Sociology Fascism
by
Marit A. Berntson
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 November 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0082

Introduction

Fascism dominated politics and society in the 1920s and 1930s and resulted in one of the world’s most destructive wars. The enormity of the suffering has led to an interest in fascism and its origins, with the hope that understanding what it is and why it occurred will prevent it from happening again. The sociological study of fascism is historical, interdisciplinary, and comparative. A key feature of the scholarship is the debate about fascism’s definition. Because it was the world’s first fascist regime, some claim that the characteristics of Italian fascism under Mussolini should form the basis for the definition, or that Italian fascism is the only instance of fascism. Others argue that the political ideologies and groups that marked the first half of the 20th century had a number of features in common and that, although fascism played out differently in national contexts, a generic definition is possible. Recent scholarship points to a consensus in favor of a generic definition. Fascism promised a solution to the divisions and decay wrought by liberal democracy and communism through mass mobilization, national cleansing, and national rebirth. Roger Griffin said fascism was “palingenetic populist ultranationalism” (Griffin 1993, p. 26, cited under Definitions). Whether fascism manifests as an intellectual current, social movement, political party, or regime also figures in its definition because fascism’s form affects what it can do. Some comparative research focuses on differences between fascism and other authoritarian, conservative, or right-wing groups, as well as relations between fascists and these groups. Since the rebirth that fascism promises usually entails controlling biological and cultural reproduction, women’s roles in fascist ideology and regimes have been the subject of recent studies. Scholars have also likened fascism to religion, for its reliance on myths, symbols, rituals, and commemoration in both ideology and practice, and have studied fascism as an example of totalitarianism, often in comparison to communist Russia. Debates about the definition of fascism are inextricably linked to theories of its emergence. Some scholars explain fascism’s origins by looking at intellectual, cultural, political, or economic factors. Others claim that the only way to understand why fascism occurred is to study its leaders and their intentions (e.g., Adolph Hitler), and its members, voters, and supporters. The definition of fascism and its organizational form also affect which countries are studied, whether for case or comparative analysis. Italy and Germany have received the most attention, but many other countries are the subject of inquiry too. Some scholars have examined dozens of countries in an effort to classify them as fascist or otherwise. The scope of fascist studies expands as new insights emerge, as more disciplines become involved, as new methods of inquiry are developed, and as new sources of data become available, such as archives in Russia and eastern Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union. Finally, many scholars are preoccupied by the possibility of fascism’s return in today’s extreme right in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. These are studies for which questions about definition and origins are also important, but perhaps more pressing are concerns about whether these groups pose a threat to democracy and if so, how to contain them.

Handbooks and Readers

There are several good handbooks, readers, and encyclopedias on fascism for students and scholars that provide overviews of research and debates about fascism. Bosworth 2009, Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, Laqueur 1976, and Pinto 2011 contain essays that mark important contributions to the scholarship on defining fascism, fascism’s origins, and other historic and contemporary debates, and would therefore be appropriate for scholars and graduate students. Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, and Pinto 2011 are also appropriate for both graduate and undergraduate students because of their good introductions to the field, to the evolution of scholarship on fascism, and to the methods for studying it. Thurlow 1999 contains chapters that end with questions, a chronology of fascism, and a glossary, and would therefore serve nicely as an undergraduate textbook. Another book appropriate for classroom use is by Passmore 2002, for his clear introduction to the field of fascism studies and the connections he draws between past and contemporary cases. Many works are also suitable for cross-national comparisons of fascism, such as those by Bosworth 2009, Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, and Laqueur 1976. Blamires 2006, a two-volume encyclopedia, would be a good addition to libraries and scholarly collections. It opens with a review of the definition of and research on fascism by Roger Griffin, a noted scholar in the field.

  • Blamires, Cyprian P., ed., with Paul Jackson. 2006. World fascism: A historical encyclopedia. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.

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    A two-volume illustrated encyclopedia containing five hundred entries about past and contemporary fascist ideologies, movements, parties, regimes, and key figures and events in Europe and elsewhere written by one hundred experts. The encyclopedia includes a chronology and opens with Roger Griffin’s review of the definition of and scholarship on fascism.

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    • Bosworth, R. J. B., ed. 2009. The Oxford handbook of fascism. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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      Contains thirty-one invited essays on the origins of fascism, interwar fascism, and post-1945 fascism. Also included are studies of Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain, and Yugoslavia.

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      • Iordachi, Constantin, ed. 2010. Comparative fascist studies: New perspectives. London and New York: Routledge.

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        A well-chosen collection of edited excerpts by fascism scholars plus two new entries by Iordachi, one that reviews the scholarship on fascism and the other on Romania. Organized into three sections: definitions of fascism; cross-national comparisons of fascism; and fascism as a form of totalitarianism and a political religion.

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        • Kallis, Aristotle, ed. 2003. The fascism reader. London and New York: Routledge.

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          A collection of forty-eight classic and recent studies of fascism in Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Spain from the interwar period to 1945. The collection is well suited for students because it shows the evolution of scholarship on different aspects of and methodologies for studying fascism.

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          • Laqueur, Walter, ed. 1976. Fascism: A reader’s guide. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

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            A collection of original and influential essays by social scientists and historians such as Juan Linz’s comparative study of fascism, Zeev Sternhell’s analysis of fascist ideology, Eugen Weber’s essay on fascism as revolution, and case studies of fascism in Europe and Latin America.

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            • Passmore, Kevin. 2002. Fascism: A very short introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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              Passmore describes the definitions, varieties, and history of fascism, including the interwar movements and regimes in Italy, Germany, Romania, Hungary, and Spain. He also makes connections between interwar fascism and contemporary extreme right movements in Europe. Appropriate for classroom use.

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              • Pinto, António Costa, ed. 2011. Rethinking the nature of fascism: Comparative perspectives. Houndmills, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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                An edited volume of new essays about the theories and historiography of fascism including the contributions of historians, political scientists, and sociologists. Essays also cover a wide range of subjects such as definitions, the role of women, religion, political violence, and genocide.

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                • Thurlow, Richard. 1999. Fascism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                  An overview of the definition and origins of fascism, with chapters on Italian fascism, Nazism, lesser or failed cases of fascism in Europe, anti-fascism, and neo-fascism. Chapters end with case studies and related questions. Includes a chronology of fascism, selected bibliography, and glossary. Good for classroom use.

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                  Journals

                  Included here are peer-reviewed journals that have published multiple articles, reviews, or special issues on fascism over the years and peer-reviewed journals that are dedicated wholly or markedly to studies of fascism. The journal Politics, Religion, and Ideology, known from 2000 to 2010 as Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, is partially dedicated to studies of fascism. It regularly publishes articles and book reviews on fascism and it produced special issues in 2004 on fascism as political religion, in 2006 on charisma and fascism, in 2007 on clerical fascism, and in 2012 on women, fascism, and the far right (cited under Women and Fascism). Some issues were later published as books. Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies is dedicated uniquely to studies of fascism, but its first issue appeared in only 2012. In addition to their numerous book reviews and articles on fascism, History & Memory produced special issues on German fascism in 1997 and 2005 and the Journal of Contemporary History produced special issues on German fascism in 2004 and 2007 and on Italian fascism in 1996. Scanning the tables of contents of bound issues or online versions of Contemporary European History, English Historical Review, Journal of Modern History, and Society will result in many quality articles and book reviews about fascism. Issue 1 of volume 37 of Contemporary European History contains an article by Roger Griffin and issue 2 of volume 37 contains responses by four leading scholars on the growing consensus over a generic definition of fascism (see also Definitions). Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik published three scholarly exchanges on fascism, the most recent being in 2004 based on the main article by Roger Griffin (cited under Definitions). Although not annotated here, journals dedicated to a particular region, country, language, or group of people will undoubtedly prove helpful to scholars and students of fascism.

                  • Contemporary European History. 1992–.

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                    Founded in 1992, this journal publishes articles on Eastern and Western European history (1918 to the present) from cultural, economic, international, political, and social approaches. Contains several articles by leading scholars of fascism.

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                    • English Historical Review. 1886–.

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                      Founded in 1886, this is the oldest journal of historical scholarship of the English-speaking world. It covers all aspects of European and world history since the classical era. This journal has published a wide array of articles and book reviews about fascism by leading scholars over the years.

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                      • Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik. 2002–.

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                        A humanities and social sciences journal in debate format (mostly in German). Critiques follow a main article, in two rounds of written debate. Fascism was the topic of main articles in 2000 (Wolfgang Wippermann), 2002 (Ernst Nolte), and 2004 (Roger Griffin). From 1990 to 2001, Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften.

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                        • Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies. 2012–.

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                          A multidisciplinary and full Open Access (free) journal dedicated to multiple aspects of fascism in a comparative context. Its editorial board includes many well-known fascism scholars. The journal prints two issues a year, with the first issue appearing in 2012.

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                          • History & Memory. 1989–.

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                            Established in 1989, this multidisciplinary journal has published articles on the way in which the past and present shape each other, including the legacies of fascism. Contains several articles concerning Germany and Italy and special issues on Germany in 1997 and 2005.

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                            • Journal of Contemporary History. 1966–.

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                              Founded in 1966, this international journal publishes articles using historical approaches that include the social, economic, political, diplomatic, intellectual, and cultural. Its co-founder, Walter Laqueur, and a current editor, Stanley Payne, are fascism scholars. Special issues appeared in 2004 and 2007 on German fascism and in 1996 on Italian fascism.

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                              • Journal of Modern History. 1929–.

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                                Established in 1929, this is an American journal for the study of European intellectual, political, and cultural history. It publishes many excellent reviews of scholarly books on fascism.

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                                • Politics, Religion, and Ideology. 2011–.

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                                  This multidisciplinary journal explores religious and secular ideologies, including historic fascism and its descendants. Its editorial board includes many well-known fascism scholars. A special issue in 2012 dealt directly with fascism and special issues on fascism published by the journal under its previous title, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (from 2000 to 2010), appeared in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Some special issues were subsequently published by Routledge (see Theories).

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                                  • Society. 1963–.

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                                    Founded in 1962, this multidisciplinary journal publishes social scientific research about social, public policy, and political issues. Articles by noted scholars of fascism such as A. James Gregor, Walter Laqueur, and George L. Mosse have appeared over the years.

