1988 set the course for research in the early 1980s with Moskos’ institutional/occupational model (I/O model) first developed by Moskos in 1977 (see Moskos 1977). The work at the macro level in Burk 2002 is among the top five cited works in Armed Forces & Society. More recently, the postmodern turn has occupied military sociological thinking as seen in Booth, et al. 2001 and Moskos, et al. 2000. Soeters and van der Meulen 1999 and McDonald and Parks 2012 have substantially broadened the field in the area of diversity and inclusion.

                                                                • Booth, Bradford, Meyer Kestnbaum, and David R. Segal. 2001. Are post-Cold War militaries postmodern? Armed Forces & Society 27.3: 319–342.

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                                                                  Compares the post–Cold War versus postmodern eras and reviews modernity, postmodernism, postmodernity, postindustrialism, post-Fordism, and globalization. Authors put forth alternative conceptions of a postmodern military. They conclude that the jury remains out as to whether Western militaries are postmodern or not and hold that such militaries are marginalized at best. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                  • Burk, James. 2002. Theories of democratic civil-military relations. Armed Forces & Society 29.1: 7–29.

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                                                                    Another highly cited article in Armed Forces & Society, this article builds on the work of Samuel Huntington and Morris Janowitz, and uses early-21st-century research to post new questions to consider when examining the relationship between military and political elites. Burk concludes that a federalist model works best for considering civil-military relations.

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                                                                    • Cockerham, William C. 2003. The military institution. In The handbook of symbolic interaction. Edited by Larry T. Reynolds and Nancy J. Herman-Kinney, 491–510. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

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                                                                      Links the military institution with symbolic interactionism. The author highlights the difficulty of studying the military organization and reviews the military sociological literature relative to war and society, military organization, the primary group, and the generalized other. Other topics include socialization, group interaction, and conceptions of self.

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                                                                      • McDonald, Daniel P., and Kizzy M. Parks, eds. 2012. Managing diversity in the military: The value of inclusion in a culture of uniformity. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                        In this edited volume, featuring 14 chapters, the editors have organized the selections around two major sections. The first section is foundations of diversity, relative to policy and strategy; and the second is special topics dealing with diversity and inclusion. The latter includes chapters on religion, (dis)ability, and culture, among others.

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                                                                        • Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The power elite. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                          In this classic sociological writing, Mills argues that American society is organized around the nation’s powerful. The principal components include the corporate, military, and political spheres comprised of elites.

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                                                                          • Moskos, Charles C. 1977. From institutional to occupation: Trends in military organization. Armed Forces & Society 4.1: 41–50.

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                                                                            In one of the most cited articles in Armed Forces & Society, Moskos lays out the institutional/occupation (I/O) thesis that presents each as a bipolar model. On one extreme is institutional, where norms and values are anchored in the intangible of service. At the other is occupational that involves self-interest and tangible motivations.

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                                                                            • Moskos, Charles C., John Allen Williams, and David R. Segal, eds. 2000. The postmodern military: Armed forces after the Cold War. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                              Uses armed forces variables such as force structure, public attitudes, women’s role, and conscientious objection among others examining three eras—modern, late modern, and postmodern—for the US military. Contributors apply the model to Italy, France, and South Africa among eight other countries.

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                                                                              • Moskos, Charles C., and Frank R. Wood, eds. 1988. The military: More than just a job? Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey’s.

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                                                                                Contributors examine the military in terms of the institutional-versus-occupational (I/O) thesis applying to social issues including the US Air Force officer corps, military families, sex roles, value formations, and race relations. Additional chapters offer comparative perspectives for different countries including France, Israel, and Greece among others.

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                                                                                • Schiff, Rebecca. 1995. Civil-military relations reconsidered: A theory of concordance. Armed Forces & Society 22.1: 7–24.

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                                                                                  Provides an interdisciplinary theoretical approach to civil-military relations. Schiff holds that three partners—the military, the political elites, and the citizenry of a nation—should work closely around four areas: social composition of the officer corps, the political decision-making process, recruitment method, and military style. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                  • Siebold, Guy. 2001. Core issues and theory in military sociology. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 29.1: 140–159.

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                                                                                    Calls for theory in military sociology and highlights the main subfields. Siebold holds that military sociology should be mainstreamed in sociology through theory and method. Argues that preeminent military sociologists reached their zenith, and that there lacks a second generation who have staked out a theoretical core.

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                                                                                    • Soeters, Joseph, and Jan van der Meulen, eds. 1999. Managing diversity in the armed forces: Experiences in nine countries. Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg Univ. Press.

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                                                                                      Examines the topics of diversity with an emphasis on gender and ethnicity across nations: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Israel, and South Africa. Diversity topics include language, religion, and sexual orientation. Comparative conclusion holds that diversity is significant for the military cross-nationally; countries confront diversity at the civil-military intersection.

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                                                                                      Methods

                                                                                      Military sociology is built on the shoulders of the American Soldier series following World War II, by Samuel Stouffer and his associates. Williams 1984 reflects the four decades following the war, on the methodological significance of the previous work in the field, and Ryan 2013 treats us to a history of the scholarly work and workers. More recently, three edited volumes (Carreiras, et al. 2016; Carreiras and Castro 2013; and Soeters, et al. 2014) highlight different tools and experiences in the military field from around the world—addressed in 53 chapters, collectively.

                                                                                      • Carreiras, Helena, and Celso Castro, eds. 2013. Qualitative methods in military studies: Research experiences and challenges. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                        In this edited volume, the editors have collected eleven chapters, not including an introduction and conclusion, from multiple disciplines including sociology and anthropology, and multiple countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and Germany, with a focus on scholarship undertaken in military contexts. This volume asks and answers methodological questions about the use of the qualitative research methodology in military settings.

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                                                                                        • Carreiras, Helena, Celso Castro, and Sabina Fréderic, eds. 2016. Researching the military. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                          In this edited volume, the editors have collected fifteen chapters from multiple disciplines—including sociology and anthropology, with contributions from multiple countries, including Latin America—with a focus on scholarship undertaken in military contexts. The volume transcends mere methods and techniques to discuss the factors that influence data collection in a unique military context as well as collects research experiences: the experiences of researchers and their position with regard to the object of their studies, the institutional context where they work, and the way their research impacts policy.

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                                                                                          • Ryan, Joseph W. 2013. Samuel Stouffer and the GI survey: Sociologists and soldiers during the Second World War. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press.

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                                                                                            Highlights the legacy and significance of Samuel Stouffer and his associates’ work on the American Soldier volumes published after World War II. The book introduces the reader to the scholar Sam Stouffer, the context of which the series arose, the research team and branch from beginning to long-term implications, the structure and major findings of the American Soldier, and how the volumes were received—both praised and criticized by social scientists.

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                                                                                            • Soeters, Joseph, Patricia M. Shields, and Sebastiaan Rietjens, eds. 2014. Routledge handbook of research methods in military studies. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                              This edited volume features twenty-seven chapters from a range of authors dealing with a host of different methods, both qualitative and quantitative, including visual analysis, case studies, and hierarchical data, among others. Further, the volume provides novel chapters for the military sociologist, including gaining access to the field, dangerous military environments, and publishing military-related studies.

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                                                                                              • Williams, Robin M., Jr. 1984. Field observations and surveys in combat zones. Social Psychology Quarterly 47.2: 186–192.

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                                                                                                In this article, Robin Williams, a newly minted PhD at the time and a member of the research team headed by Samuel Stouffer during and immediately after World War II, reflects on the theoretical and methodological significance of the American Soldier during the four decades following its 1940s publication.

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                                                                                                Military Life

                                                                                                Military life is a window opened by military sociologists to the world of military organization and war—often a rare and distinct view. Perhaps no book does this better than Segal 1989, a social history of the US military. Likewise, the work of Morris Janowitz provides insight into and understanding of the military in a democracy, as discussed in Burk 1991. The edited volumes Caforio 2003 and Ouellet 2005 provide glimpses by military sociologists into the most current and cutting-edge thinking about service members and their constituents, the military organization, and war and society.

