Sociology Ethnicity
by
Paul Spickard
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 September 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0125

Introduction

Ethnicity, and its sibling concept race, lies close to the center of sociological concern. Together these intertwining ideas constitute one of the driving forces in human affairs. Alongside class and gender, ethnicity and race amount to one of the primary axes of sociological analysis. Ethnicity and race have been especially prominent in sociological, political, anthropological, and historical analyses of the United States, but they also exist in every part of the world in local forms. Ethnicity and race are not quite the same thing, but they are intimately related, so their relationship, and the history of ideas about them, bears contemplating. The common view of both scientists and the general public for most of the last two centuries was that humankind is naturally divided up into four or five big races: white, black, yellow, red (and sometimes brown). Each was identified with origins in a different part of the globe: Europe, Africa, East Asia, the Americas (and sometimes the Malay Peninsula and island Southeast Asia). It was posited that each of these races constituted a separate type of people that could easily be distinguished from the others both by physical features and at the genetic level. Until the last few generations, scholars and the public presumed that each race also had a particular personality type, intelligence level, potential for achievement, and natural place in the social order. In the view common at that time, ethnic groups were seen as subgroups of races, marked off more by culture than by genetics. The European or white race included Swedes, Italians, Poles, Scots, and so on. The Asian or yellow race comprised Koreans, Vietnamese, Filipinos, Pakistanis, and so on. The black or African race was made up of Ibo, Yoruba, San, Fulani, Bambara, Mandinka, and a host of other ethnic peoples. The common view was that race was about biology, but ethnicity was about culture and consent. One could not change one’s race, but one’s ethnicity was partly subject to choice. Certainly, in that view, ethnicity was a matter more of behavior than of biology. To be sure, mostly Muslim Pakistanis had different religious ways, foodways, languages, and child-rearing practices than did mostly Buddhist Koreans. Yet it was hard to deny that people from Korea also didn’t look very much like people from Pakistan. And it could not be denied that one could talk meaningfully about black culture in the United States or Britain. So as more and more people came into contact with people from different parts of the world, it became harder and harder to sustain the notion that races were big, permanent, and easily definable, and that racial boundaries were decided on a physical or biological basis, while ethnic groups were smaller subsidiary groups whose differences were cultural and mutable. Over the course of the 20th century, the notion of biologically separated races and culturally separated ethnic groups gradually gave way to a view of humankind as a single field of infinite variety, with one population shading, physically and culturally, into the next almost imperceptibly as one moved across the globe. Scholars and some of the public became aware that, whether one considered genotype or phenotype, the differences between the so-called races were really very small—much smaller than the biological similarities between them. And the physical differences between ethnic groups could be quite large—the average Pakistani does not look much like the average Korean; the average Norwegian does not look much like the average Italian. In the past few decades scholars have almost entirely eschewed the notion of races as longstanding, biologically discrete categories. Instead, they have emphasized that racial ideas were constructed by historical actors, in particular times and places we can identify, for reasons at which we can make at least educated guesses. Constructedness and contingency are at the core of our understanding of ethnicity and race in the 21st century. We have come to see race and ethnicity as processes more than categories. Many sociologists speak of racialization: a process by which one set of people writes a story of essential, indelible difference (and frequently inferiority) onto another set of people. Some people think of the differences between groups as ethnic—that is, as primarily cultural—until the racial moment, when someone imputes to those differences a primordial, indelible quality, and racialization occurs. Yet the residue of the earlier, biologistic view of race as something physical and indelible, but ethnicity as something cultural and malleable, still lurks beneath the surface, shaping the perceptions and actions of the general public and of more than a few social scientists. Though race is now seen as a socially constructed category, not a biological essence, race and ethnicity nonetheless operate powerfully to shape the life chances of individuals. Some people’s life chances are significantly greater than other people’s on account of the races, religions, or ethnic groups to which they are assigned. People kill people because of their race or their ethnicity—whether in Nazi Germany or the American South or the Balkans of the 1990s. The fact that race and ethnicity are social constructions rather than biologically based facts does not mean that they do not have powerful real-life consequences. This bibliography does not include studies of specific ethnic and racial groups, except in a few cases where particular group studies were classic markers in the development of the field of ethnic and racial studies. Researchers should look to other, group-specific Oxford Bibliographies Online for such studies of individual groups.