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                                    Data Sources

                                    Web sites are useful places for finding information on contemporary hate groups, extremists, neo-fascist groups, and radical right-wing movements and political parties. The Extremis Project and European Consortium for Political Research Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy have an international scope and will be of particular interest to those engaged in scholarly research on the extreme right, neo-fascism, contemporary extremism (left- and right-wing), hate groups, and the radical right. The Southern Poverty Law Center limits its focus to the United States and is both a legal advocacy group and source of information for scholars, students, educators, and the general public. The Anti-Defamation League is concerned about hate groups and extremists in the United States, but it also focuses on such groups world-wide because of the international nature of some forms of ethnic, religious, and racial bigotry.

                                    Definitions

                                    Included here are works that help students and scholars understand the historic and contemporary debates about fascism’s definition. Issues of definition related to the post–World War II successors of fascism, such as the extreme right, neo-fascism, the radical right, right-wing extremism, or neo-Nazism, are dealt with elsewhere (see also Extreme Right). Nolte 1966, a comparative analysis of fascism, is an early and influential attempt to define it. Allardyce 1979 argues for greater precision in defining fascism, as does Griffin 1993. Some scholars do not insist upon a definition (e.g., Bosworth 2009, cited under Handbooks and Readers). Two very important written exchanges on a generic definition of fascism were published recently in journals. Griffin 2002 reviews the scholarship on fascism’s definition and proposes a growing consensus in favor of the generic definition, which elicited responses by four leading scholars in a subsequent issue of the Journal of Contemporary History. Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik (Fourth Discussion Unit 2004) published Roger Griffin’s essay on a generic definition of fascism and its application to groups active after World War II, which generated two sets of written debate by leading scholars that included Griffin’s two replies. A lot of the scholarly work on fascism’s definition rests on comparing it to other authoritarian or conservative groups and some research is dedicated to relations between groups on the political right. Rogger and Weber 1965 is an early attempt to examine the right between 1870 and 1940 in eleven European countries. Blinkhorn 1990 presents essays on the differences between fascists and conservatives and relations between them in ten European countries. Payne 1996 proposes a typology that allows for the classification of cases of authoritarian nationalism into the conservative right, the radical right, and fascism. Zafirovski 2010 examines the relationship between fascism and conservatism. Sources elsewhere in this bibliography are also helpful in an understanding of the definition of fascism. Iordachi 2010 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) devotes a section in his reader to the definition of fascism, with essays by Eatwell, Griffin, Mosse, Payne, and Sternhell. Kallis 2003 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) presents essays on fascism’s definition by Allardyce, Eatwell, Kitchen, Linz, and Payne. Pinto 2011 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) includes original essays on the definition of fascism by Dobry, Griffin, Ugelvik Larsen, and Pinto. Griffin’s introduction in Blamires 2006 and chapters by Passmore 2002 and Thurlow 1999 (all cited under Handbooks and Readers) will provide guidance about fascism’s definition. Scholarly journals are also a good source of information about definitions (see also Journals).

                                    • Allardyce, Gilbert. 1979. What fascism is not: Thoughts on the deflation of a concept. American Historical Review 84.2: 367–398.

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                                      In an influential essay Allardyce contends that the term fascist has been overused and that it should only be used to describe the Italian case. Commentary by Stanley Payne and Ernst Nolte follow the essay, to which Allardyce replies.

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                                      • Blinkhorn, Martin, ed. 1990. Fascists and conservatives: The radical right and the establishment in twentieth-century Europe. London: Hyman.

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                                        Edited volume with entries on Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Scandinavia, Portugal, Romania, and Spain, with an introduction by Blinkhorn. Authors describe relations between fascists and conservatives in the interwar period or during World War II and differences between them in terms of ideology and the use of violence.

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                                        • Fourth Discussion Unit. 2004. Roger Griffin: Fascism’s new faces (and new facelessness) in the “post-fascist” epoch. Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik 15.3: 287–448.

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                                          In English and German. Very important written discussion proceeding from the main article by Griffin on the debate over a generic definition of fascism and its application to groups in the post–World War II era, followed by critiques by twenty-seven scholars, Griffin’s response, twenty-one additional critiques, and Griffin’s final response.

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                                          • Griffin, Roger. 1993. The nature of fascism. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                            Griffin argues that scholars must develop a more precise definition of fascism and offers an ideal type. Fascism is palingenetic populist ultranationalism––an ideology and a political project composed of populist ultranationalism and myths about a nation that must be reborn in order to destroy the decadence of modern society.

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                                            • Griffin, Roger. 2002. The primacy of culture: The current growth (or manufacture) of consensus within fascist studies. Journal of Contemporary History 37.1: 21–43.

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                                              A useful review of the history of the scholarship on fascism that shows a growing consensus in favor of a generic definition of fascism. Volume 37, issue 2 of the Journal of Contemporary History contains comments by David D. Roberts, Alexander De Grand, Mark Antliff, and Thomas Linehan.

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                                              • Nolte, Ernst. 1966. Three faces of fascism: Action Française, Italian fascism, National Socialism. Translated by Leila Vennewitz. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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                                                English language translation of Der Faschismus in seiner Epoch. Die Action Française, der Italienische Faschismus, der National-sozialismus, first published in 1963. An early and influential attempt to provide a definition and analysis of fascism. Nolte examines the Action Française, Italian fascism, and Nazism.

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                                                • Payne, Stanley. 1996. A history of fascism, 1914–1945. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                  Payne differentiates fascism from the conservative right and radical right, all forms of authoritarian nationalism. He classifies the ideologies, movements, and regimes from 1914 to 1945 in Germany, France, Italy, Austria, Spain, Hungary, Romania, Belgium, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Poland, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Imperial Japan, and Perón’s Argentina.

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                                                  • Rogger, Hans, and Eugen Weber, eds. 1965. The European right: A historical profile. Berkeleyand Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                    Edited volume of essays on the right in Austria, Belgium, Britain, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Russia, and Spain, 1870–1940. Chapters vary in structure, some are theoretical while others are empirical, and they tend to focus on the extreme or radical right.

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                                                    • Zafirovski, Milan. 2010. “All in the extended family”: the Pandora’s box of conservatism and fascism reopened. International review of sociology 20.2: 189–213.

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                                                      A comparative and historical analysis of the relationship between conservatism and fascism. With a focus on Germany and Italy, Zafirovski explores the development of fascism out of conservatism under certain social and historical conditions. Also looks at the United States in the 1960s to 2000s.

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                                                      Theories

                                                      As is the case with the research on fascism’s definition, there are lively theoretical debates about fascism’s origins and whether fascism can be understood as a political religion and a form of totalitarianism. This research is interdisciplinary, historical, and comparative, but students and scholars will also find important theoretical contributions in individual country studies in this bibliography. Much of the research on fascism’s origins concerns Italy because the world’s first fascist regime was in Italy. In their research on Italy, De Felice 1977, De Grand 2000, Gentile 2003, and Gregor 2005 deal generally and particularly with fascism’s origins (all cited under History in the section on Italy). Scholars of German fascism, such as Evans 2004, Evans 2005, Evans 2009, Kershaw 2000, and Kershaw 2008, look at a combination of structural and institutional factors that took place under Hitler’s charismatic authority (all cited under History in the section on Germany). Research has also been devoted to the French intellectuals whose work and ideas provided a basis for fascist ideology in other countries (see also Argentina and History in the section on Italy). Additional sources of information on theories of fascism can be found in the readers and handbooks by Bosworth 2009, Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, Laqueur 1976, and Pinto 2011 (all cited under Handbooks and Readers). Scholarly journals are also a good way to find research on fascism’s emergence (see also Journals).

                                                      Origins

                                                      Some theories about fascism’s emergence relate to intellectual and ideological origins, while others concern social change or structural factors like war and its after-effects, economic dislocation, elite or institutional competition, the type of political system, the failures of liberal democracy and communism, and political instability. Eatwell 1997 argues that explaining fascism’s emergence rests on an analysis of temporal and national contexts. Griffin 2007 argues that fascism is a product of modernity. Some studies focus on a complex interplay of factors applied to cross-national comparisons. Payne 1996 explores the social, cultural, political, economic, and international conditions present when fascist groups, parties, and regimes developed. Mann 2004 examines the role that liberal democracy played in fascism’s rise in six countries. Through his analysis of civil society and hegemony in Italy, Romania, and Spain, Riley 2010 finds that three types of fascism emerged––party, traditionalist, and state fascism. Feldman, et al. 2008 examines how Christian elites in fourteen countries responded to fascism, which may have played a role in its development. Paxton 2004 offers a political analysis that focuses on five stages of fascism, finding that only Germany and Italy move beyond stage one. Some scholars claim that a vehicle for explaining why fascism emerged is to study its leaders, members, or voters, which is the approach Larsen, et al. 1980 takes in cross-national comparisons and an additional feature of Mann 2004.

                                                      • Eatwell, Roger. 1997. Fascism: A history. New York: Penguin.

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                                                        Eatwell treats fascism as a 20th-century phenomenon. He reviews theories of fascism’s origins and then examines cases of fascism and neo-fascism in Italy, Germany, France, and Britain. Eatwell argues that fascism, due to its ideology of cultural cleansing and rebirth, must be understood in a national context.

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                                                        • Feldman, Matthew, Marius Turda, and Tutor Georgescu, eds. 2008. Clerical fascism in interwar Europe. New York and London: Routledge.

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                                                          An edited volume of essays on clerical fascism, which examines how Christian elites and institutions responded to fascism in interwar Austria, Belgium, Britain, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, and Ukraine. Originally published as a special issue of Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (see also Journals).

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                                                          • Griffin, Roger. 2007. Modernism and fascism: The sense of a beginning under Mussolini and Hitler. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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                                                            In this study of Italian fascism and Nazism, Griffin argues that fascism was a product of modernity and was radical because it promised a total transformation of the nation and its people (palingenisis), an idea that is essential to understanding why fascism was so attractive at the time.

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                                                            • Larsen, Stein Ugelvik, Bernt Hagtvet, and Jan Petter Myklebust, eds. 1980. Who were the fascists? Social roots of European fascism. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                              An edited volume covering successful and failed cases of interwar fascism in twenty-one European countries stemming from a 1974 conference held in Bergen, Norway. Each case is a sociological examination of fascists according to age, occupation, social class, education, religion, and geographic region using electoral and other quantitative data.

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                                                              • Mann, Michael. 2004. Fascists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                Mann asks three interrelated questions: Who were the fascists? What motivated them? and How did they gain power? Fascism bridged class and other divisions because its three ideological elements––transcendence, paramilitarism, and nation-statism––appealed to different groups. Fascism emerged in Europe where liberal democracy was not firmly established. Mann studies interwar Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and Spain.

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                                                                • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The anatomy of fascism. New York: Knopf.