                                                                                                • Burk, James, ed. 1991. Morris Janowitz: On social organization and social control. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                  A deep and broad picture of the writings of Morris Janowitz. Contributions on professionalism and military elites, military cohesion, citizenship, military stabilization, and patriotism are included, among others.

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                                                                                                  • Caforio, Giuseppe, ed. 2003. Handbook of the sociology of the military. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

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                                                                                                    Chapters by international scholars on topics relevant to military sociologists and other scholars. Broad topics include sociology of the military, cross-national studies, theoretical and methodological orientations, corporate interests and war, civil-military relations, diversity, and recent trends in military organization including restructuring and new missions including flexible forces.

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                                                                                                    • Ouellet, Eric, ed. 2005. New directions in military sociology. Whitby, Canada: de Sitter.

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                                                                                                      By a non-American military sociologist and includes military sociologists from around the world. In this volume, Canadian military sociologist Ouellet collects cutting-edge topics not traditionally covered by students of the military. The authors take account of emotions, realism and reality, spirituality, unions, rituals, embodiment, and social media.

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                                                                                                      • Segal, David R. 1989. Recruiting for Uncle Sam: Citizenship and military manpower policy. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press.

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                                                                                                        Encyclopedic view on military service in the United States anchored in social change and social trends, walking the reader across the American landscape of civil-military relations. Sociological variables covered include the citizen-soldier, military manpower policy, military organization, military service, race and gender issues in the military, and missions.

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                                                                                                        • Wilmoth, Janet M., and Andrew S. London, eds. 2013. Life course perspectives on military service. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                          Fourteen chapters examining the life course and the role that military service plays across it. Featured chapters by prominent scholars, including many sociologists and military sociologists, dealing with a range of topics including adult roles, women, race/ethnicity and immigration, LGBTQ, socioeconomic status, military spouses, family relationships, health, social policy, methodological issues, and future research.

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                                                                                                          Demographics

                                                                                                          Military sociologists are fond of saying that the military is influenced by the host society but does not necessarily reflect it. Demographics gives military sociologists the proverbial quantitative information to prove this statement. Beyond raw data sources, two volumes capture sociodemographics about military populations: Segal and Segal 2004 and the US Government Accountability Office 2005.

                                                                                                          • Segal, David R., and Mady Wechsler Segal. 2004. America’s military population. Population Bulletin 59.4.

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                                                                                                            Figures for US military participation from 1793 to 2002, including geographic distributions across the United States, recruitment, attrition, “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” firings, military fatalities, veterans, race/ethnicity, sex/gender, civilians, occupational areas, religion, and military families, are provided.

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                                                                                                            • US Government Accountability Office. 2005. Military personnel: Reporting additional servicemember demographics could enhance Congressional oversight. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-952.

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                                                                                                              Provides demographics on people in the US military. Comparisons with US civilian workforce, overall military recruitment goals and influences on enlistment, and demographic characteristics of service members serving in 2000, 2002, and 2004 included. Includes sociodemographic characteristics of service member fatalities and wounded during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Also available online.

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                                                                                                              Deviance

                                                                                                              Deviant behavior does occur in the military organization but is difficult to research. Bryant 1979 provided an exceptional baseline study across a number of behaviors. More recently, research examines specific forms of deviance such as alcohol and cigarette use, as seen in Bray, et al. 1995. Teachman, et al. 2014 examines veterans and alcohol use for insights.

                                                                                                              • Bray, Robert M., Larry A. Kroutil, and Mary Ellen Marsden. 1995. Trends in alcohol, illicit drug, and cigarette use among U.S. military personnel: 1980–1992. Armed Forces & Society 21.2: 271–293.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9502100207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Survey data of self-report of licit and illicit drug use in the US military. Presents overall trends in use, use by demographic characteristics, change in the demographics in terms of use, and comparisons to the civilian population. Overall, decline in drug use except for heavy drinking among American soldiers. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                • Bryant, Clifton D. 1979. Khaki-collar crime: Deviant behavior in the military context. New York: Free Press.

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                                                                                                                  The earliest and only study of overall deviance in the US military. Topical themes include military crime and punishment, and intra-, extra-, and interoccupational crimes. Sample chapters include crimes against property and alcohol and narcotic use, crimes against civilians, and crimes against persons and performance.

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                                                                                                                  • Teachman, Jay, Carter Anderson, and Lucky M. Tedrow. 2014. Military service and alcohol use in the United States. Armed Forces & Society 41.3: 460–476.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X14543848Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Examines the relationship between military service and the use of alcohol among men and women. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the study finds the military encourages young men to use alcohol, compared to their civilian peers. This is not the case for women who have served.

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                                                                                                                    Attitudes

                                                                                                                    Attitudinal studies of military populations date back from immediately after WWII in the American Soldier series. Attitudinal studies have focused on service members as seen in Bachman, et al. 2000; civilians as examined by Burris 2008; and undergraduate views of specific wars provided by Rohall, et al. 2006. Others have measured morale and retention issues, including Ender 2009 and Reed and Segal 2000. Still others are studies of deployed or redeployed soldiers and their attitudes toward political and social issues, including Ender 2009 and Segal, et al. 2001. Others measure National Guard and Reserve attitudes, as seen in Segal, et al. 1998 and Segal and Tiggle 1997. Attitudes of civilians are of interest as well, as studied in Gribble, et al. 2015 (British) and in MacLean and Kleykamp 2014 (Americans).

                                                                                                                    • Bachman, Jerald G., Peter Freedman-Doan, David R. Segal, and Patrick M. O’Malley. 2000. Distinctive military attitudes among U.S. enlistees, 1976–1997: Self-selection versus socialization. Armed Forces & Society 26.4: 561–586.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0002600404Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Focus on differences in attitudes between groups: (1) military personnel and their civilian counterparts, (2) change over two decades and trends relative to earlier research, and (3) reflection on self-selection versus socialization. Self-selection and socialization orientations are used to explain the findings. Differences and similarities exist among the young men. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                      • Burris, Val. 2008. From Vietnam to Iraq: Continuity and change in between-group differences in support for military action. Social Problems 55.4: 443–479.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/sp.2008.55.4.443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Compares differences in support for military action across a number of sociodemographic variables including race/ethnicity, sex/gender, educational levels, social class, and age groups. Compares change and continuity in support over the past forty years—Vietnam to Iraq. Some consistent support, some increased support, and some reversed support for military action. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                        • Ender, Morten G. 2009. American soldiers in Iraq: McSoldiers or innovative professionals? New York and London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                          Presents original survey data as well as observations collected from US Army soldiers in Iraq midway through the war. Topics include boredom, diversity, morale, attitudes toward social and foreign policy issues, the McDonaldization of war, female soldiers, communication media, the home front, retention, readiness and reenlistment, and death in the ranks.

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                                                                                                                          • Gribble, Rachael, Simon Wessley, Susan Klein, David A. Alexander, Christopher Dandeker, and Nicola T. Fear. 2015. British public opinion after a decade of war: Attitudes to Iraq and Afghanistan. Politics 35.2: 128–150.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/1467-9256.12073Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Offers attitudinal insights to a national sample (N=3,311) of the British public’s opinions about the purposes and success of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. The authors measure the accuracy of the public’s knowledge about deaths and injuries, and this knowledge correlated with acceptance rates of the missions. Overall, the British public is cynical about the purposes of the wars and is doubtful of the missions’ achievements.

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                                                                                                                            • MacLean, Alair, and Meredith Kleykamp. 2014. Coming home: Attitudes toward U.S. veterans returning from Iraq. Social Problems 61.1: 131–154.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1525/sp.2013.12074Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Authors conduct a secondary data analysis coupled with an experimental design of American public attitudes toward male combat veterans and private contractors, comparing the two groups. Topics examined include stereotypes, support for the troops, stigma, symbolic capital, and social inequality. The findings show service members who were deployed to Iraq are viewed more favorably than both those who did not deploy and private contractors who did deploy.