General Overviews

Of the writing of textbooks there is no end. Here is a sampling of some of the better textbooks and anthologies on ethnicity and race. Typically, such textbooks begin with a couple of chapters on theoretical issues, then have a chapter each on several racial or ethnic groups: African Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, Jews, and so on. Increasingly in recent years, they are likely to contain comparative chapters on ethnic and racial systems in other complex societies. Most try to untangle the relationship between ethnicity and race; few succeed. Two analytical monographs that succeed fairly well while covering a lot of territory are Takaki 1993 and Spickard 2007. Students should be careful about textbooks. There is a tendency to imagine that textbooks are the places that a neophyte should start when trying to understand a topic such as ethnicity. That is almost never a good idea. Textbooks are useful reference tools, but they do not lead the student into the stuff of ethnicity. At best they can provide a kind of organized backdrop to the subject. Better avenues into ethnicity are the books and articles in the sections that follow General Overviews and Handbooks and Encyclopedias.

  • Spickard, Paul. 2007. Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A similarly broad-ranging interpretation of race, ethnicity, migration, and colonialism across all the major groups in American history.

    Find this resource:

    • Takaki, Ronald T. 1993. A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      The best, most artful and comprehensive overview of the history and meaning of ethnicity, race, immigration, and membership in American society.

      Find this resource:

      Textbooks

      Feagin and Feagin 2011, Marger 2012, Higginbotham and Andersen 2012, Rose 2006, Farley 2011, Parillo 2012, and Schaeffer 2012 each provides an introduction to sociological thinking about ethnicity and race. All except Farley 2011 are organized partly around conceptual issues and partly around the stories of particular groups.

      • Farley, John E. 2011. Majority-minority relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Unlike other textbook authors, Farley eschews the group-by-group chapters and maintains a focus throughout on analytical issues and on relationships between groups. His emphasis on prejudice and race relations is a legacy of the social psychology of the 1960s, still relevant but somewhat dated. His historical sections focus mainly on relationship between Whites and African Americans and do not reach much past the 1970s. Objects of analysis include the economic, political, and education systems. Compares racial inequality to inequality based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability.

        Find this resource:

        • Feagin, Joe R., and Clairece Booher Feagin. 2011. Racial and ethnic relations: Census update. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Feagin and Feagin emphasize race and discrimination as primary issues. They are strong on summarizing theoretical schools, in particular the power-conflict theorists (see Classic Works). The text includes individual chapters on English Protestants, Irish and Italian Americans, Jews, Native Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, Cuban and Puerto Rican Americans, Japanese Americans, other Asian Americans, and Arab Americans, as well as one on globalization and racism.

          Find this resource:

          • Higginbotham, Elizabeth, and Margaret L. Andersen, eds. 2012. Race and ethnicity in society: The changing landscape. 3d ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            An up-to-date textbook that is extremely easy to teach.

            Find this resource:

            • Marger, Martin N. 2012. Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspectives. 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              Of the currently published textbooks, Marger’s is the most comprehensive, comprehensible, and even-handed in its theoretical approach. After laying out the various schools of interpretation with remarkable clarity, Marger describes the histories and contemporary status of European Americans, Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, White ethnic Americans, and Jewish Americans. Then he examines ethnic and racial systems in South Africa, Brazil, and Canada.

              Find this resource:

              • Parillo, Vincent N. 2012. Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. 12th ed. Boston: Pearson.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Parillo divides his text into four sections: sociological theories about race and ethnicity; European Americans; what he calls “visible minorities” (African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, and Middle Eastern– and North African–derived Americans); and “other minorities” (women, gays, religious minorities, people with disabilities, and the elderly).

                Find this resource:

                • Rose, Peter I. 2006. They and we: Racial and ethnic relations in the United States. 6th ed. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This classic text is gracefully written and offers contemplative insights throughout. Its descriptions of specific American groups are woven together in four chapters of historical narrative. They are framed by essays on a variety of theoretical and interpretive topics.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Schaeffer, Richard T. 2012. Racial and ethnic groups. 13th ed. Boston: Pearson.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Schaeffer takes the most common approach. The early chapters talk abstractly about prejudice and discrimination (the analysis framed much as it might have been in, say, 1970), immigration, and religion. Then he marches through the groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Mexican and Puerto Rican Americans, Asian Americans, Chinese and Japanese Americans, Jews, women, and a brief set of international comparisons.

                    Find this resource:

                    Anthologies

                    The collections in this section—Gallagher 2011, Pedraza and Rumbaut 1996, and Ellison and Martin 1999—gather the writing of many scholars about ethnicity and race, about theoretical issues, and about particular groups.