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                                                                  Paxton describes the five stages of fascism: 1) movement creation; 2) installation in the political system; 3) seizing power; 4) exercising power; and 5) radicalization or entropy. Only Germany and Italy moved past stage one. The maneuvering of conservative elites, who saw in fascists an opportunity to tap into mass politics, explains more about fascism’s rise than its intellectual roots.

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                                                                  • Payne, Stanley. 1996. A history of fascism, 1914–1945. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                    Along with a study of fascist ideologies, movements, and regimes between 1914 and 1945, Payne describes (but does not causally connect) the cultural, political, social, economic, and international factors that were present when fascist movements developed.

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                                                                    • Riley, Dylan. 2010. The civic foundations of fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain, and Romania, 1870–1945. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                      Drawing from de Tocqueville and Gramsci, Riley argues that civil society need not result in democracy, but, when coupled with failed hegemonic politics, it may also lead to fascism. Different forms of fascism––party fascism (Italy), traditionalist fascism (Spain), and state fascism (Romania)––emerged in different national contexts.

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                                                                      Totalitarianism and Political Religion

                                                                      The terms totalitarian and totalitarianism were used by both fascists and anti-fascists in the interwar period, particularly in Italy. But the study of totalitarianism really took root after World War II in an effort to understand fascist regimes in Germany and Italy and to compare them to Soviet communism. Friedrich and Brzezinski 1965 describe the defining elements of totalitarianism in a book that continues to be influential today, as is the three volume work by Arendt 1973 on the origins of totalitarianism, the development of anti-Semitism, and the link between imperialism and the concept of race. Halberstam 1999 analyzes modern political philosophy to understand how totalitarianism emerges out of liberalism and modernity. Griffin 2007 (cited under Origins) argues that fascism emerged out of modernity. Proponents of fascism as political religion, for its dependence, like religion, on myths, symbols, and rituals, such as Gentile 2006, Griffin 2005, and Maier 2007, contend that fascism functions like a religion, as does Gentile 1996 (cited under Aesthetics and Daily Life) in his study of Italian fascism. Some of the more recent scholarship on totalitarianism comes after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc, with much of it comparative and historical. Roberts 2006 describes the features of totalitarian regimes in Germany, Italy, and Stalinist Russia and Linz 2000 outlines the features of non-democratic regimes like authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and sultanism. Baehr and Richter 2004 explore the concept of dictatorship, totalitarianism being one of its forms.

                                                                      • Arendt, Hannah. 1973. The origins of totalitarianism. new ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

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                                                                        Arendt’s influential work includes volumes on anti-Semitism, imperialism, and totalitarianism. She traces the history of Jews and the development of anti-Semitism in Europe, describes the racist character of colonial imperialism and movements like pan-Germanism and pan-Slavism, and explores the totalitarian features of Nazi Germany and Communist Russia.

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                                                                        • Baehr, Peter, and Melvin Richter, eds. 2004. Dictatorship in history and theory: Bonapartism, Caesarism, and totalitarianism. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                          Edited volume of essays by sociologists, historians, and political scientists about dictatorships in modern Europe, drawing upon the work of Weber, Marx, Gramsci, Schmidt, and Arendt. Examines the use and meaning of the terms Bonapartism, Caesarism, and totalitarianism, as well as relations between democracy, nationalism, and authoritarianism.

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                                                                          • Friedrich, Carl J., and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski. 1965. Totalitarian dictatorship and autocracy. 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                            With a focus on the Soviet Union and fascist regimes, Friedrich and Brzezinski review the defining elements of totalitarianism (compared to authoritarianism), including a guiding ideology, single mass party, systemic terror, monopoly over physical force, control over means of communication and the importance of propaganda, and central control over the economy.

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                                                                            • Gentile, Emilio. 2006. Politics as religion. Translated by George Staunton. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                              English language translation of Le religioni della politica: fra democrazie e totalitarismi, first published in 2001. Gentile argues that political ideologies like fascism, communism, and liberal democracy have become sacralized in the modern era. Excellent reading in the comparative study of political ideologies and regimes.

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                                                                              • Griffin, Roger, ed. 2005. Fascism, totalitarianism and political religion. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                An edited volume on fascism as a political religion, first published as a special issue of the journal Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (see also Journals). Includes essays about political religion and fascism in interwar Italy, Germany, Britain, and Romania and in the contemporary United States.

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                                                                                • Halberstam, Michael. 1999. Totalitarianism and the modern conception of politics. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  Through an analysis of the history of modern political philosophy (e.g., Hegel, Kant, and Heidegger), Halberstam argues that totalitarianism arises out of the inadequacies of classical liberalism and crises of modernity. Not a history of totalitarian regimes.

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                                                                                  • Linz, Juan. 2000. Totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.

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                                                                                    Starts with the original text of Linz’s chapter from the Handbook of Political Science (1975) followed by an introduction describing new research on non-democratic regimes in the 20th century and an updated typology of the features of non-democratic regimes like authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and sultanism (personalistic, lawless, and non-ideological).

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                                                                                    • Maier, Hans, ed. 2007. Totalitarianism and political religions. Vol. 3, Concepts for the comparison of dictatorships––Theory and history of interpretations. Translated by Jodi Bruhn. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                      English language translation of Totalitarismus und politische Religionen: Konzepte des Diktaturvergleichs, originally published in 2003. This edited volume contains essays comparing Italian fascism, German National Socialism, and Soviet communism as examples of tyranny, totalitarianism, and dictatorship using the analytic concept of political religion.

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                                                                                      • Roberts, David D. 2006. The totalitarian experiment in twentieth century Europe: Understanding the poverty of great politics. New York and London: Routledge.

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                                                                                        Roberts describes the common elements of totalitarian regimes through an examination of the origins, leadership, collective mobilization, ideologies, practices, and outcomes of German National Socialism, Italian fascism, and Stalinist Russia.

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                                                                                        Women and Fascism

                                                                                        Some of the research on fascism is dedicated to the roles that women play in fascist groups, movements, parties, and regimes and other research examines how fascist policies and regimes affect women’s lives. Those interested in studies of multiple countries should consult Politics, Religion, and Ideology 2012 for a special issue on women, fascism, and the far right in six countries and Passmore 2003 on gender and fascism in eleven countries. Studies about German women under the Third Reich ask if women were its victims or perpetrators. Nazi dreams of an Aryan future depended on rigid control over biological and social reproduction, a project that entailed forced sterilization, pro-natal policies, and incentives for women to remain in the domestic sphere. A debate heated up in the late 1980s following the publication of the study by Bock 1986 on forced sterilization, which documented that women lacked the power to be perpetrators under Nazism, and that by Koonz 1987 on women’s support of Nazism. Guba 2010 (cited under Accountability) provides a nice summary of this debate and related scholarship that offers a view of German women as both victims and perpetrators. De Grazia 1992 describes how Italy’s fascist regime tried to control the public and private aspects of women’s lives, Gottlieb 2000 examines the roles women played in British fascism, and Richmond 2003 shows how some Spanish women benefited from the women’s section of the fascist Falange. Soucy 1995 (cited under France), in his study of French fascism from 1933 to 1939, gives some attention to women’s roles in the Solidarité Française and Pinto 2011 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) contains a chapter by Passmore on the role of women.

                                                                                        • Bock, Gisela. 1986. Zwangssterilisation im Nationalsozialismus: Studien zur Rassenpolitik und Frauenpolitik. Opladen, Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag.

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                                                                                          In German. A study of the population and eugenics policies of Nazi Germany, including the forced sterilization of 400,000 men and women who were considered genetically unfit to have children. Links the practices to Nazi race and gender policies.

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                                                                                          • De Grazia, Victoria. 1992. How fascism ruled women: Italy 1922–1945. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                            De Grazia describes how Italian fascism from 1922 to 1945 sought to control the public and private aspects of women’s lives through a study of girlhood, motherhood, leisure, politics, and patriotic duty. Although faced with limited choices, women were not passive subjects of fascism.

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                                                                                            • Gottlieb, Julie V. 2000. Feminine fascism: Women in Britain’s fascist movement, 1923–1945. London: I. B. Tauris.

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                                                                                              Gottlieb uses interviews, government documents, and newspapers, pamphlets, and speeches to describe the roles women played in British fascism. A woman, Rotha Linton-Orman, was the leader of Britain’s first fascist organization, the British Fascisti, women constituted 25 percent of the British Union of Fascists (BUF), and prominent suffragettes became members of the BUF.

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                                                                                              • Koonz, Claudia. 1987. Mothers in the fatherland: Women, the family, and Nazi politics. New York: St. Martin’s.

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                                                                                                Koonz examines how women were incorporated into the Third Reich. Demonstrates women’s support for and participation in Nazi projects through their roles in the domestic sphere and their involvement in social work and women’s organizations. Controversial for the assertion that women were perpetrators of Nazism.

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                                                                                                • Passmore, Kevin, ed. 2003. Women, gender and fascism in Europe, 1919–1945. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                  An edited volume of essays about women and fascism between 1919 and 1945 in countries with fascist or authoritarian regimes or with fascist groups whose ideologies prescribe particular gender roles, such as Britain, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Spain.

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                                                                                                  • Richmond, Kathleen J. L. 2003. Women and Spanish fascism: The women’s section of the Falange 1934–1959. London: Routledge/Cañada Blanch Studies on Contemporary Spain.

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                                                                                                    Analysis of the Sección Fememina of the Spanish Falange from 1934 to 1959, which Franco subsumed when he came to power in 1937, based on newly accessible archival material. Women, especially the single and childless, benefited from its programs in social work, practical skills education, culture, and recreation.

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                                                                                                    • Special issue: Women, fascism and the Far-Right, 1918–2010. 2012. Politics, Religion, and Ideology 13.2.

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                                                                                                      This special issue contains eight articles on women’s relationship to or roles in fascism in Argentina, Britain, France, Germany, Ireland, and the United States. Most articles focus on the period before 1945.