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                                                                                                                              • Reed, Brian J., and David R. Segal. 2000. The impact of multiple deployments on soldiers’ peacekeeping attitudes, morale, and retention. Armed Forces & Society 27.1: 57–78.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0002700105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Examines multiple and diverse deployments relative to US soldier attitudes toward nontraditional operations such as peacekeeping. Includes soldier morale and reenlistment intentions as well as discussions of the constabulary ethic, and changing military missions during the 1980s and 1990s. Attitudes appear to be unaffected by deployments. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                • Rohall, David E., Morten G. Ender, and Michael D. Matthews. 2006. The effects of military affiliation, sex, and political affiliation toward the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Armed Forces & Society 33.1: 59–77.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0095327X06289817Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Compares attitudes of American college undergraduates toward the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan based on degree of military affiliation: civilians, ROTC cadets, and West Point cadets. All three groups support the wars, with cadets overall reporting the most support. Military affiliation is less predictive than gender and political affiliation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                  • Segal, David R., Peter Freedman-Doan, Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O’Malley. 2001. Attitudes of entry-level enlisted personnel: Pro-military and politically mainstreamed. In Soldiers and civilians: The civil-military gap and American national security. Edited by Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, 163–212. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                    Highlights the Janowitzian-Huntingtonian perspective and discusses representativeness of attitudes toward a range of sociopolitical issues. Areas include political partisanship, conservatism, trust in government, interest in government and current events, intention to vote, political activity, and defense issues.

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                                                                                                                                    • Segal, David R., Brian J. Reed, and David E. Rohall. 1998. Constabulary attitudes of National Guard and regular soldiers in the U.S. Army. Armed Forces & Society 24.4: 535–548.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9802400405Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Compares attitudes among US Army active duty and National Guard soldiers toward peacekeeping missions. Addresses four issues: (1) American soldier comfort with the peacekeeping norms of impartiality and minimal use of force, (2) who should perform peacekeeping, (3) appropriateness for careers, and (4) differences between regular Army soldiers and reservists. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                      • Segal, David R., and Ronald B. Tiggle. 1997. Attitudes of citizen-soldiers toward military missions in the post-Cold War world. Armed Forces & Society 23.3: 373–390.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9702300304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Measures attitudes of enlisted US Army reserve soldier attitudes toward peacekeeping missions. The topics include the use of citizen-soldiers as peacekeepers, attitude dimensions, views toward foreign operations, attitudes toward the peacekeeping role, impartiality, boredom, professional career issues, and peacekeeping personnel. Differences between reservists and active soldiers appear minimal. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                        Cohesion

                                                                                                                                        Cohesion, or the degree of social and interpersonal connection between service members, is important to war fighting. Scholars built on the classic work of Shils and Janowitz from World War II. Savage and Gabriel 1976 and Faris 1977 offer competing perspectives in the wake of the Vietnam War. Military sociologists have continued to study cohesion in great detail. Henderson 1985 provides an early analysis of cohesion outlining major elements of cohesion, anchored in classical military sociology. Siebold 2011 addresses the social and psychological dimensions of cohesion in multiple forms and provides a terrific starting point to review the past literature on cohesion.

                                                                                                                                        • Faris, John H. 1977. An alternative perspective to Savage and Gabriel. Armed Forces & Society 3.3: 457–462.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0095327X7700300306Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Challenges the disintegration perspective put forth by Savage and Gabriel’s study of the US Army in Vietnam. Argues first that primary groups did not cease to exist, and second, that the primary group was isolated from the military and the larger society.

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                                                                                                                                          • Henderson, W. Darryl. 1985. Cohesion: The human element in combat. Washington, DC: National Defense Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                            In this work, the author examines multiple forms of cohesion, comparing leadership, structural, and cultural influences in militaries of the United States, the former Soviet Union, North Vietnam, and Israel. Included are characteristics of cohesion and assessing cohesion in small units. Also available online.

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                                                                                                                                            • Savage, Paul L., and Richard A. Gabriel. 1976. Cohesion and disintegration in the American army: An alternative perspective. Armed Forces & Society 2.3: 340–376.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0095327X7600200302Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              The authors argue the US Army showed signs of cohesion disintegration, including a move toward a more professional officer model, inflation of officer strength, and destruction of primary groups. The authors compare this model to German and French historical examples. Examples of disintegration included desertion, mutiny, fragging, and a drug trade.

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                                                                                                                                              • Siebold, Guy. 2011. Key questions and challenges to the standard model of military group cohesion. Armed Forces & Society 37.3: 448–468.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0095327X11398451Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                The author defines “the standard model” as the primary approach to military group cohesion. The article addresses eight problems connected to the approach and goes in depth about definitions and the relations to the standard model and its relationship to the broader field of cohesion studies. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                Social Class

                                                                                                                                                Where do soldiers come from and where do they go? Military sociologists have toiled with these and other questions. Researchers have asked these questions dating back to the Vietnam draft era in works including Mazur 1995 and Useem 1980. Cooney, et al. 2003 offers insights in the intersection of race, gender, and military service. More recently, Kleykamp 2006 and Kleykamp 2010 ask similar questions for members of the all-volunteer force, especially during a time of war. Booth and Segal 2005 called for better methodological procedures so that datasets can include military subsamples in the research to facilitate comparison to data from civilians. Female employment in and around military bases has been studied as well, as seen in Booth, et al. 2000.

                                                                                                                                                • Booth, Bradford, William W. Falk, David R. Segal, and Mady Wechsler Segal. 2000. The impact of military presence in local labor markets on the employment of women. Gender & Society 14.2: 318–332.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/089124300014002006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  The authors examine the socioeconomic impact of the presence of a military base on women’s labor force participation and earnings. Using 1990 Public Use Microsample (PUMS) data, the results suggest that women are at a detriment when there is a military presence compared to their no-military-presence peers. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Booth, Bradford, and David R. Segal. 2005. Bringing the soldiers back in: Implications of inclusion of military personnel for labor market research on race, class, and gender. Race, Gender & Class 12.1: 34–57.

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                                                                                                                                                    Military personnel are traditionally excluded methodologically from studies examining labor markets. They are considered an “institutionalized population.” Social policies such as the all-volunteer force outpaced research methods. Results show that black and white earning inequality is reduced with military service. It includes gender as a variable in the racial inequality analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Cooney, Richard T., Mady Wechsleter Segal, and David R. Segal. 2003. Racial differences in the impact of military service on the socioeconomic status of women veterans. Armed Forces & Society 30.1: 53–85.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0303000103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Investigates the impact of military service on the socioeconomic status of African American and white veterans in the All-Volunteer Force. Data reveal African American women veterans did not differ from civilian peers. White women veterans did incur a penalty relative to their peers. A discussion of the implications for the findings is offered up.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Kleykamp, Meredith. 2006. College, jobs or the military? Enlistment during a time of war. Social Science Quarterly 87:272–290.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00380.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Why do American youth join the military after high school rather than attending college, the civilian labor force, or some alternative activity? Using 2002 quantitative data from the state of Texas, the author finds race and ethnicity the least explanatory variable in deciding to enlist. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Kleykamp, Meredith. 2010. Where did the soldiers go? The effects of military downsizing on college enrollment and employment. Social Science Research 39.3: 477–490.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.09.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Did the military drawdown in the early 1990s influence employment and college enrollment? Using quantitative data, the author finds that the drawdown had little effect on employment, especially for black men. However, college enrollment among black men increased. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Mazur, Allen. 1995. Was Vietnam a class war? Armed Forces & Society 21.3: 455–459.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9502100308Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Uses data based on Vietnam veterans from the Centers for Disease Control based on exposure to Agent Orange. Findings suggest no overwhelming evidence of a class war during Vietnam in the US Army. One conclusion: the number of elite college veterans is too small to impact the class ratio in military samples. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Useem, Michael. 1980. The educational and military experience of young men during the Vietnam era: Non-linear effects of parental social class. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 8.1: 15–29.

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                                                                                                                                                              This article shows that the failure to consider possible nonlinear effects of parental socioeconomic status on offspring experience is significant. Using quantitative data from a nationally representative longitudinal study during the 1967–1970 period, the author finds that education and military experience interact with parental socioeconomic status in terms of predicting outcomes.