                    • Ellison, Christopher G., and W. Allen Martin, eds. 1999. Race and ethnic relations in the United States: Readings for the 21st century. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Forty-six mostly reprinted essays, arranged thus: different groups (African Americans, Latino/a Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, European Americans); current issues (prejudice, residential segregation, affirmative action, diversity in higher education, crime and criminal justice, interracial/interethnic conflict, immigration, rethinking identities and categories).

                      Find this resource:

                      • Gallagher, Charles A. 2011. Rethinking the color line: Readings in race and ethnicity. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Nearly four dozen social scientists and public intellectuals take on all the major issues in ethnic and racial approaches to American society.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Pedraza, Silvia, and Rubén G. Rumbaut, eds. 1996. Origins and destinies: Immigration, race, and ethnicity in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          A collection of thirty-six essays, some new and some classic, that roughly follows the arrangement of some of the textbooks above. Sections: Introduction; Color and Caste (Natives and Africans, Latin Americans, Asians); Pre–World War I Waves of European Migration (Northwest Europeans, Southern and Eastern Europeans); The Watershed: The Civil Rights Movement and Its Aftermath; Contemporary Waves of Latin American and Asian Migration; Contemporary Issues (Urban Destinies, Color and Class, Self and Others). Main focus is on peoples of color, but some attention paid to White ethnicities.

                          Find this resource:

                          Handbooks and Encyclopedias

                          Several publishers have recruited leading scholars to contribute to reference works that give systematic introductions to a wide variety of ethnic and racial topics, themes, and analytical issues. These are among the best known of the genre. None gives more than a brief introduction to any of their topics; serious students must dig deeper. Collins and Solomos 2010 is a collection of thematic and analytical essays. Cashmore 2004 and Minority Rights Group 1997 are worldwide compendia of entries about particular ethnic groups. Bayor 2004 is a collection of historical documents about the United States. Thernstrom, et al. 1980; Min 2005; and Schaefer 2008 are group-by-group, topic-by-topic encyclopedias based on ethnic issues in the United States.

                          • Bayor, Ronald H., ed. 2004. The Columbia documentary history of race and ethnicity in America. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            A couple of hundred crucial historical documents, arranged in chronological periods. From laws to letters to essays to newspaper accounts of critical events. Treats all racial and ethnic groups together.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Cashmore, Ellis, ed. 2004. Encyclopedia of race and ethnic studies. London: Routledge.

                              DOI: 10.4324/9780203380703Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              An alphabetical listing of entries by threescore experts on issues from Aboriginal Australians to Zionism. Substantial entries with lists of suggested readings.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Collins, Patricia Hill, and John Solomos, eds. 2010. The SAGE handbook of race and ethnic studies. Los Angeles: SAGE.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Twenty original essays framing various aspects of the field, such as theoretical paradigms, methodological issues, race and class, race and gender, ethnicity and sexuality, ethnicity and nationalism, multicultural policies, ethnic conflict, globalization and migration, the family and race, race and education, religion and race, and hybridity.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Min, Pyong Gap, ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of racism in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Analytical and comparative essays on more than four hundred topics. Blends primary documents with reflective essays.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Minority Rights Group. 1997. World directory of minorities. London: Minority Rights Group International.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Region-by-region and country-by-country report by experts on the main minority groups, their issues, and especially any human rights issues.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Schaefer, Richard T., ed. 2008. Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      A comprehensive, three-volume encyclopedia with more than six hundred entries, mainly on American topics.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Thernstrom, Stephan, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin, eds. 1980. Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        A classic reference tool with detailed essays by specialists on myriad groups and issues, now out of date but not completely superseded.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        Journals

                                        The following are the leading journals in the specific field of ethnic and racial studies. Other journals with different fields of view also publish articles and reviews in the ethnic and racial field. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Ethnic Studies Review, and Ethnicities are primarily social scientific in orientation. Journal of American Ethnic History and Immigrants and Minorities are mainly historical. Identities and MELUS operate from a cultural studies or literary perspective.

                                        Classic Works

                                        Modern ideas about ethnicity and race were formed by two strands of thought: biological determinists (scientific racialists), whose work was generated by the European Enlightenment and grew to dominance over the 18th and 19th centuries; and opponents of scientific racialists, who began to work at the dawn of the 20th century and rose to a dominant position by the last third of that century.