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                                                                                                      Comparative Studies

                                                                                                      The definition of fascism and its organizational form affect which countries are studied, whether for case or comparative analysis. Italy and Germany dominate the scholarly research on fascism, and therefore receive additional consideration here, but many other countries have been included in case and comparative studies. Some of the countries that have received attention were places where fascists existed but never assumed power, such as in Britain or Romania, or where it is not clear that the groups under study were even fascist. Although it is not a perfect criterion for inclusion in this bibliography, the countries annotated here are those that have received the most attention in the scholarly literature on fascism. They include Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. The scope of fascist studies expands as new insights emerge, as more disciplines become involved, as new methods of inquiry are developed, and as new sources of data become available. Studies of fascist intellectual groups, social movements, and political parties in several other countries, including Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Serbia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia, are found in some of the handbooks and readers annotated in this bibliography, such as Blamires 2006 and Bosworth 2009 (both cited under Handbooks and Readers), as well as the works concerning definitions, especially Blinkhorn 1990 and Payne 1996 (both cited under Definitions), and theories of fascism, such as Feldman, et al. 2008 and Larsen, et al. 1980 (both cited under Origins).

                                                                                                      Austria

                                                                                                      The study of Austrian fascism has often been subsumed under the history of the Third Reich, for Austria was annexed into Germany in 1938 (the Anschluss). But the history of Austrian fascism includes its own fascist party, the Heimwehr, the struggle for sovereignty in the face of Hitler’s growing power in Germany, efforts to hinder the growth of an Austrian Nazi Party, attempts to adopt a corporatist state patterned after Mussolini’s Italy, and other alliances with Mussolini. In the author’s influential study, Carsten 1977 describes the conditions that gave rise to fascism in Austria leading up to the Anschluss. Kitchen 1980 focuses mostly on the failures of the Social Democrats from 1918 to 1934 to prevent the rise of authoritarianism and ultimately fascism. Thorpe 2011 argues that, whether Austrians intended it or not through their support of Pan-Germanism, Austria was already a fascist state by 1938. Sources elsewhere in this bibliography include studies of Austrian fascism. Kallis 2003 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) adds Austria to his handbook on fascism. Austria is treated in comparative studies by Blinkhorn 1990 on fascists and conservatives, by Payne 1996 on authoritarian nationalism, and by Rogger and Weber 1965 on the European right (all cited under Definitions). Scholars who study the emergence of fascism in the interwar period have included Austria in their cross-national comparisons, including the study on clerical fascism by Feldman, et al. 2008, the analysis by Larsen, et al. 1980 on the social composition of fascist groups, and the work Mann 2004 performed on who fascists were, what motivated them, and how they gained power (all cited under Origins).

                                                                                                      • Carsten, F. L. 1977. Fascist movements in Austria: from Schönerer to Hitler. London and Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                        An influential study of the development of Pan-Germanism and racial anti-Semitism in Austria under conditions of economic dislocation, social resentment, and the post-Habsburg transition that fueled the fascism seen in the Heimwehren and National Socialists.

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                                                                                                        • Kitchen, Martin. 1980. The coming of Austrian fascism. London: Croon Helm.

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                                                                                                          Kitchen describes the political events from 1918 to 1934, especially the failures of the Social Democrats, which laid the groundwork for the growth of fascism. He examines the authoritarian government led by Dollfuss, which was supported by the Heimwehren, relations with Mussolini, and the Social Democrats’ struggles for power.

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                                                                                                          • Thorpe, Julie. 2011. Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–1938. Manchester, UK, and New York: Manchester Univ. Press.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719079672.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Thorpe argues that a particular Austrian Pan-Germanism, a shared language and culture combined with pride in Austria, led to support among German nationalists for policies that harmed Slovenian minorities and Jews and culminated in a fascist state in Austria before the Anschluss in 1938.

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                                                                                                            Argentina

                                                                                                            Argentina has been the focus of case and comparative studies of fascism. Although Argentina’s fascist Nacionalistas never held power, they did influence Peronism. Deutsch 1999 is an important addition to comparative studies in the author’s work on the extreme right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Deutsch and Dolkert 1993 is a volume of essays on Argentina’s right that provides a useful chronology. Both books trace the intellectual and ideological origins of the political right and describe its primary movements and groups. Spektorowski 2003 adds to these studies, advancing the argument that Argentinian nationalism is a mélange rather than a fractured collection of right and left ideas. Finchelstein 2010 describes Mussolini’s efforts to influence Argentinian fascism, which Nacionalistas resisted somewhat, ultimately creating what Finchelstein calls clerical fascism. Argentinian fascism is also covered in debates over definitions of fascism in Laqueur 1976 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) and about fascism’s origins in Payne 1996 (cited under Origins).

                                                                                                            • Deutsch, Sandra McGee. 1999. Las derechas: The extreme right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890–1939. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                              Using archival and secondary sources, Deutsch describes the intellectual and ideological origins of extreme right and fascist thinking that play out in Latin American regional and national contexts (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) from World War I to 1939.

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                                                                                                              • Deutsch, Sandra McGee, and Ronald H. Dolkert, eds. 1993. The Argentine right: Its history and intellectual origins, 1910 to the present. Wilmington, DE: SR Books.

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                                                                                                                An edited collection of essays by scholars of Argentinian history, arranged chronologically. Traces the 19th century origins of the right, with essays on the period beyond World War II. Includes a discussion of fascist groups like the Nacionalistas.

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                                                                                                                • Finchelstein, Federico. 2010. Transatlantic fascism: Ideology, violence, and the sacred in Argentina and Italy, 1919–1945. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                  Using archival material produced by Italian fascists and Argentinian intellectuals and writers associated with the Nacionalista movement, Finchelstein concludes that Italian fascism partially influenced its ideology, which he calls clerical fascism for its conflation of fascism and Catholicism.

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                                                                                                                  • Spektorowski, Alberto. 2003. The origins of Argentina’s revolution to the right. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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                                                                                                                    Through an analysis of its intellectual history, Spektorowski argues that Argentinian nationalism is a synthesis of left and right ideologies, with influence from French fascists like Maurras and Barrès. Original for the argument that Argentinian nationalism is a blending rather than a hodgepodge of left and right.

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                                                                                                                    Belgium

                                                                                                                    Historic conflicts over linguistic policy, discrimination, economic dislocation, and the existence of nationalist separatist movements in Belgium have inhibited the development of Belgian fascism, which is not to say that fascist groups did not exist in Dutch-speaking Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia. The exception was the Légion Nationale/ Nationaal Legioen, led by Paul Hoornaert, who favored Mussolini but opposed Nazism and later died in a concentration camp. Divisions along linguistic lines and war-time collaboration with Nazi Germany characterize fascism in Belgium, with Léon Degrelle’s Parti Rexiste in Wallonia and Staf De Clercq’s Vlaams Nationaal Verbond in Flanders. Étienne 1968 describes the history of the Rexists in the period leading up to World War II, including their relations with the Légion Nationale and Vlaams Nationaal Verbond. Drawing upon sociological theory, Brustein 1988 shows how the Rexists were able to garner support in Wallonia in the 1936 elections. With the war underway and Nazis occupying Belgium, Conway 1993 documents the dangerous game the Rexists played in collaborating with their occupiers in the face of violent retributions by the Belgian resistance. As for case studies of Flemish nationalism and fascism, Willemsen 1958 traces the history of Flemish nationalism from collaboration with German occupiers in World War I to the outbreak of war in 1940, while De Wever 1994 focuses on the years from 1933 to 1945, from the founding of the Vlaams Nationaal Verbond to collaboration with the Nazis during World War II. Sources elsewhere in this bibliography include studies of Belgian fascism, which may be helpful to students and scholars who do not speak French or Dutch. Bosworth 2009 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) adds Belgium to the collection of studies on fascism and Belgium has been treated in comparative studies by Payne 1996 on authoritarian nationalism and by Rogger and Weber 1965 on the European right (both cited under Definitions). Scholars who study the emergence of fascism in the interwar period have included Belgium in their cross-national comparisons, including the study on clerical fascism by Feldman, et al. 2008 and the analysis in Larsen, et al. 1980 on the social composition of fascist groups (both cited under Origins).

                                                                                                                    • Brustein, William. 1988. The political geography of Belgian fascism: The case of Rexism. American sociological review 53.1: 69–80.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2095733Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      In his analysis of the 1936 Belgian elections, the sociologist Brustein argues that the Rexists received support in Wallonia where they best met local interests. Helpful in an understanding of Rexist positions on family, agriculture, and the economy.

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                                                                                                                      • Conway, Martin. 1993. Collaboration in Belgium: Léon Degrelle and the Rexist movement 1940–1944. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                        Conway describes the almost clandestine collaboration with Nazi officials of Léon Degrelle and his Rexists in the face of the Belgian resistance, which led to the Rexists’ decline and isolation by war’s end. Also a study of the Rexist military Légion Wallonnie, which served in the German army and the Waffen SS.

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                                                                                                                        • De Wever, Bruno. 1994. Greep naar de macht. Vlaams-nationalisme en Nieuwe Orde. Het VNV 1933–1945. Tielt and Gent, Belgium: Perspectief.

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                                                                                                                          In Dutch. Begins with a brief history of Flemish nationalism before 1932, but most of the book is on the Vlaams Nationaal Verbond from its founding in 1933 to its years of political and military collaboration with the Nazis during World War II.

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                                                                                                                          • Étienne, Jean-Michel. 1968. Le mouvement Rexiste jusqu’en 1940. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.

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                                                                                                                            In French. Traces the history of the Rexist Party in Belgium up to 1940, including its activists and leader (Léon Degrelle), positions and activities, organization, work in elections, connections to the Catholic Church, and relations with the other fascist groups like the Légion Nationale and Vlaams Nationaal Verbond.

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                                                                                                                            • Willemsen, A. W. 1958. Het Vlaams-Nationalisme, 1914–1940. Groningen, The Netherlands: J. B. Wolters.

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                                                                                                                              In Dutch. Willemsen describes Flemish nationalism in Belgium from 1914 to 1940, including Flemish nationalists who collaborated with German occupiers during World War I, their groups and activities in the interwar period, and the Vlaams Nationaal Verbond, which De Clercq founded in 1933.

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                                                                                                                              Britain

                                                                                                                              British fascism has been examined in both case and comparative studies of fascism. British fascists never ruled, but they did hold some power and influence in British politics and society. Baldoli 2003 examines Mussolini’s efforts to export fascism to Britain. Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists (BUF), its precursor, the British Fascisti, or its successor, the Union Movement, have been the subject of many studies including those by Baldoli 2003, Gottlieb 2000 (cited under Women and Fascism), Gottlieb and Linehan 2004, Macklin 2007, Renton 2000, and Thurlow 1987. Gottlieb and Linehan 2004 focus on British fascism’s aesthetics and Gottlieb 2000 (cited under Women and Fascism) examines women’s roles. Kushner and Lunn 1989 examine anti-Jewish prejudice, stereotypes, and organized anti-Semitism and how such factors played into fascism before World War II. Macklin 2007 studies the biological racism and anti-Semitism of Mosley’s Union Movement. Kushner and Valman 2000, also important in studies of anti-Semitism and the Jewish community’s response to fascism, examine fascism and anti-fascism in Britain, as does Renton 2000. British fascism is also covered in debates about defining fascism in Bosworth 2009 (cited under Handbooks and Readers), Kallis 2003 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) and Payne 1996 (cited under Definitions), about fascism’s origins in Eatwell 1997, Griffin 2007, and Larsen, et al. 1980 (all cited under Theories), and in the handbooks and readers in Bosworth 2009 and Kallis 2003 (both cited under Handbooks and Readers).