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                                                                                                                                                              Women

                                                                                                                                                              Women have served in the US military dating back to the birth of the nation. However, their role has been fairly marginalized and they have struggled for structural and cultural assimilation. Miller 1997 highlights one of the newest struggles of women in the military beyond sexual harassment, what she labels gender harassment. Friedl 1996 is an excellent resource for finding research on women up through the end of the Cold War. Segal 1995 championed a theoretical model for studying women’s roles in any military. Iskra, et al. 2002 tested the model cross-nationally.

                                                                                                                                                              • Friedl, Vicki L. 1996. Women in the United States military, 1901–1995: A research guide and annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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                                                                                                                                                                Hundreds of references to women in the military published between 1901 and 1995. Topics consist of nurses across wars, different services across war and peacetime including the US Army from 1942 to 1945 and then 1946 through 1995, service academies, family and pregnancy, sexuality, women in combat, and veterans.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Iskra, Darlene, Stephen Trainor, Marcia Leithauser, and Mady Wechsler Segal. 2002. Women’s participation in armed forces cross-nationally: Expanding Segal’s model. Current Sociology 50.5: 771–797.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0011392102050005009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Women in the military cross-nationally in three different countries on different continents: Australia, Mexico, and Zimbabwe are compared. The Segal model encapsulates societal and institution-level variables in the military, in the larger culture, and in the social structure. The model when applied to these three countries remains robust with some caveats. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Miller, Laura L. 1997. Not just weapons for the weak: Gender harassment. Social Psychology Quarterly 60.1: 32–51.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2787010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Miller finds that US Army men utilize strategies found in the resistance literature. Men express their disapproval of women’s participation in the military and the harassment takes a number of forms: resistance to women’s authority, constant scrutiny, gossip and rumors, sabotage, and indirect threats. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Segal, Mady Wechsler. 1995. Women’s military roles cross-nationally: Past, present, and future. Gender and Society 9.6: 757–775.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/089124395009006008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Segal outlines a sociological theory of what affects women’s participation in the armed forces. Features of the theory include national security situations, military technology, military accession policies, demographic patterns, cultural values, and structural patterns that impact whether women’s roles in the military expand or contract. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Race and Ethnicity

                                                                                                                                                                      The US military was the first institution in American society to desegregate. Moreover, racial minorities have served in the US military dating back to the birth of the nation. Moskos and Butler 1996 describes the success of African-Americans serving in the US military and offers applications to other segments of society to improve conditions. Segal, et al. 2007 expands race to include Hispanics at the intersection of gender. Smith 2010 contends that all is not equal regarding race in the military. Moore 1996 examined the experiences of black women, and Moore 2003 of Asian women, in the US military. Burk and Espinoza 2012 provides a comprehensive review of race relations in the military as well as undercover patterns of institutional racism.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Burk, James, and Evelyn Espinoza. 2012. Race relations in the U.S. military. Annual Review of Sociology 38:401–422.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145501Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        This annual selection reviews the literature on race and ethnicity in the US military. The authors conclude that racial disparities continue to exist in the military, despite significant progress in this area. Their conclusion rests on a review of institutional analyses in five arenas to which researchers have paid close attention: racial patterns in enlistment, officer promotion rates, administration of military justice, risk of death in combat, and health care for wounded soldiers. They find evidence of racial bias and institutional racism in three of the five areas: officer promotion rates, administration of military justice, and health care for wounded soldiers.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Moore, Brenda. 1996. To serve my country, to serve my race: The story of the only African American WACs stationed overseas during World War II. New York and London: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Uses a multimethod approach to revisit the changing military structure with emphasis on the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) during World War II (WWII), their initial enlistments, training, time in the United States followed by a fourteen-month deployment to the European theater, life after their military service, and unit cohesion and conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Moore, Brenda. 2003. Serving our country: Japanese women in the military during World War II. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Uses in-depth interviews with a select group of 500 Japanese-American women mostly from Hawaii who joined both the Women’s Army Corps and the Army Medical Corps. They are second-generation Americans—Nisei, children of Japanese American parents who immigrated. Insights to pre-, mid-, and postwar lives are highlighted. Work is anchored in issues of race, ethnicity, and gender.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Moskos, Charles C., and John Sibley Butler. 1996. All that we can be: Black leadership and racial integration the Army way. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The US Army is almost fully integrated—earlier and more than any other social institution in American society. Using primary and secondary data and commentary, chapters include discussions about successes with caveats, the social history of African Americans serving, and African Americans’ service in the early 21st century, dealing with social problems, values, black achievement, and socialization.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Segal, Mady Wechsler, Meridith Hill Thanner, and David R. Segal. 2007. Hispanics and African American men and women in the U.S. military: Trends in representation. Race, Gender & Class 14.3–4: 48–68.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This paper documents African American and Hispanic participation in the All-Volunteer Force (AVF). African Americans made up a larger proportion of the force in the early days of the AVF compared to their representation in civilian society, especially for women. Their numbers have been declining in recent years. Hispanic Americans—both men and women—while increasing representation in the larger society, are underrepresented in the US military.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Smith, Irving, III. 2010. Why black officers still fail. Parameters 40.3: 1–16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Finds that the US Army has made significant progress in terms of promotions to the rank of Colonel (O-6) and command selection; however, black Americans are still promoted at much lower rates than their white peers to the rank of general. Reasons for the inequality are put forth. Remedies are offered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Sexuality

                                                                                                                                                                                  The US military has repealed “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (DADT)—one of the last social institutions in American society to welcome openly gay and lesbian members. Indeed, military sociologist Charles Moskos devised the DADT policy ultimately implemented in 1993 by President Bill Clinton and later repealed by President Barack Obama in 2011. Military sociologists have long studied the integration of gays and lesbians in the military. Prior to DADT in the early 1990s, sociologists came together and informed policymakers on the topic, as discussed in Scott and Stanley 1994. More recently, military sociologists have shown that military members are far more accepting than in previous years, as seen in Moradi and Miller 2010. However, the military is influenced by the larger society but does not necessarily reflect it—those affiliated with the military are less accepting of gays and lesbians than their nonaffiliated peers as reported in Ender, et al. 2011. Similar to gay and lesbian acceptance in the military, sexual harassment had declined somewhat but remains a problem in the military, as discussed in Firestone and Harris 1999. Transgender discrimination emerged as a topic of inquiry in the 2010s with a special section in Armed Forces & Society.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ender, Morten G., David E. Rohall, Andrew J. Brennan, Michael D. Matthews, and Irving Smith III. 2011. Civilian, ROTC, and military academy undergraduate attitudes toward homosexuals in the U.S. military. Armed Forces & Society 38.1: 164–172.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X11410856Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Reports on attitudes toward gays and lesbians in the US military among college undergraduates with some level of military affiliation: American civilian undergraduates, ROTC cadets, and cadets at military academies. A gap exists, but the best predictors for barring homosexuals transcend military affiliation: notably respondent sex and political affiliation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Firestone, Juanita M., and Richard J. Harris. 1999. Changes in patterns of sexual harassment in the U.S. military: A comparison of the 1988 and 1995 DoD surveys. Armed Forces & Society 25.4: 613–632.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9902500405Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Provides analysis of Department of Defense data on sexual harassment over a seven-year period. The overall finding is that sexual harassment declined in the seven-year period. Unfortunately, harassment remained prevalent during the period as well. The findings are anchored in both sociological and individualistic perspectives. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moradi, Bonnie, and Laura Miller. 2010. Attitudes of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans toward gay and lesbian service members. Armed Forces & Society 36.3: 397–419.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0095327X09352960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        US military personnel report less support for the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy. Comfort level with lesbian and gay people is reported as notable correlate of attitudes toward the ban. Other variables include job performance, unit cohesion, readiness, quality of leaders, the quality of equipment, and the quality of training. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Scott, Wilber J., and Sandra Carson Stanley, eds. 1994. Gays and lesbians in the military: Issues, concerns, and contrasts. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The editors include chapters taking positions in the debate on homosexuals serving fully including reviews of social science research; soldier attitudes toward gays and lesbians serving; morality; gender politics; comparisons to other groups seeking full citizenship in the military; cross-national comparisons to Canada, Israel, Britain, and the Netherlands; and policy implications.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Special section: Transgender issues in the military. 2015. Armed Forces & Society 41.2: 199–256.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Three articles dealing with transgender service members are published in a special section of the journal Armed Forces & Society. The first is titled “Medical Aspects of Transgender Service” and is authored by a team headed by former surgeon general of the United States M. Joyclen Elders. The second article is titled “Transgender Military Personnel in the Post-DADT Repeal Era: A Phenomenological Study” and reports on interview data from fourteen transgender US military service members, clandestinely serving. The third article is titled “Gender Identity in the Canadian Forces: A Review of Possible Impacts on Operational Effectiveness” and finds military effectiveness not being harmed by allowing for the open service of transgender military personnel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Age