                                        Scientific Racialists

                                        These are the classic texts from the scientific racialist tradition. Readers should note that this line of thinking has been rejected by most social scientists—indeed, by most decent people. Nonetheless, these ideas still hold a great deal of power over both the public at large and some individual scholars. Eze 1997 is a compendium of classic essays, mainly from the 18th and 19th centuries. Blumenbach 2010 and Gobineau 2009 are two of the main framers of the scientific racialist intellectual tradition. Grant 2006 was the great popularizer of their ideas in the United States. Coon 1962 was a prominent late proponent of eugenics. Van den Berghe 1987 led the resurgence of scientific racialist ideas under the new heading sociobiology. Rushton 2000 was the most prominent advocate of a scientific racialist view as the idea set took on the new name evolutionary psychology.

                                        • Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich. 2010. The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Charleston, SC: Nabu.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Blumenbach took Carolus Linneaus’s system of organizing all living things into a nested hierarchy of categories (kingdom, phylum, class, etc., down to species) and extended it systematically to races of humankind. He decided there were precisely four, then five races (white or Caucasian, red or Amerindian, yellow or Asian, black or African, and brown or Mayalan), each with its own characteristic physiognomy, psychological character, and intellectual capacity. Translated from several original versions, written between the 1770s and 1790s in Latin, German, and French, by Thomas Bendyshe.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Coon, Carleton S. 1962. The origin of races. New York: Knopf.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Coon was the last major figure in the avowedly eugenic line of scientific racialist writers. Coon’s other books included The Races of Europe (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1972; originally published in 1939); The Story of Man (New York: Knopf, 1955); and The Living Races of Man (New York: Knopf, 1965). Coon, following his mentor Earnest Hooton (Apes, Men, and Morons. New York: Putnam’s, 1937), tried to give Madison Grant’s racial and sub-racial theories scientific legitimacy. Coon was a social activist who devoted years of his life to trying to overturn the 1954 US Supreme Court school desegregation case Brown v. Board of Education.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi, ed. 1997. Race and the enlightenment: A reader. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              A nearly definitive reader on the history of the Enlightenment origins of scientific racialism. Selections from Linnaeus, Kant, Herder, Blumenbach, Cuvier, and others, nicely set in context.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Gobineau, Arthur comte de. 2009. The inequality of human races. Memphis, TN: General Books.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Gobineau was a French aristocrat who ranked the races according to a variety of measures of wonderfulness in a steady hierarchy: white, yellow, red, brown, black. He also pushed the idea of enduring sub-races, each with its own characteristic physiognomy, psychology, and mental capacity (Alpine, Caspian, Semitic, etc.). In his thinking, the Aryan part of the Caucasian or white race was the most wonderful of all. He is the father of the line of thought that gave the world Nazi ideology. Translated from the original French edition (1853–1855) by Adrian Collins.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Grant, Madison. 2006. The passing of the great race: Or, the racial basis of European history. York, SC: Liberty Bell.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Grant was the great popularizer of pseudoscientific racialist ideas. Great Race appeared in several editions between 1916 and 1925 and was translated into many languages. A German translation was in Adolf Hitler’s library and was said to be one of the books that inspired his Aryan master race theories.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Rushton, J. Philippe. 2000. Race, evolution, and human behavior: A life-history perspective. 3d ed. Port Huron, MI: Charles Darwin Research Institute.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Sociobiological ideas in turn were repackaged late in the 20th century, back into something like their earlier eugenic form, this time under the name evolutionary psychology. Rushton contends, much like Gobineau and Grant, that there are recognizable profiles for each of the major racial groups as to brain size, intelligence, personality, temperament, sexual behavior, and rates of fertility, maturation, and longevity. This worldwide pattern, according to Rushton, implies evolutionary and genetic, rather than purely social, political, economic, or cultural causes to differences in human performance and life chances. Other major figures in the line from eugenics to evolutionary psychology include Arthur Jensen, William Shockley, Hans Eysenck, Richard J. Herrnstein, Charles Murray, and Richard Lynn. Many of them had leadership roles in and received financial support from a eugenics foundation called The Pioneer Fund.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • van den Berghe, Pierre. 1987. The ethnic phenomenon. New York: Praeger.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      The influence of scientific racialism began to decline after World War II, though vestiges are with us still. When revulsion against Nazi policies gave eugenics a bad name, some of the same ideas were revived under a new academic label: sociobiology. Instead of asserting that the races and sub-races possessed indelible psychological and mental capacities based on their physical differences, the sociobiologists gave a kind of managed natural selection the key role. The idea was that ethnicity was a variety of kin selection over millennia of human evolution. Through maintaining intense, kin-based ethnic solidarity networks and cornering key resources, some ethnic groups came to dominate others who were either less nepotistic or less fortunate in their initial access to resources. Van den Berghe and others contended that kin selection explained a wide variety of recurring human phenomena, including colonialism, slavery, caste, the behavior of middleman minorities, and patterns of assimilation. It wasn’t exactly one’s physiognomy that determined one’s life chances, in their view. It was, however, still one’s biological inheritance that determined one’s fate.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      Analyzing Racialist Pseudoscience