                                                                                                                              • Baldoli, Claudia. 2003. Exporting fascism: Italian fascists and Britain’s Italians in the 1930s. Oxford and New York: Berg.

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                                                                                                                                Using archival materials, Gottlieb documents Mussolini’s attempts to bring fascism to Britain through the establishment of schools and camps to serve the thirty thousand Italians living there, circulation of a weekly fascist newspaper, L’Italia Nostra, and through its ambassador’s (Dino Grandi) relations with the British Union of Fascists, the British right, and Italian expatriates.

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                                                                                                                                • Gottlieb, Julie, and Thomas P. Linehan, eds. 2004. The culture of fascism: Visions of the far right in Britain. London: I. B. Tauris.

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                                                                                                                                  A collection of works by prominent scholars about British fascism as a cultural movement. Includes essays on race and ethnicity, politics, the symbolism of the Black Shirts, cinema, theater, music, and the intellectual history of British fascism. Most essays deal with the British Union of Fascists, with some attention to contemporary far right movements.

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                                                                                                                                  • Kushner, Tony, and Kenneth Lunn, eds. 1989. Traditions of intolerance: Historical perspectives on fascism and race discourse in Britain. Papers presented at a conference held in 1987 at the University of Southampton. Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Most essays deal with the 1900–1940 period and therefore provide a nice foundation for understanding stereotypes of Jews, anti-Jewish prejudice, and organized anti-Semitism in Britain in this era.

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                                                                                                                                    • Kushner, Tony, and Nadia Valman, eds. 2000. Remembering Cable Street: Fascism and anti-fascism in British society. London and Portland, OR: Vallentine Mitchell.

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                                                                                                                                      This edited volume stems from a conference on the Battle of Cable Street, located in London’s Jewish East End. Important in studies of the battle, the relationship between fascists and anti-fascists in Britain, Jewish responses to fascism, and the role anti-Semitism played in British society and fascism at the time.

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                                                                                                                                      • Macklin, Graham. 2007. Very deeply dyed in black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the resurrection of British fascism after 1945. London and New York: I. B. Tauris.

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                                                                                                                                        Many fascism scholars have overlooked Mosley’s Union Movement, which he formed after the war, or they have argued that Mosley thereafter abandoned biological racism and anti-Semitism. Macklin provides evidence that Mosley engaged in Holocaust denial and developed a pan-European vision rooted in biological racism.

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                                                                                                                                        • Renton, Dave. 2000. Fascism, anti-fascism, and Britain in the 1940s. New York: St. Martin’s.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1057/9780230599130Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Using primary sources, Renton examines the ideology and activities (institutional and direct action) of anti-fascists in Britain in the 1940s, particularly after the birth of Mosley’s Union Movement in 1948. A valuable analysis of the relationship between fascism and anti-fascism and for understanding the foundation of anti-fascism in Britain today.

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                                                                                                                                          • Thurlow, Richard. 1987. Fascism in Britain: A history, 1918–1985. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                            Using archival materials, Thurlow traces the history of British fascism, including the British Fascists, the British Union of Fascists, and the Imperial Fascist League, which he concludes did not pose a serious threat. Also examines the formation of the extreme right British National Front.

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                                                                                                                                            France

                                                                                                                                            France is important in studies of fascism because some of fascism’s intellectual and ideological origins can be traced to French cultural, literary, artistic, and political elites. However, there is a great deal of debate over whether French groups active in the interwar period can be characterized as fascist. Other questions center on whether fascism’s origins are to be found on the political right or on both the right and left. France has been the subject of both case and comparative studies of fascism. Nolte 1966 (also cited under Definitions) and Weber 1962 provide some of the earliest scholarship on Charles Maurras and his Action Française. Soucy 1986 and Soucy 1995 describe various aspects of the fascist groups active from 1924 to 1933, namely the Légions, Jeunesses Patriotes, and Faisceau (and their antecedents the Ligue des Patriotes, Action Française, and Ligue antisémitique), and those active from 1933 to 1939, such as the Francisme, Solidarité Française, and Parti Populaire Français. Soucy 1995 also addresses women’s roles in fascism and argues against Sternhell 1996 for his controversial assertion that French fascism is a marriage of both right and left intellectual thought. Antliff 2007 and Carroll 1995 also study the ideology of French fascism, as well as its aesthetics. Paxton 2001 is essential reading for those who want to understand France during World War II and the Vichy government’s collaboration with Nazi Germany. The anti-Semitic character of more or less all of France’s fascist groups can be found in each of the sources listed here. French fascism has also been covered in debates about defining fascism in Griffin 1993 and Payne 1996 (both cited under Definitions) and about its origins in Eatwell 1997 and Larsen, et al. 1980 (both cited under Origins). Some readers or handbooks include studies of French fascism, such as Bosworth 2009, Kallis 2003, and Laqueur 1976 (all cited under Handbooks and Readers).

                                                                                                                                            • Antliff, Mark. 2007. Avant-garde fascism: The mobilization of myth, art, and culture in France, 1909–1939. Durham, NC, and London: Duke Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                              Antliff examines the myth and violence in the aesthetics of fascism through a critical analysis of the relationship between fascist intellectuals and modernist or avant-garde currents in France. He explores the works of Sorel, Valois, Lamour, Maulnier, and others in the fine arts.

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                                                                                                                                              • Carroll, David. 1995. French literary fascism: Nationalism, anti-Semitism, and the ideology of culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                Carroll examines French fascism’s aesthetic dimensions through an analysis of the work of major writers from the turn-of-the-century through the interwar period, such as Barrès, Brasillach, Céline, Drieu la Rochelle, Drumont, Maulnier, Maurras, Péguy, and Rebatet.

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                                                                                                                                                • Nolte, Ernst. 1966. Three faces of fascism: Action française, Italian fascism, National Socialism. Translated by Leila Vennewitz. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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                                                                                                                                                  English language translation of Der Faschismus in seiner Epoch. Die Action Française, der Italienische Faschismus, der National-sozialismus, first published in 1963. Among one of the first comparative studies of fascism. Includes a chapter on the Action Française.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Paxton, Robert O. 2001. Vichy France: Old guard and new order, 1940–1944. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Revised edition of Paxton’s 1972 book with a new introduction and updated bibliography. Essential for those who want to understand France during World War II and the Vichy government’s collaboration with Nazi Germany. A study of Pétain and Laval as well as other Vichy elites.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Soucy, Robert. 1986. French fascism: The first wave, 1924–1933. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      French police reports from 1924 to 1933 provide the data for Soucy’s examination of the Légions, Jeunesses Patriotes, and Faisceau. He also traces the groups to the turn-of-the-century Ligue des Patriotes, Action Française, and Ligue antisémitique.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Soucy, Robert. 1995. French fascism: The second wave, 1933–1939. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        French police reports from 1933 to 1939 provide the data for Soucy’s examination of the Francisme, Solidarité Française, and Parti Populaire Français. Soucy argues against the position in Sternhell 1996 that French fascism is a union of right and left; it is firmly rooted in right-wing authoritarianism, conservatism, and nationalism.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Sternhell, Zeev. 1996. Neither right nor left: Fascist ideology in France. Translated by David Maisel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                          English language translation of Ni droite, ni gauche, originally published in 1983. Sternhell, examining several works by French intellectuals, concludes that French fascist ideology was entrenched in both left (anti-Marxist, anti-liberal, and anti-bourgeois) and right (nationalist, anti-liberal, and anti-bourgeois) ideologies. Very controversial in France for tying fascism to the left.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Weber, Eugen. 1962. Action française: Royalism and reaction in twentieth century France. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            Weber examines Maurras and his Action Française, from its beginnings to its demise in 1944. He describes the Action Française’s devoted followers, some of whom went on to establish other fascist groups, and its influence over interwar fascism. Important reading for students and scholars of French anti-Semitism, nationalism, and fascism.

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                                                                                                                                                            Germany

                                                                                                                                                            Because of the Holocaust and the centrality of the Third Reich in the history of World War II, there are numerous studies of German fascism, which is often referred to as National Socialism or Nazism. As Iggers 2005 documents, insights about the Third Reich are constantly emerging due to new methods and perspectives for studying history in general and the Third Reich in particular, and recently granted access to archival materials in Russia and eastern Europe. The citations contained herein on German fascism are organized into sections on the origins of Nazism and on accountability for the success of the Nazi regime and the assignment of responsibility for its atrocities. All of the handbooks and readers on fascism include the German case (see Handbooks and Readers). All of the studies in this bibliography dealing with definitions consider the German case (see Definitions) and most of the theoretical studies on fascism include Germany (see Theories). Special issues dedicated to various aspects of Nazism have appeared in some journals. In 1997 History & Memory printed eighteen articles in a special issue on the legacies of Nazism and the Holocaust, with attention paid to the work of historian and survivor Saul Friedländer, and in 2005 on German history, including World War II, the Holocaust, racism, and imperialism (see Journals). In 2004 the Journal of Contemporary History published a special issue on various aspects of National Socialism under the Third Reich, including articles by Richard Evans and Ian Kershaw, and in 2007 it published a special issue on Nazism as a political religion and its relationship to Christianity, with the lead article written by Evans (see Journals).

                                                                                                                                                            • Iggers, Georg G. 2005. Historiography in the twentieth century: From scientific objectivity to the postmodern challenge. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              English language translation of Geschichtswissenschaft im 20. Jahrhundert: ein kritischer Überblick im internationalen Zusammenhang, originally published in 1993. Reviews the history of history, with a chapter on recent approaches that diverge from postmodernism to social scientific research. Important for understanding the historiography of the Third Reich and the Holocaust.