                                                                                                                                                                                            Military organizations, like most college campuses, are composed disproportionately, relative to the larger society, of young people in their twenties. Few sociological studies address age as a variable in the military. Wong 2000, a novel study of generational cohorts and the clash of value difference, is the early exception. One wonders however, with technology and health advances, whether youth will become increasingly insignificant in the military. Ender, et al. 2014 explicitly examines a post–Generation X generation (the millennials) as the following generation (Generation Z) enters high school.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ender, Morten G., David E. Rohall, and Michael D. Matthews. 2014. The millennial generation and national defense: Attitudes of future military and civilian leaders. Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A systematic comparative analysis of social and political attitudes of three groups of American millennials born between 1980 and 2001 (N=5051): cadets at military academies, cadets in ROTC programs, and civilian college students. Following a description of generations and their characteristics, including millennials, empirical chapters include millennial attitudes toward military service, the armed forces, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and diversity in the military. The authors find that with the exception of select diversity areas, millennials in divergent social settings are more similar in their attitudes than different. The study contributes to the civil-military gap literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wong, Leonard. 2000. Generations apart: Xers and Boomers in the officer corps. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines values and behaviors both of Baby Boomer generation officers born between 1946 and 1964 who hold senior leadership positions in the organization and Generation X members who were born between 1965 and 1982 and are junior officers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Families

                                                                                                                                                                                                The old adage, “if the Army wanted you to have a wife, it would have issued you one,” has long been buried. Today, American soldiers marry earlier, have children earlier, and have more of them than their civilian peers. Indeed, there are twice as many family members in the military community as service members. The new adage, based on research, suggests that we enlist soldiers but we reenlist families. Families are, however, now new to soldiers, and their significance comes to light most during times of war. No study better articulates the stressful relationship and coping strategies of deployed service members to their families than Hill 1949, a classic World War II– (WWII) era study. Hunter 1982 brought together the breadth and depth of social and behavioral science research on military families up through the Vietnam War. In the all-volunteer force era, a great deal of knowledge has accumulated on US Army families, as seen in Booth, et al. 2007. Segal 1986 and Segal 1989 have championed theoretical explanations for understanding military families. Others are expanding Segal’s theories beyond US military families (see Moelker and van der Kloet 2003) and into the wars of the post-9/11 era (see Ender, et al. 2007). Lundquist 2006 and Lundquist 2007 have taken military sociology by storm by comparing the races, marriages, and families between civilians and military members, as does Smith and Segal 2013 by examining dual military career couples. Blaisure, et al. 2012 is a comprehensive textbook about military families for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. Newer works, such as Moelker, et al. 2015, provide cross-national perspectives on military families and war. Segal, et al. 2015 calls for models examining military families across the life course. Scholars in a special issue of the journal The Future of Children focus directly on the experience of military children and adolescents in the context of war deployments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Blaisure, Karen Rose, Tara Saathoff-Wells, Angela Pereira, Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth, and Amy Laura Dombro. 2012. Serving military families in the 21st century. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  This volume brings together traditional and contemporary studies of military families into a textbook format. It covers past and current research, best practices, key terms and chapter summaries, and exercises; gives a voice to military leaders, practitioners, and policymakers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Booth, Bradford, Mady Wechsler Segal, D. Bruce Bell, et al. 2007. What we know about Army families: 2007 update. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Family and Morale, Welfare and Recreation Command.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Authors account for changes in the definition of the family, decreased traditional face-to-face community involvement, and family interactions in a virtual world. They synthesize the literature in US Army families around characteristics of families, deployments, well-being, children, formal and informal support services, and reserve families. Also available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ender, Morten G., Kathleen M. Campbell, Toya J. Davis, and Patrick R. Michaelis. 2007. Greedy media: Army families, embedded reporting, and the war in Iraq. Sociological Focus 40.1: 48–71.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/00380237.2007.10571298Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Live, real-time mass media coverage intercedes and bridges between the war and home. Three forms of television viewing reported: controlled, compulsive, and constrained are highlighted. Social and mass media expand the definition of the military family. Wives, children, and members of the formal family support groups use media with different outcomes. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hill, Reuben. 1949. Families under stress: Adjustment to the crises of war separation and reunion. New York: Harper and Row.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Focuses on the family as a system and in conflict while adjusting to crisis during war. Hill interviews wives and service member husbands including detailed background on families and shared experiences. He examines social and psychological factors associated with coping, family typologies, and recommendations for national and localized policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hunter, Edna J. 1982. Families under the flag: A review of military family literature. New York: Praeger.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chapters are organized based on social demands of military family life including conflict at the work and family intersection, military family roles, resiliency, separation, geographic mobility, the military child, wartime stress, retention, and social supports.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lundquist, Jennifer Hickes. 2006. The black-white gap in marital dissolution among young adults: What can a counterfactual scenario tell us? Social Problems 53.3: 421–441.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/sp.2006.53.3.421Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This article challenges the notion of race-based divorces by controlling for social class. The author uses the military as a counterfactual social class control group. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), Lundquist finds evidence that African American military-enlisted service members have lower divorce rates than their civilian peers and their white military enlistee peers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lundquist, Jennifer Hickes. 2007. A comparison of civilian and enlisted divorce rates during the early all volunteer force era. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 35.2: 199–217.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              This empirical study uses military sample data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The study focuses on military-enlisted service-member divorce rates. The study shows members of the armed forces have higher divorce rates than their comparison peer groups—at least in the early years of the all-volunteer force and among young enlisted service members. Of note, African American service members have lower divorce rates than their white military peers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moelker, Rene, Manon Andres, Gary Bowen, and Philippe Manigart, eds. 2015. Military families and war in the 21st Century: Comparative perspectives. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Multidisciplinary and internationally edited volume with twenty chapters. Three major sections, which include military organizations and families in transition, military families under stress, and national social-psychological family support. With contributions from psychology, sociology, history, anthropology, and others; covering all the services and including a range of countries, among them Turkey, Belgium, and Japan. Chapters range from theoretical to empirical, to reflective, and to narrative. Offers a broad perspective for understanding military families from a sociological perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moelker, René, and Irene van der Kloet. 2003. Military families and the armed forces: A two-sided affair? In Handbook of the sociology of the military. Edited by Giuseppe Caforio, 201–223. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Offer theories of how military families cope with separation. Authors examine cooptation in the United States and the Netherlands, and the authors discuss the greedy organization relative to the military and the family. They review the Double ABC-X Model, emotional stages of a deployment, stress and coping, and social support and marital reconciliation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Segal, Mady Wechsler. 1986. The military and the family as greedy institutions. Armed Forces & Society 13.1: 9–38.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X8601300101Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is the most cited article in the forty-two-year history of the journal Armed Forces & Society. Segal uses the notion of the greedy institution to examine the military and family. She identifies, defines, and provides examples of demands of the military: risk of injury or death, geographic mobility, separations, residence in foreign countries, and normative constraints. Includes adaptation by married, military women; dual-service couples; and sole parents as well as changes in women’s roles. Available. online for purchase or by subscription