                                                      Several recent scholars have analyzed parts of the scientific racialist tradition. Stern 2005 and Briggs 2002 take on the core ideas and deeds of the eugenics movement at home and abroad. Tucker 1994 and Gould 1996 lay bare the eugenic ideas at the core of much modern writing about race.

                                                      • Briggs, Laura. 2002. Reproducing empire: Race, sex, science, and US imperialism in Puerto Rico. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        A brilliant exposé of the nexus between the science of eugenics, colonialism, racial domination, gender, the family, and sexuality. Shows how eugenic ideas were used in Puerto Rico to pursue racially and colonially directed birth control and sterilization campaigns, how they were implicated in public-health and behavior-control campaigns against prostitution and also to control entry to the United States.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Gould, Stephen Jay. 1996. The mismeasure of man. Rev. ed. New York: Norton.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          The eminent paleobotanist, Harvard professor, and popular science writer traces the history of modern scientific racialist ideas in exquisite detail and sparkling prose.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Stern, Alexandra. 2005. Eugenic nation: Faults and frontiers of better breeding in modern America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Scientific racialist ideas became social policy through the eugenics movement. Eugenics, which billed itself as the science of race betterment through scientific breeding, guided much policymaking in the United States throughout the 20th century, and also had branches that affected social policies in every major European nation, Japan, the Philippines, India, South Africa, Brazil, and many other countries. Eugenics manifested itself in many forms of social policy advocacy, including intelligence testing, school segregation, tropical medicine, immigration policy, the US Border Patrol, the birth control movement, the environmental movement, and DNA ancestry testing.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Tucker, William. 1994. The science and politics of racial research. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              A careful historical, theoretical, and data analysis of the development and claims of the eugenics movement and its modern manifestations.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              Dismantling the Biological Determinist Consensus

                                                              Despite the tremendous intellectual esteem accorded to the scientific racialists throughout the 19th century, and despite their influence over social policy throughout most of the 20th century, late in the latter century their influence began to wane. It did so in large part because of the work of a dedicated line of scholars who might be described as sociopolitical or sociocultural determinists. Some of their work is described here. Founder of the sociopolitical line of interpretation is Du Bois 2007; initiators of the sociocultural line are Park 1964 and Boaz 1995. Their noteworthy successors include Montagu 1997, Barth 1998, and Banton 1998. Cox 1959 added a Marxist version. So far, all these writers operated in a modernist mode. Miles 1993, Hall and du Guy 1996, and Gilroy 2000 brought this stream of thinking into the postmodern age.