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                                                                                                                                                              History

                                                                                                                                                              Among those who study the origins of Nazism, there is a debate referred to as the German historians’ debate (Historikerstreit), which may reflect the political positions of its participants. On the one side are intellectuals who see the Third Reich as comparable to regimes like the Soviet Union because they share totalitarian traits and both engaged in crimes against humanity. Critics argue that this perspective downplays Nazi crimes and absolves Germans of responsibility. On the other side are intellectuals who regard the Third Reich as a unique and incomparable regime because of the enormity of its evil and the Holocaust. They see Germany as having followed a special path (Sonderweg) not shared by other European countries that resulted in unique social, cultural, and political conditions and structures that led inevitably to the Third Reich. Critics of the Sonderweg perspective argue that it downplays Soviet crimes and is derogatory toward Germans and Germany. Another aspect of the debate pits so-called functionalists against intentionalists. Functionalists argue that Nazism was the result of the cumulative radicalization of the German state, so their historical accounts are an examination of structures, institutions, and bureaucracies. Intentionalists center their inquiries on Adolph Hitler’s will, intentions, and decisions. Scholars who side with the functionalists claim that intentionalists absolve Germans of their responsibility for the war while intentionalists assert that functionalists cast too much blame on ordinary Germans who lacked the capacity to make independent decisions during the war. Many historians advocate for a nuanced approach that takes into account both sets of factors, such as Kershaw 2000, Kershaw 2008, Evans 2004, Evans 2005, and Evans 2009 who offer excellent books on Hitler’s ascent, the rise of the Third Reich, the Third Reich on the path to war and genocide, the Third Reich in war, and the Holocaust. Stone 2010 describes the Holocaust as a European project and links it to colonialism, modernity, culture, and the development of scientific notions about race.

                                                                                                                                                              • Evans, Richard J. 2004. The coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin.

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                                                                                                                                                                Synthesizing existing research and drawing upon new information, Evans explains the fall of the Weimar Republic, the rise of the Nazis, and their seizure of power, drawing upon structural, political, economic, and cultural factors that extend back to Bismarck.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Evans, Richard J. 2005. The Third Reich in power, 1933–1939. New York: Penguin.

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                                                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive look at German life after the Nazis gained power and prepared for war. Evans finds that although the Third Reich won the support of some people, the compliance of others was facilitated by terror and brutality.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Evans, Richard J. 2009. The Third Reich at war, 1939–1945. New York: Penguin.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A well-documented history of the Holocaust, the Third Reich, and Germans under Nazism during World War II, with the military campaign as a backdrop. Not a history of military operations.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Kershaw, Ian. 2000. The Nazi dictatorship: Problems and perspectives of interpretation. 4th ed. London: Arnold.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Essential reading for an understanding of the perspectives and assumptions that guide research on the history of the Third Reich. Deals with the Historikerstreit, the debates about the rise of Nazism among those whose perspectives fall somewhere along a continuum of intentionalists to functionalists. Fourth edition reflects ongoing debates in the field.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Kershaw, Ian. 2008. Hitler: A biography. New York: W.W. Norton.

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                                                                                                                                                                        A one-volume edition of Kershaw’s Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris (1998) and Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis (2000) about how Hitler acquired and held power. From the position that the Third Reich was not the product of one man’s intentions but of a complex interplay of struggles for power among Germans in multiple institutions under Hitler’s charismatic authority.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Stone, Dan. 2010. Histories of the Holocaust. London and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A review of the scholarship on the Holocaust in light of new disciplinary and methodological trends and access to East European and Russian archives, which reveals the Holocaust as a broader European project. Organized according to areas of research such as race science, colonialism, culture, decision-making, and modernity.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Accountability

                                                                                                                                                                          To understand the growth of the Nazi Party and the success of the Nazi regime, and to assign responsibility for Nazi atrocities, scholars of German fascism also look at the actions of ordinary Germans and Nazi Party members and voters. Browning 1992 finds that ordinary Germans in a police unit in Poland killed and deported Jews out of obedience to authority, while Goldhagen 1996 argues that those same men were motivated by a uniquely German eliminationist anti-Semitism. Brustein 1996 claims that it wasn’t particularly anti-Semitism, which was widespread in Germany at the time, but Nazi economic policies that appealed to Germans who joined or voted for the party between 1925 and 1933. Crew 1994 examines the relationship between Germans and Nazism, with a focus on whether Germans were its perpetrators or victims. Longerich 2010 explicitly examines decision-making at all levels of Nazi bureaucracies to address the question of complicity and finds evidence of the possibility of independent decisions and maneuverability at the middle level. Studies about German women under the Third Reich including Bock 1986 and Koonz 1987 (both cited under Women and Fascism) ask if women were victims or perpetrators. Guba 2010 summarizes the debate and brings the scholarship up to date. Most of the studies of the Nazi party and regime examine anti-Semitism and the Holocaust. In their books on the history of the Third Reich, Evans 2004, Evans 2005, Evans 2009, Kershaw 2000, and Kershaw 2008 treat genocide and the Holocaust (all cited under History in the section on Germany).

                                                                                                                                                                          • Browning, Christopher. 1992. Ordinary men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Using war crimes testimony of members of Reserve Police Battalion 101, comprised of Hamburg men too old for military service, Browning argues that the 80 percent of them who agreed to shoot 38,000 Polish Jews and deport another 45,200 to Treblinka in 1942 and 1943 did so largely out of obedience to authority.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Brustein, William. 1996. The logic of evil. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Based on analysis of electoral and census data and forty-two thousand Nazi Party membership cards from 1925 to 1933, Brustein argues that the Nazi Party’s appeal was not its anti-Semitism but its economic programs that met the material interests of Germans more than those of other Weimar era parties.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Crew, David F. 1994. Nazism and German society, 1933–1945. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Edited volume of essays that have been published elsewhere on the relationship between the German people and the Nazi regime, in part a response to the debates about whether Germans were perpetrators or victims of Nazism. Contributors include Omer Bartov, Gisela Bock, Christopher Browning, Ian Kershaw, and Adelheid von Saldern.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Goldhagen, Daniel. 1996. Hitler’s willing executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Largely in response to Browning’s research on Reserve Police Battalion 101, Goldhagen examines the same group of policemen. His controversial argument is that ordinary Germans willingly perpetrated violent crimes against Jews and participated in their extermination because of a particular eliminationist anti-Semitism that had developed in Germany since medieval times.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Guba, David A., Jr. 2010. Women in Nazi Germany: Victims, perpetrators, and the abandonment of a paradigm. Concept 33.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A well-organized and clear summary of the debate among historians who study women in Nazi Germany, sometimes referred to as the Historikerinnenstreit, that questions whether women were victims or perpetrators of Nazism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Longerich, Peter. 2010. Holocaust: The Nazi persecution and murder of the Jews. Oxford and London: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      English language translation of Politik der Vernichtung: Eine Gesamtdarstellung der nationalsozialistischen Judenverfolgung, originally published in 1998. Based on recent scholarship and materials from East European and Russian archives. About anti-Jewish policies and the Holocaust through an analysis of its perpetrators’ decisions at all levels of the Nazi leadership.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                      There were many fascist groups during the interwar period in Hungary that emerged following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Most of them had ultranationalist ideologies that painted Hungarians as superior and destined for greatness. Sugar, et al. 1990 offers a broad history of Hungary that provides a context for understanding the fascism of the early 20th century. The most important figure in Hungarian fascism is Ferenc Szálasi, who modeled his Arrow Cross after German National Socialism and led Hungary for a short time in 1944 (see Nagy-Talavera 2001; Sugar 1995; Sugar, et al. 1990, and Vago 1975). Hannebrink 2006 analyzes the role of Hungary’s Christian churches in nationalism and anti-Semitism, and ultimately, the mass deportation of Hungary’s Jews. Vago 1975 examines fascism and anti-Semitism in Hungary, with comparisons to Czechoslovakia and Romania. Comparing Hungarian nationalism and fascism to other cases in eastern Europe, Sugar 1995 finds that they are nourished by similar histories. Bosworth 2009, Kallis 2003, Laqueur 1976, and Passmore 2002 include Hungary in their volumes (all cited under Handbooks and Readers) as do Griffin 1993 and Payne 1996 (both cited under Definitions). Mann 2004 (cited under Origins) analyzes the Hungarian case in his comparative study of who the fascists were, what motivated them, and how they rose to power. Hungary is also included in essays on clerical fascism in Feldman, et al. 2008 (cited under Origins).

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hannebrink, Paul A. 2006. In defense of Christian Hungary: Religion, nationalism, and antisemitism, 1890–1944. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Hannebrink documents the religious anti-Semitism in Hungary’s Christian churches from 1890 to 1944, an anti-Semitism that differed from the racial anti-Semitism of the fascist Arrow Cross, but which nevertheless affected the fate of Jews in Hungary. Although some churches hid Jews, most did not protest the mass deportations of them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas M. 2001. The Green Shirts and the others: A history of fascism in Hungary and Romania. 2d ed. Iasa, Romania; and Portland, OR: Center for Romanian Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Updated to reflect new research, Nagy-Talavera describes the anti-Semitism and variety of fascist groups that existed in Hungary in the interwar period, especially Szálasi’s Arrow Cross, modeled after Germany’s Nazi Party, and their role in the leadership of Hungary during World War II.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sugar, Peter F., ed. 1995. Eastern European nationalism in the twentieth century. Lanham, MD: American Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            This is an important comparative study of 20th-century nationalism in eastern Europe that builds upon myths that are nourished by political defeats and shifting geographic boundaries, as Sugar states in his conclusion. Tibor Frank writes the chapter on Hungarian fascism and nationalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sugar, Peter F., Péter Hanák, and Tibor Frank, eds. 1990. A history of Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              An edited volume of essays on Hungary’s history. Provides important background for understanding the rise of anti-Semitism and the variety of fascist groups in the interwar period and World War II, which is covered in the chapters by Mária Ormos and Loránd Tilkovszky.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Vago, Bela. 1975. The shadow of the Swastika: The rise of fascism and anti-Semitism in the Danube basin, 1936–1939. London: Institute of Jewish Affairs, Saxon House.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Vago writes a comparative history of fascism and anti-Semitism in Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary in the period leading up to World War II. His insights regarding the growing fascist movements and anti-Semitism in Romania are based on documents from the British Public Records Office.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                Because Mussolini’s reign was the first instance of a fascist regime, Italian fascism is the standard-bearer of all fascisms, whether putative or otherwise. Thus, Italy has been both the explicit and implicit object in much of the scholarship on fascism. The vast scholarly research on Italian fascism covers all aspects of Italian society, relations with other countries and people, fascism’s origins, both national and international, and multiple cross-national comparisons. Included elsewhere in this bibliography, Baldoli 2003 (cited under Britain) describes Mussolini’s attempts to bring fascism to Britain, and Kitchen 1980 (cited under Austria) shows the relations between pre-Anschluss Austria and Mussolini. Finchelstein 2010 (cited under Argentina) documents the ways in which Italian fascists influenced Argentina’s fascist Nacionalistas. Nolte 1966 (cited under Definitions) includes Italy in his book on fascism, one of the earliest comparative studies. Several handbooks and readers deal with Italy, such as Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, Laqueur 1976, Passmore 2002, and Thurlow 1999, and it is worth noting that ten of the essays in Bosworth 2009 concern Italy (all cited under Handbooks and Readers). Scholars of totalitarianism and authoritarianism also examine the Italian case (cited under Totalitarianism and Political Religion).