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Segal, Mady Wechsler. 1989. The nature of work and family linkages: A theoretical perspective. In The organization family: Work and family in the U.S. military. Edited by Gary L. Bowen and Dennis K. Orthner, 3–36. New York: Praeger.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Segal borrows from models in the work and family literature: compensatory, segmented, and spillover, drawing on the latter to explain the military family. She highlights multiple levels of theoretical analysis including the macro, institutional, organizational, and interpersonal levels. Describes demands of military life for families.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Segal, Mady W., Michelle D. Lane, and Ashley G. Fisher. 2015. Conceptual model of military career and family life course events, intersections, and effects on well-being. Military Behavioral Health 3.2: 95–107.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/21635781.2015.1009212Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The article updates theoretical modeling of military family research with a life course perspective that more broadly examines the impact of military life on service members, their spouses, and their children. The model helps research fourfold: categorizing, synthesizing, and identification of both needs, and positive outcomes. The model embraces a number of key areas in military family research including resilience, deployments, relocation, mental health, finances, spouse employment, policies, programs, and practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, David G., and Mady Wechsler Segal. 2013. On the fast track: Dual military couples navigating institutional structures. Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research 7:213–253.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1108/S1530-3535(2013)0000007011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The authors interview twenty-three dual US Navy officer couples. They found that institutional structures of professional careers, especially those in fast-track careers, require some personal and professional scaling down. Trade offs are found to occur such as time together and their desired number of children. The dual career officers are found comparable to other careers such as lawyers and academics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Special issue: Military children and families. 2013. Future of Children 23.2.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In this special issue, nine interdisciplinary articles are featured, with an introduction and afterword. Children, adolescents, and military families are examined from several angles: demographics; economic conditions; toddlers, childcare, and support programs; resilience; wartime impacts; injured or killed parent; the broader community; and more general insights about military children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Veterans

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            What are the short- and long-term social impacts of having served in the military? A sociology of veterans that begins to answer this and other questions about veteran status has emerged. Comacho and Sutton 2007 examined the sociopolitical activities of Vietnam-era veterans. Teachman and Tedrow 2004 built an extensive literature on the long-term social impact of military service on Second World War (WWII) veterans who benefitted from service, and Teachman 2004 and Teachman 2005 of Vietnam veterans who initially suffered a penalty for service but made it up later in life. Recent studies about veterans associated with Iraq and Afghanistan are burgeoning, as evidenced by Kleykamp and Hipes 2015 and Smith and True 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Comacho, Paul R., and Paul Sutton. 2007. A sociological view of the Vietnam veterans’ lobby. Armed Forces & Society 33.3: 316–336.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0095327X06297242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Highlights pre-Vietnam veterans’ community activities and summarizes the veterans’ movement compared to others. Authors spotlight movement features: Agent Orange and small business opportunities. Finally, the authors speculate about the Vietnam-era veterans’ movement for activism to come with the first Gulf War and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kleykamp, Meredith, and Crosby Hipes. 2015. Coverage of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in the U.S. media. Sociological Forum 30.2: 348–368.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/socf.12166Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The authors conduct a systematic analysis of newspaper articles (N=151) about veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan both in the New York Times and the Washington Post between 2003 and 2011. Major themes include victimization, deservingness, and active social participation and subthemes therein to include interplay between themes. The authors conclude that media depictions of veterans as victims who suffered from their service partly influence the generous benefits made available to them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Smith, R. Tyson, and Gala True. 2014. Warring identities: Conflict and the mental distress of American veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Society and Mental Health 4.2: 147–161.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/2156869313512212Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This paper draws on twenty-six life histories of American veterans. The study focuses on the identities of soldier and civilian. The article contrasts military demands of deindividuation, obedience, chain-of-command, and dissociation with civilian demands of autonomy, self-advocacy, and being relational.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Teachman, Jay. 2004. Military service during the Vietnam era: Were there consequences for subsequent civilian earnings? Social Forces 83.2: 709–730.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1353/sof.2005.0021Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uses longitudinal data from 1966 to 1981 to locate the strength of the relationship between serving in the military and later income earnings. Comparing veterans and nonveterans finds differences based on veteran status; drafted veterans initially earned less income than their peers but recouped the difference by about ten years postservice. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Teachman, Jay. 2005. Military service in the Vietnam era and educational attainment. Sociology of Education 78.1: 50–68.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/003804070507800103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Uses longitudinal data from 1966 to 1981 to locate the strength of the relationship between serving in the military and educational level attainment. Comparing veterans/nonveterans; drafted veterans earned less education than peers but recouped the difference by a few years post-service. Other variables intersect with educational attainment, but race does not. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Teachman, Jay, and Lucky M. Tedrow. 2004. Wages, earnings, and occupational status: Did World War II veterans receive a premium? Social Science Research 33.4: 581–605.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2003.09.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In this selection, the authors use longitudinal data to locate how WWII veterans are advantaged by their veteran status compared to their nonveteran peers. They find advantages linked most to less advantaged veterans with human capital investment and theories of selectivity providing the best explanation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Civil-Military Relations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        What is the relationship between the military and the host society? Is there a significant gap or a fusion between the two? Military sociologists have long examined the relationship between the armed forces and society. Lasswell 1941 argues that during war, a melding between the society and military occurs, where the host society becomes all but enlisted to the war efforts. Burk 2001 examines US society relative to the US military over half a century. Further, Burk 2002 is a contemporary review of theories of civil-military relations—in particular the Samuel Huntington versus Morris Janowitz debate. Other military sociologists around the world have more recently speculated about the intersection of the armed forces and society either empirically or through think pieces (see Kümmel, et al. 2009, cited under Cross-National Studies). Rahbek-Clemmensen, et al. 2012 explores the nuances of civil-military meanings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burk, James. 2001. The military’s presence in American society, 1950–2000. In Soldiers and civilians: The civil-military gap in American national security. Edited by Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, 247–274. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Burk outlines the latter half of the 20th century and shows the inextricable link between American society and the military institution. Despite being a separate institution, the military appears to have adjusted to significant social changes in American society including racial, ethnic, and gender integration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Burk, James. 2002. Theories of democratic civil-military relations. Armed Forces & Society 29.1: 7–29.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0202900102Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Presented are two theories of democracy: liberal theory and civic republican theory, building on the work of Morris Janowitz and Samuel Huntington respectively. Flaws in both relative to civil-military relations are examined, and trends in theory building are presented, including blurring political and military spheres, relevance of the citizen-soldier ideal, and transnational civil-military relations. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lasswell, Harold D. 1941. The garrison state. American Journal of Sociology 46.4: 455–468.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1086/218693Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Elites manage violence by use of symbols to socially control the attitudes, morale, and relations of the public. Power is centralized, incomes are compressed, internal violence is used a source of state power, aerial warfare will rule the day, and production is oriented toward the war efforts but with the compass pointed toward science and technology. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon, Emerald M. Archer, John Barr, Aaron Belkin, Mario Guerrero, Cameron Hall, and Katie E. O. Swain. 2012. Conceptualizing the civil-military gap: A research note. Armed Forces & Society 38.4: 669–678.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0095327X12456509Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In this brief note, the authors lay out four ideal-type dimensions of the civil-military gap. These include cultural, demographic, policy preference, and institutional. The authors discuss mutual exclusivity and divergence of these four themes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Death and Dying