                                                                                                                                                                                                History

                                                                                                                                                                                                Included here are studies on the origins and ideological roots of Italian fascism in literary, political, and intellectual works (Bosworth 2006, De Felice 1977, De Grand 2000, Gentile 2003, Gregor 2005, Sternhell 1994), its history from movement to regime to demise (Bosworth 2006, De Felice 1977, De Grand 2000 (see also Ben-Ghiat 2001, cited under Aesthetics and Daily Life)), and its roots in modernity (Gentile 2003). Finchelstein 2008 edits the special issue of Constellations on Italian fascism’s history and ideology. Griffin 2007 (cited under Origins) concludes in his study of Nazism and Italian fascism that fascism was a product of modernity and radical in what it promised. Mann 2004 (cited under Origins) includes Italy in his study of who the fascists were, what motivated them, and how they rose to power. In his theory of the five stages of fascism, Paxton 2004 (cited under Origins) concludes that only Italy and Germany moved past the first stage. In his study of the relationship between civil society and fascism, Riley 2010 (cited under Origins) classifies the Italian case as party fascism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bosworth, R. J. B. 2006. Mussolini’s Italy: Life under the fascist dictatorship, 1915–1945. New York: Penguin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bosworth, known for his excellent biography Mussolini (2002), describes the roots of Italian fascism and uses archival materials to paint a picture of everyday life under it. The Italian institutions of the family, religion, and education and a general mistrust of government curbed the effects of fascism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • De Felice, Renzo. 1977. Interpretations of fascism. Translated by Brenda Huff Everett. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    English language translation of Le interpretazioni del fascismo, originally published in 1969. Known for his seven volume biography of Mussolini (1965–1997) and for differentiating between fascist movements and regimes. Describes fascism generally and in particular. Italian edition was an early attempt to analyze the theories to date on fascism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • De Grand, Alexander. 2000. Italian fascism: Its origins and development. 3d ed. Lincoln and London: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      This third edition includes an update of the research on Italian fascism. De Grand maintains the position that fascism is neither revolutionary nor leftist, contrary to recent interpretations. A well-organized history of fascism’s origins and its development in Italy from movement to regime to demise.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Finchelstein, Federico. 2008. Special issue on fascism. Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory 15.3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        This issue includes eight articles on fascist ideology and Italian fascism (i.e., history, ideology, aesthetics, and depictions of its enemies) by leading scholars such as Zeev Sternhell and Emilio Gentile.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gentile, Emilio. 2003. The struggle for modernity: Nationalism, futurism, and fascism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Gentile, known for his scholarship on Italian fascism and political religion, provides a context for a study of the origins of fascism in Italy and positions it as a struggle of modernity. Stanley Payne writes the foreword.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gregor, A. James. 2005. Mussolini’s intellectuals: Fascist social and political thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gregor follows the intellectual history and origins of Italian fascism as it moved from movement to regime and onto the international stage through World War II and its relations with Germany.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sternhell, Zeev. 1994. The birth of fascist ideology: From cultural rebellion to political revolution. Translated by David Maisel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              English language translation of Naissaince de l’idéologie fasciste, originally published in 1989. Mussolini’s socialist background already well known, this book links his intellectual development to French syndicalist Georges Sorel. With Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aesthetics and Daily Life

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Many studies of Italian fascism focus on its aesthetics, its religious qualities, and its everyday lived experience. Berezin 1997 documents how Italian fascists used symbols, rituals, and myths to socialize Italians into fascism. Ben-Ghiat 2001 describes the role that Italian intellectuals and artists played under fascist rule. Gentile 1996, who has had a significant influence on the research on fascism as political religion (see also Gentile 2006, cited under Totalitarianism and Political Religion), analyzes the religious qualities of Italian fascism. Pugliese 2004 annotates stories, songs, memoires, and other documents produced by and about fascists, antifascists, and resistors in Italy. A special issue of the Journal of Contemporary History 1996 is dedicated to fascist aesthetics in Italy and its colonies in Libya and Ethiopia, and some of the articles in a special issue of Constellations 2008 are about Italian fascist aesthetics (cited under History in the section on Italy). De Grazia 1992 (cited under Women and Fascism) describes how Italy’s fascist regime tried to control the public and private aspects of women’s lives.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. 2001. Fascist modernities: Italy, 1922–1945. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ben-Ghiat writes about the complicity and corruption of Italian intellectuals and artists under Mussolini. Mussolini manipulated writers, filmmakers, and journalists through rewards and punishments to create work that challenged modernity and supported fascist ideals. As Italy’s relationship with Nazi Germany deepened, these ideals grew to include racial and ethnic projects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Berezin, Mabel. 1997. Making the fascist self: The political culture of interwar Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Berezin’s sociological study of the public rituals and spectacles of fascist Italy lends credence to the notion of fascism as political religion. She documents the annual commemoration of the March on Rome and ceremonies in Verona to show how Italian fascists used symbols, rituals, and myths to socialize Italians into fascism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gentile, Emilio. 1996. The sacralization of politics in fascist Italy. Translated by Keith Botsford. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    English language translation of Il culto del littorio. La sacralizzazione della politica nell’Italia fascista, originally published in 1993. Develops theory of the role of political religion in modern life. Italian fascists used features of religion––symbols, rituals, myths, commemoration––to create a civil religion that cast the nation as sacred.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pugliese, Stanislao. 2004. Fascism, anti-fascism, and the resistance in Italy, 1919 to the present. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An anthology of documents, some translated into English for the first time, produced by and about fascists, antifascists, and the resistance in Italy. Brief explanations accompany each document, which include analyses, stories, songs, and memoires. Most documents concern the interwar period and World War II.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schapp, Jeffrey T., ed. Special issue: The aesthetics of fascism. 1996. Journal of contemporary history 31.2.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This special issue contains nine articles on the aesthetics of fascism including studies of fascist aesthetics in Italy and colonial Libya and Ethiopia by leading scholars such as George Mosse and Ruth Ben-Ghiat.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author of Pinto 2011 (cited under Handbooks and Readers), whose work is also seen in larger studies of fascism, is a specialist of Portuguese fascism. Although the fascist Nazionalsindacalismos never held power, they put pressure on Salazar’s regime in the interwar period, as Pinto 2000 documents. Pinto 1995 classifies Salazar’s dictatorship as a type of conservative authoritarianism with fascist influences that can be traced to other European fascisms. Portuguese fascism was the subject of comparative studies in Kallis 2003 (cited under Handbooks and Readers) and is treated in an essay on clerical fascism in Feldman, et al. 2008 (cited under Origins).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pinto, António Costa. 1995. Salazar’s dictatorship and European fascism: Problems of interpretation. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pinto documents the fascist influences in the Portuguese dictatorship of António de Oliviera Salazar, such as in its political police, unions, and youth organizations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pinto, António Costa. 2000. The Blue Shirts: Portuguese fascists and the new state. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Traces the history of Portugal’s fascist Nazionalsindacalismos (the Blue Shirts) from its birth in 1932 to its dissolution by Salazar after its failed coup in 1934, which sent it underground, to its demise by 1939. Portuguese fascists were inspired by French syndicalist Georges Sorel and the Action Française’s Georges Valois.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Romanian fascist groups never ruled Romania, although they were a strong presence in the interwar period. Following World War I, Romania’s territory expanded to include many new ethnic groups, it experimented with democracy, and it tried to grow the middle class through expanded higher education. Brustein and King 2004 finds that anti-Semitic acts increased under certain economic, political, and demographic conditions before World War II. As Livezeanu 1995 and Nagy-Talavera 2001 describe, the anti-Semitism of the period was exploited by fascist groups like the League of National-Christian Defense and the Legionnaires (Iron Guard). Iordachi 2004 explores the charismatic nature of the Legionnaires and their leader, Codreanu. Riley 2010 (cited under Origins) concludes that the war-time regime of Antonescu was an example of state fascism. In collaboration with Nazi Germany, Romania was responsible for the destruction of the third largest Jewish population in Europe, as Ioanid 2000 documents. Romanian fascism has been the subject of many cross-national studies such as those by Bosworth 2009, Iordachi 2010, Kallis 2003, and Passmore 2002 (all cited under Handbooks and Readers), and by Feldman, et al. 2008, Griffin 2007, and Mann 2004 (all cited under Theories).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brustein, William I., and Ryan D. King. 2004. Anti-Semitism as a response to perceived Jewish power: The cases of Bulgaria and Romania before the Holocaust. Social forces 83.2: 691–708.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1353/sof.2005.0007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Analysis of economic and political anti-Semitism in Bulgaria and Romania from 1899 to 1939 using information from the American Jewish Year Book, newspapers, economic data, and election results. Anti-Semitism in Romania increased when economic conditions worsened and the Jewish population grew, but only when leftist parties were getting stronger.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ioanid, Radu. 2000. The Holocaust in Romania: The destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu regime, 1940–1944. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Romania had the third largest Jewish population in Europe before World War II. Ioanid documents the destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu regime in Romania. Forewords by Elie Wiesel and Paul A. Shapiro.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Iordachi, Constantin. 2004. Charisma, politics and violence: The legion of the “Archangel Michael” in inter-war Romania. Trondheim, Norway: Trondheim Series on East European Cultures and Societies 15.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Iordachi examines the charismatic appeal of Codreanu, the leader of Romania’s interwar Iron Guard (also called the Legionnaires), and the religious and mythical nature of its ideology and rituals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Livezeanu, Irina. 1995. Cultural politics in greater Romania: Regionalism, nation building, and ethnic struggle, 1918–1930. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of the 1918–1930 period during the development of greater ethnic tensions and nationalism in Romania following its post–World War I reconstruction. Includes a study of Cuza’s Liga Apararii National Crestine (League of National-Christian Defense) and Codreanu’s “Legionnaires” (Legion of the Archangel Michael, which later became the Iron Guard).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas M. 2001. The Green Shirts and the others: A history of fascism in Hungary and Romania. 2d ed. Iasa, Romania; and Portland, OR: Center for Romanian Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Updated to reflect new research, Nagy-Talavera describes the ethnic tensions, the emergence of the Iron Guard and other fascist groups, and growing anti-Semitism in Romania in the interwar period and into World War II.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Although the fascist Falange never ruled Spain, some of its leaders and ideals were integrated into the Franco regime. Payne 2011 dedicates the last part of the book on Spain’s history to the Falange. Payne 1999 analyzes the development of fascism in Spain through its various incarnations. Bowen 2000 examines the relationship Spain had with fascist Italy and Nazi Germany from the Spanish Civil War to World War II. Richmond 2003 (cited under Women and Fascism) shows how some women benefited from the women’s section of the Falange. Riley 2010 classifies the Spanish case as traditional fascism compared to party fascism in Italy and state fascism in Romania. Spanish fascism has also been the subject of other comparative studies. Mann 2004, in his study on who fascists were, what motivated them, and what led to their ascent, dedicates a chapter to Spain, as does Larsen, et al. 1980 in the volume on the social composition of fascism’s supporters (both cited under Origins). Griffin 1993 and Payne 1996 add Spain to their volumes on fascism (both cited under Definitions), as does Bosworth 2009 (cited under Handbooks and Readers).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bowen, Wayne. 2000. Spaniards and Nazi Germany: Collaboration in the new order. Columbia, MO: Missouri Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Without Mussolini and Hitler’s support, Franco might have lost the Spanish Civil War. Although Spain was neutral, the relationship between Hitler and Spain, particularly through the fascist Falange, continued into World War II. Also an interesting study of the relations between Germany and pro-Nazi Spaniards.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Riley, Dylan. 2010. The civic foundations of fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain, and Romania, 1870–1945. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In his analysis of the relationship between civil society, hegemony, and fascism, Riley finds that traditionalist fascism emerged in Spain (also cited under Origins in the section on Theories).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Payne, Stanley G. 1999 Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An extension of his earlier published work and based on new information and insights, Payne examines the development of fascism in Spain from its birth to its death, from the Falange Española before the Spanish Civil War, to its integration into the Franco regime, to the Movimiento Nacional.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Payne, Stanley G. 2011. Spain: A unique history. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This excellent book will provide students with a historically grounded approach for understanding the Falange fascist party and Franco, which concerns the last part of the book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Extreme Right