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The risk of injury or death is a major demand of military life. Death in the military has implications for individuals in the organization, the organization, and at the intersection of the larger society and the military. Burk 1999 examines and refutes the “common sense” notion that military casualties lessen support for war among the American public. Further, who serves when not everyone serves? Campbell 2011 assesses equity in military service among social classes and fatalities. Similarly, Gifford 2005 answers whether there is a racial bias among military fatalities once service members are within the organization. The military experience with death helped to build an elaborate system to manage fatalities in the organization (see Ender, et al. 2003). Unfortunately, military casualty human affairs move at a slower pace than the civilian society and conflict occurs, as seen in Ender and Hermsen 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burk, James. 1999. Public support for peacekeeping in Lebanon and Somalia: Assessing the casualties hypothesis. Political Science Quarterly 114.1: 53–79.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2657991Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reviews the literature on the casualty hypothesis, namely, the more casualties incurred in a military deployment, then the less public support to deploy effectively, using American missions in Lebanon and Somalia—two significant peacekeeping missions that incurred numerous and unexpected American casualties. Concludes that there is minimal support for the casualty hypothesis. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Campbell, Alec. 2011. Elites and death in Vietnam and other U.S. wars: A research note. Armed Forces & Society 37.4: 743–752.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X10361673Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Builds on the class bias thesis in military service and links US military service and death among the economically disadvantaged who served during the Vietnam War. Uses war records obtained at elite colleges and compares elite college war participation in the five major wars in American society. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ender, Morten G., Paul T. Bartone, and Thomas A. Kolditz. 2003. The fallen soldier: Death and the U.S. military. In Handbook of death and dying. Vol. 2, The responses to death. Edited by Clifton D. Bryant, 544–555. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Highlights how the US Army responds to death and dying in the military ranks. Sections include the demographics of death in the military; social history of US Army death and other services; military subcultural responses to death including military protocol, rituals, and memorials in Army units; and community responses to death.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ender, Morten G., and Joan M. Hermsen. 1996. Working with the bereaved: U.S. Army experiences with nontraditional families. Death Studies 20.6: 557–575.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/07481189608252762Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors use a postmodern family perspective to explain how families react to the casualty assistance officer assigned to them upon the death of a US Army soldier. Using qualitative data, five themes emerged, including postmodern family arrangements of military families, contested definitions of significant other, language, diversity, and emotions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gifford, Brian. 2005. Combat casualties and race: What can we learn from the 2003–2004 Iraq conflict? Armed Forces & Society 31.2: 201–225.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0503100203Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Provides background on the emerging American service-member casualties from the Iraq War and background on blacks killed during wars. Provides analyses for casualties and types of conflicts, race, military occupational specialty, Hispanics in uniform, and level of combat intensity. Notable conclusions are drawn about race, national defense, and national sacrifice. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Teaching and Learning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          What is the role of sociology and education? Sociologists have not done well in educating undergraduates about war, peace, and the military institution, as discussed in Ender and Gibson 2005. However, sociology does exist at the military academies (see Wattendorf, et al. 1990), but others hold that officers could certainly benefit more from the utility of a sociological imagination in their profession (see Efflandt and Reed 2001). Conner and McDermott 2013 challenges teachers to capitalize on the context of the military teaching environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Conner, James, and Vanessa McDermott. 2013. Service teaching and the sociological critique: Lessons from a military academy. Journal of Sociology 49.4: 501–514.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/1440783313504061Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The article highlights a pedagogical technique to infuse sociological imagination in students at a military academy in Australia. The authors use the Sociology of the College Classroom (SoCC) agenda at the praxis-theory nexus to inform students about sociological concepts by integrating their own military experiences, and the authors describe their Free Passion exercise.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Efflandt, Scott, and Brian Reed. 2001. Developing the warrior-scholar. Military Review (July–August): 82–89.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Calls for increased education in sociology for future US military officers and highlights the utility of sociology as a set of tools to equip the rapidly changing professional military officer being impacted by a changing world. Sociology provides the critical and creative thinking tools for future officers for graduate programs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ender, Morten G., and Ariel Gibson. 2005. Invisible institution: The military, war, and peace in 1990s introductory sociology textbooks. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 33.2: 249–266.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines thirty-one introductory sociology textbooks published prior to 9/11. War, peace, and the military are virtually invisible topics. The four themes in the analysis underscore marginalization of content; lack of continuity across textbooks; prominence of war, peace, and military images; and the civil-military gap.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wattendorf, John, David R. Segal, and Mady Wechsler Segal. 1990. The sociology program in a professional school setting: The United States Military Academy. Teaching Sociology 18.2: 156–163.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/1318485Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors provide a description of the origins of sociology at West Point. Next, they discuss curriculum reform, program growth and the sociology faculty. The article is anchored in a discussion of a professional school with a liberal arts curriculum. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Military Academies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  All major nation-states have military academies of some form to prepare the next generation of military officers. The United States has four federal military academies at the post-secondary, undergraduate school level. One stereotype today grounded perhaps in the social realities of past studies, such as Dornbusch 1955, is that academies are the most total of institutions. More recent studies show them to be fairly open, with sociology playing a vital but sometimes marginalized role, including Ender, et al. 2008 and Segal and Ender 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dornbusch, Sanford M. 1955. The military academy as an assimilating institution. Social Forces 33.4: 316–321.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2573000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Focuses on the US Coast Guard Academy instilling an “outlook” appropriate for the military profession. Covers background on the academy systems, resocialization, adjustment, the development of solidarity and a “bureaucratic spirit,” privilege, social mobility, institutional practices, and “subcultural shock.” He concludes that the US Coast Guard is an extreme assimilating institution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ender, Morten G., Ryan Kelty, and Irving Smith. 2008. Sociology at West Point. Armed Forces & Society 35.1: 49–70.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X08314968Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Describes the social history of the sociology program at West Point, the US military academy in New York, as an officer commissioning source for the Army. Demographics of cadets majoring in sociology, the past and current curriculums benchmarked against like college and universities, cadet research, and sociology faculty are highlighted. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Segal, David R., and Morten G. Ender. 2008. Sociology in military officer education. Armed Forces & Society 35.1: 3–15.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0095327X08321717Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Introductory selection of a special issue in Armed Forces & Society focused on sociology at military academies cross-nationally. Identifies six trends: (1) the stigma of sociology, (2) the cannibalization of sociology courses, (3) co-optation of sociological concepts, (4) charismatic leadership, (5) radical social change, and (6) disciplinary revitalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        War

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Who are the constituents of wars? Sociologists have long examined the human dimension of war dating back to World War II (WWII). In the tradition of the WWII studies, many military sociologists have embedded themselves within military units and serve as (non)participant observers, as seen in Little 1965 in the Korean War and Wattendorf 1992 during the First Persian Gulf War. Sociologists have written textbooks for general trends in and around wars, including Fogarty 2000. Today, sociologists are reporting early and often on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as seen in Carlton-Ford and Ender 2011 and Musheno and Ross 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Carlton-Ford, Steve, and Morten G. Ender, eds. 2011. The Routledge handbook of war and society: Iraq and Afghanistan. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Empirical studies associated with early-21st-century wars including war on the ground in terms of combat and its aftermath including counterinsurgency, noncombat operations and noncombatants including Iraqi adolescents, the social construction of the war on the home front including enemy making, and families and young people including military child well-being.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fogarty, Brian E. 2000. War, peace, and the social order. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A textbook for undergraduate students. Topics include the sociology of war and peace, the social structure of war and peace, social science explanations for war, militarism, the military-industrial complex, methods for avoiding war including arms control and nuclear deterrence, and promoting peace and peacekeeping.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Little, Roger. 1965. Buddy relations and combat performance. In The new military. Edited by Morris Janowitz, 194–224. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Provides background on primary group cohesion and compares the combat in Korea to WWII Europe; studies soldiers from the Republic of Korea that were assigned to American units. Covers norms of the buddy relationship, deviant roles, combat role motivation, combat roles, solidarity, rank, authority, risk, reserve, ritual, effectiveness, and the rotation system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Musheno, Michael, and Susan M. Ross. 2008. Deployed: How reservists bear the burden of Iraq. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Authors conduct interviews with US Army reservists redeployed with a military police company and use the grounded theory approach to identify five pathways to joining the reserves that emerge in the study. Further, three distinct typologies are discovered: adaptive, struggling, and dismissive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wattendorf, John M. 1992. The American soldier in a prewar desert environment: Observations from Desert Shield. Social Science Quarterly 73.2: 276–295.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wattendorf conducts interviews in the prewar desert; focuses on living and working conditions, the legitimacy of war, social and psychological stresses, family communication, public perceptions and support, morale, and elements of boredom including underutilization, cultural deprivation, isolation, and privacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Military Operations Other than War

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The military does more than fight and win a nation’s wars. Increasingly, US and other militaries are serving in a host of missions other than war. Military sociologists such as Burk 1998 have documented how militaries have dealt with diverse missions and how leaders and soldiers view them, as described in Avant and Lebovic 2000 and Miller and Moskos 1995, respectively. Segal and Segal 1993 stresses that one major form of nonwar activity has been peacekeeping. Caforio 2009 captures how more international military scholars from a range of backgrounds, interested in military affairs and war, including military sociologists have written about dealing with current military and other missions around the world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Avant, Deborah, and James Lebovic. 2000. U.S. military attitudes toward post-Cold War missions. Armed Forces & Society 27.1: 37–57.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0002700104Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author studies the US military command and staff officer attitudes toward missions following the end of the Cold War. Change has been from high- to low-intensity conflicts. Focus includes new mission attitudes toward drug interdiction, social factors associated with attitudes, attitudes and perceived threats, civilian demands, and individual and organizational rewards. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Burk, James, ed. 1998. The adaptive military: Armed forces in a turbulent world. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not quite a classic, but this post-Cold War pre-9/11 edited volume provides some smart and insightful chapters written by key military sociologists addressing how the military has adapted to unstable, turbulent, uncertain, and dangerous times. Chapters include topics such as transitional warfare, the postmodern military, peacekeeping, and nonviolence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Caforio, Giuseppe, ed. 2009. Advances in military sociology: Essays in honour of Charles C. Moskos, part A. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Contains introductory chapter tribute to Charles Moskos and another on the growing interdependency of soldiers and scholars. Chapters cover many topics: building and sustaining peace; international military cooperation and peacekeeping operations; and social, professional, and political aspects of asymmetric warfare. Contributor countries include Switzerland, Korea, Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, and Austria among others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miller, Laura L., and Charles Moskos. 1995. Humanitarianism or warriors? Race, gender, and combat status in Operation Restore Hope. Armed Forces & Society 21.4: 615–637.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9502100406Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The authors provide a multimethod approach using US soldiers who participated in Operation Restore Hope: the US deployment to Somalia in December 1992. Three stages of soldier humanitarian experience are put forth: high expectations, disillusionment, and reconsideration. Additionally, the article presents soldiers’ evaluations of the mission. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Segal, David R., and Mady Wechsler Segal, eds. 1993. Peacekeepers and their wives: American participation in the multinational force and observers. Westport, CT, and London: Greenwood.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Military sociologists provide chapters on peacekeeping including the evolution of peacekeeping and the history of peacekeeping. Chapters narrow to include the social construction of peacekeeping and research on the Sinai Multinational Force and observers. Empirical chapters include pre-, mid-, and postdeployment research and chapters on the wives of peacekeepers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mass Media and Social Media

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The role of social media and the mass media have not passed by military and sociology. Schumm, et al. 2004 shows what devices service members use on deployments. Boggs and Pollard 2007 connects film and military representations. Kellner 1992 is critical of the CNN effect on war. Rid 2007 highlights how the press works with the military.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Boggs, Carl, and Tom Pollard. 2007. The Hollywood war machine: U.S. militarism and popular culture. Boulder, CO, and London: Paradigm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the relationship between and intersection of the military: the war machine and film—the movie industry. The book provides a historical legacy of the Vietnam era films made by Hollywood, up through the earliest films of the post-9/11 era. Themes of the era include noble causes, primitive enemies, US triumphs, strong American leadership and organization, supreme military technology, war as noble activity, war as media spectacle, cinematic heroism, and patriotism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kellner, Douglas. 1992. The Persian Gulf tv war. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This groundbreaking and critical book provides a rare challenge to the (dis)information provided by the US military and the broadcast press on the First Gulf War. It combines critical and postmodern theory as well as media criticism, and shows how television served as a conduit of war policy while concomitantly not providing alternative voices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rid, Thomas. 2007. War and media operations: The US military and the press from Vietnam to Iraq. London and New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.4324/9780203964521Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines the relationship between the media as an institution, and the relationship and intersection of the military. The author compares and contrasts media relations from Vietnam to Iraq including Grenada, Panama, the First Gulf War, Somalia, the Balkans, and Afghanistan. The author utilizes military organization behavior and theory to undergird the embedded media program used by the US military when going to war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Schumm, Walter R., D. Bruce Bell, and Morten G. Ender. 2004. Expectations, use, and evaluation of communication media among deployed peacekeepers. Armed Forces & Society 30.4: 649–662.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0403000407Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The authors conduct a survey of active duty and reservist soldiers deployed to the Sinai Desert. Most reported high expectations for using a variety of communication media to contact their families. Telephone was the preferred medium of use once deployed, but other sources were used as well. Married soldiers used mediums more than nonmarried soldiers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Recruitment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Military recruitment and retention are important areas of inquiry for military sociologists. Woodruff, et al. 2006 asks who serves. Rech 2014 is critical of the process as well as shows the alternative to military recruitment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rech, Matthew F. 2014. Recruitment, counter-recruitment, and critical military studies. Global Discourse 4.2–3: 244–262.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/23269995.2014.909243Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explores countermilitary recruitment and protest movements in the United States and the United Kingdom. The article offers first a thoughtful description of and comparison between military sociology from critical military studies to include feminist geopolitics before offering a rich description and set of examples of counterrecruitment and protesting militarism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Woodruff, Todd, Ryan Kelty, and David R. Segal. 2006. Propensity to serve and motivation to enlist among American combat soldiers. Armed Forces & Society 32.3: 353–366.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0095327X05283040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This article tests Moskos’ Institutional/Occupational thesis for propensity and motivation to enlist in the US military. The authors find motivations and propensity to be more complex than the dichotomous model. Soldiers reporting high propensity to enlist before enlistment reported institutional motivations to join, and expectancy of remaining for a career. Enlistment was not correlated with occupational motivations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Civilians

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Civilians in a variety of capacities are participating in military operations and are being examined by military sociologists. Kelty 2008 studies civilians and sailors working on a deployed military ship, while Kelty and Bierman 2013 looks at contractors on the ground in southwest Asia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kelty, Ryan. 2008. The U.S. Navy’s maiden voyage: Effects of integrating sailors and civilian mariners on deployment. Armed Forces & Society 34.4: 536–564.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses broader uses of manpower resources and management thereof. He provides a case study of a US Navy ship and compares job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and retention. Sailors and civilian mariners view sailors as advantaged compared to civilian peers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kelty, Ryan, and Alex Bierman. 2013. Ambivalence on the front lines: Perceptions of contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan. Armed Forces & Society 39.1: 5–27.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0095327X12441322Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors report on the role of contractors in a military war environment. Findings show both military personnel and civilian contractors to be ambivalent about the role of contractors, with some underlying discontent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Military sociologists are increasingly concerned with the role of culture in relation to the military. Dunivin 1994 highlights organization culture, change, and continuity in the military. Hajjar 2010 and Hajjar 2014 consider culture as a tool for improving military organization and the military mission. Segal 2001 highlights the emergence of culture, and Winslow 2004 stresses the downside of fixed culture in a military at the intersection of other cultures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dunivin, Karen O. 1994. Military culture: Change and continuity. Armed Forces & Society 20.4: 531–547.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9402000403Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of the most cited articles in the history of Armed Forces & Society. The author used three interrelated concepts: ideal type, model, and paradigm. The concepts are used to examine military culture as it undergoes change from a masculine warrior to a more diverse culture, more reflective of American society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hajjar, Remi M. 2010. A new angle on the U.S. military’s emphasis on developing cross-cultural competence: Connecting in-ranks’ cultural diversity to cross-cultural competence. Armed Forces & Society 36.2: 247–263.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0095327X09339898Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hajjar defines cross-cultural competence and connects it with understanding the military in an effort to work effectively in foreign cultures. The article examines three areas of diversity concern within the US military: religious intolerance, women in uniform, and homophobia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hajjar, Remi M. 2014. Emergent postmodern US military culture. Armed Forces & Society 40.1: 118–145.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0095327X12465261Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hajjar defines culture as a practical tool for service members and contextualizes it, relative to postmodernism. Topics include global growth in ambiguity, multiculturalism, information age, civilians in the military, questioning of authority, and multimission militaries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Segal, David R. 2001. Is a peacekeeping culture emerging among American infantry in the Sinai MFO? Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 30.5: 607–636.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/089124101129024286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author has studied various military specialty battalions participating as part of the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai Desert since 1982. Based on qualitative field observations, participant observation, and group and individual interviews, respondents uniformly define the mission and their role in the broader aspect of warrior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Winslow, Donna. 2004. Misplaced loyalties: The role of military culture in the breakdown of discipline in two peace operations. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 6.3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The author reports on two breakdowns in discipline: a Canadian deployment to Somalia and another in Bacovici in the former Republic of Yugoslavia. Both are anchored in military culture, solidarity, the regimental system, as well as primary group relationships.

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