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Debates about definitions characterize the scholarship on the post–World War II successors of fascism, here named the extreme right. There is a lot of scholarly research on groups in the extreme right, which consists of intellectual organizations, activist networks, social movements, and political parties that have been called neo-fascist, radical right, new radical right, populist radical right, neo-Nazis, and so on. Cultural and biological racism and anti-Semitism weave a thread through most of these groups. Because of their general acceptance of democratic practices, but not necessarily democratic values, many of them participate in elections, either as parties with candidates or as social movements that put pressure on parties or governments. Some parties have succeeded in electing candidates to office. Still other groups on the extreme right operate as media outlets or think tanks that work to influence academic, intellectual, policy, and social circles (e.g., France’s GRECE). Groups like skinheads or neo-Nazis engage in violent civil disobedience. Recent research has pointed to international connections among extreme right groups that are facilitated by Internet media and white power music. The growth of newly democratic countries in the former Soviet bloc of eastern Europe has brought about a proliferation of groups that fall into the extreme right, as have developments in the Americas and Asia. A major challenge for researchers has been to keep track of the activities of groups on the extreme right while also keeping up with studies about them. This bibliography consists of empirical research that is recent and cross-national. Those interested in conducting research on a particular country will find these studies to be a good starting point. The research spans Europe (including Turkey), North America (Canada, the United States, and Mexico), South America (Peru and Venezuela), and Asia (China, India). Newspapers are another source of information on the extreme right, especially information about and analysis of current events. Research and advocacy groups with an online presence are also good sources on the extreme right (see also Data Sources).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Definitions and Descriptions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The scholarship on how to define the extreme right is rich in descriptions of its activities, political positions or platforms, relations with other groups, and leaders, members, supporters, voters, and opponents. Griffin, in the 2004 Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik scholarly exchange (cited under Journals), argues that a generic definition of fascism can be applied to contemporary groups as well as those in the first half of the 20th century (cited under Definitions). Laqueur 1996 sees connections between groups before and after 1945. However, Gregor 2006 urges caution in the use of the term fascism to describe contemporary extreme right groups and compares a selection of cases to fascist Italy. Mudde 2007 defines the populist radical right as authoritarian, populist, and nationalistic and classifies parties in Europe. Eatwell and Mudde 2009 presents essays on the definition of the extreme right and its place in civic culture in nine democracies. Hainsworth 2008 describes extreme right parties in fourteen countries and asks if they pose a threat to democracies. In two related volumes, Mammone, et al. 2012a and Mammone, et al. 2012b examine various features of extreme right groups in eighteen countries, including the white power music scene, use of the Internet, involvement in sport, local activities, international connections, and positions on Jews, Muslims, and the European Union.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Eatwell, Roger, and Cas Mudde, eds. 2009. Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Essays on how to define the extreme right and the relationship between democracy and the extreme right. Topics include the role of civic culture in tolerating the extreme right, whether democracies integrate or marginalize it, and political violence. Covers Austria, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Sweden, and the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gregor, A. James. 2006. The search for neofascism: The use and abuse of social science. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511617225Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gregor argues that the term fascist today has been applied unethically to denigrate, most often to groups on the extreme right, when in fact there are few cases of neo-fascism. Based on fascist Italy as the ideal type, he analyzes whether contemporary cases in Europe, China, India, and the United States are truly neo-fascist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hainsworth, Paul. 2008. The extreme right in Western Europe. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hainsworth discusses the concept of the extreme right, examines various aspects of parties in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and Spain, and addresses whether they pose a threat to democracy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Laqueur, Walter. 1996. Fascism: Past, present, future. London and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Laqueur finds continuity between fascism before and after 1945 in Europe and Russia (neo-fascism), the Third World (clerical fascism), and Islamic radicalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mammone, Andrea, Emmanuel Godin, and Brian Jenkins, eds. 2012a. Mapping the extreme right in contemporary Europe: From local to transnational. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Essays on local activities, international communications and exchanges, and the white power music scenes of groups in Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Britain, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Scandinavia, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, and Ukraine. Accompanies Varieties of Right-wing Extremism in Europe (Mammone, et al. 2012b).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mammone, Andrea, Emmanuel Godin, and Brian Jenkins, eds. 2012b. Varieties of right-wing extremism in Europe. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Essays on the positions of European extreme right groups about Jews, Muslims, and the European Union. Topics include the use of the Internet, involvement in sports, and the white power music scene. Connections are drawn between fascism before and after 1945. Accompanies Mapping the Extreme Right in Europe (Mammone, et al. 2012a).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mudde, Cas. 2007. Populist radical right parties in Europe. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511492037Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mudde defines the populist radical right as authoritarian, populist, and nationalistic (which is further distinguished by nativism and xenophobia). He classifies parties throughout Europe and reviews theories on the radical right’s growth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Emergence and Success

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scholars of the extreme right examine a variety of factors to explain its emergence. Rydgren 2007 reviews the sociological supply- and demand-side explanations for its rise, as well as the extreme right’s connections to earlier fascism. An additional feature of some of the descriptive studies of extreme right groups is whether they pose a threat to democracy, such as Eatwell and Mudde 2009 and Hainsworth 2008, or how or why they have grown, such as Mudde 2007 (all cited under Definitions and Descriptions). Zaslove and Goodwin 2009 was published in response to Mudde 2007 (cited under Definitions and Descriptions), which also takes the research in new directions. How democratic practices and structures in eight countries facilitate or limit the emergence of extremist groups––on both the right and the left––is the subject of Mudde and Kaltwasser 2012. Laqueur 2007 evaluates whether the extreme right in Europe and Russia can compete with moderate parties who are also trying to address immigration issues. Art 2011 concludes that the skills and attitudes of activists play a role in the success of extreme right parties in eight countries. Ignazi 2006 examines the ideology of the extreme right and the social composition of its supporters as it transforms from a social movement to a political party in nine countries. Finally, della Porta, et al. 2012 uses social movement concepts and methods to examine the extreme right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Art, David. 2011. Inside the radical right: The development of anti-immigrant parties in Western Europe. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on 140 interviews with activists of radical right parties in Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Spain, Art concludes that the activists’ skills and attitudes, which affect party subcultures, are a factor in their success.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ignazi, Piero. 2006. Extreme right parties in Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ignazi examines the development of extreme right groups from movement to party, their ideological bases, the social composition and attitudes of their voters, and their political success in Austria, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, and the Mediterranean countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Laqueur, Walter. 2007. Fascism in the twenty-first century? Society 44.4: 48–53.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/BF02919521Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Laqueur examines the possibility of fascism emerging in the 21st century in Europe and Russia given the presence of immigrants and Jews, diversity of right-wing and neo-fascist groups, lack of monopoly on immigration issue, and type of leadership. Also explores use of the term Islamic fascism for radical and fundamentalist Islamists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mudde, Cass, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, eds. 2012. Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or corrective for democracy? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139152365Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Essays on the role that left- and right-wing populism plays in democracies. Populism can threaten democracy, but also challenge democracies that exclude or marginalize populist groups or the issues they promote, especially democracies with authoritarian tendencies. Included are Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Peru, Slovakia, and Venezuela.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • della Porta, Donatella, Manuela Caiani, and Claudius Wagemann. 2012. Mobilizing on the extreme right:Germany, Italy, and the United States. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An analysis of the extreme right in Germany, Italy, and the United States using social movement concepts and methods, including frame, network, and event analysis. Examination of the ideologies, national and international relations between groups, key actors, and action repertoires, including protest tactics, targets, and victims.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rydgren, Jens. 2007. The sociology of the radical right. Annual review of sociology 33:241–262.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131752Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A review of the sociological research on the contemporary radical right-wing populism, including its ideology, its relations to earlier fascism, and explanations for its emergence such as demand-centered and supply-side explanations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Zaslove, Andrej, and Matthew J. Goodwin, eds. 2009. Review symposium on Cas Mudde’s Populist radical right parties in Europe. Political studies review 7.3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This special issue is a direct response to Mudde 2007 (cited under Definitions and Descriptions) on the populist radical right. Includes seven articles. Useful for exploring the different directions and reactions Mudde’s book has spawned.

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