                                                              • Banton, Michael. 1998. Racial theories. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511583407Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                An updated edition of a classic analysis of the history of the conflict between scientific racialism and its sociocultural critics. Long identified with the power-conflict school of sociological analysis, Banton makes the case for a historically sensitive social scientific understanding of racial and ethnic groupings to replace biological determinist understandings.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Barth, Fredrik, ed. 1998. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Results of a symposium held at the University of Bergen, 23–26 February 1967. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This volume introduced Barth’s ideas, which have been foundational to modern anthropological thinking about ethnicity, to a wide audience. It begins with Barth’s thirty-page theoretical essay. Then seven essays by other Scandinavian ethnographers use Barth’s insights to explore the contours of ethnicity in places as various as Laos, Afghanistan, Norway, Mexico, and Ethiopia.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Boaz, Franz. 1995. Race, language, and culture. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Boaz did battle with the scientific racialists in their home territory, anthropology, and in doing so became the founder of American cultural anthropology. This volume (originally published in 1940) collects sixty-two of his most important essays and articles. In the end, the viewpoints of Du Bois and Park in sociology, and of Boaz and others like Zora Neale Hurston in anthropology, won out over the biological determinists.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Cox, Oliver C. 1959. Caste, class, and race: A study in social dynamics. New York: Monthly Review.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      The author, one of the most important sociologists and economic theorists of the first half of the 20th century, explores the state of theoretical understanding about caste (see Susan Bayly and Nicholas Dirks, under International Comparisons: South Asia), class, and race, to place the situation of African Americans in a global context.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Du Bois, W. E. B. 2007. The Philadelphia Negro. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Du Bois ranks as one of the most important sociologists in the American tradition. The Philadelphia Negro, first published in 1899, disputed the contentions of the biological determinists who said that different ethnic and racial groups were predestined to particular positions in society based on their biological inheritance of strong or weak traits. Du Bois made a detailed survey of every facet of the lives of Black Philadelphians: history, demography, marriage and the family, education, occupations, relationships with Whites, segregation, health and disease, crime, community and religious organizations, poverty, housing, voting behavior, etc.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Gilroy, Paul. 2000. Against race: Imagining political culture beyond the color line. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This book marks a culminating point for the evolution of one of the most influential contemporary thinkers about ethnic and racial matters. Here Gilroy, radically, advocates the position that racial thinking—not just racism—is a key obstacle to human freedom. He argues passionately that much of modern culture is tied up with the expression of ethnic, racial, and other identities, and that the only way out is to eschew racial thinking entirely.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Hall, Stuart, and Paul du Guy, eds. 1996. Questions of cultural identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            In several essays and anthologies, Stuart Hall and various collaborators attempted to bring forward the ideas left them by progenitors such as Boas, Park, and Barth, and more radically to undermine the persistent advocates of biological determinism. Identified with the approaches broadly labeled as cultural studies, Hall and du Guy brought together advocates of the notion that ethnic identities—indeed, all sorts of human identity—were ideas constructed in particular times and places by particular sorts of people for purposes at which we can at least guess, and so those identities could be unpacked and perhaps reshaped. Hall and du Guy gathered ten practitioners of cultural studies who question the very categories of race, nationality, class, and gender that had previously been such unquestioned features of modern social life.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Miles, Robert. 1993. Racism after race relations. New York: Routledge.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Miles led the 1990s and later turn to constructivist understandings of ethnic and racial groups. He led the move from trying to understand race relations (that is, the relationship between Group A and Group B, the existence and meaning of each of which was assumed) to focusing on the process of racialization: that is, the process by which people who believe themselves to be part of Group A come to perceive themselves as fundamentally, irrevocably different from people they designate as part of Group B. For Miles, the key issue is racialization.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Montagu, Ashley. 1997. Man’s most dangerous myth: The fallacy of race. 6th ed. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Montagu was the leading anthropologist and social critic who stood out in public debate against the eugenicists and their descendants, from the 1920s to his death in 1999. Man’s Most Dangerous Myth, one of Montagu’s many books, went through six editions between 1942 and 1997. It exposes the fallacies that lie at the base of biological determinist thinking about ethnicity and race.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Park, Robert Ezra. 1964. Race and culture: Essays in the sociology of contemporary man. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Park was the leading light in the University of Chicago department of sociology, which had a foundational effect in organizing resistance to the biological determinists. Park, his colleagues, and a host of students who went out to be professors of sociology explored the cultural roots of human difference, and of the interactions between groups. Park is most famous for his “race relations cycle”—a heuristic device for understanding the stages that an ethnic group went through when it encountered another ethnic group. Its four stages—contact, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation—assumed that all ethnic and racial groups were all pretty much alike, and that all went through common processes. Race and Culture (originally published in 1950) gathers twenty-nine of Park’s most famous essays.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  Ethnic Theory Today

                                                                                  Ethnic theory today is dominated by constructivists—scholars who emphasize that ethnic and racial identities are not primordial, biological essences, but things constructed in the era of European colonial expansion by people who were at pains to describe, classify, and arrange in hierarchical array the many people they were encountering in their forays abroad. Cornell and Hartmann 2007, Smedley and Smedley 2011, and Brace 2005 are all excellent textbooks of ethnic and racial theory. Cornell 2000 provides a particular focus on one mode of ethnic construction.

                                                                                  • Brace, Loring C. 2005. “Race” is a four-letter word: The genesis of the concept. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    An eminent anthropologist recounts the development of racial and ethnic thinking and comes down squarely in the constructivist camp.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Cornell, Stephen. 2000. That’s the story of our life. In We are a people: Narrative and multiplicity in constructing ethnic identity. Edited by Paul Spickard and W. Jeffrey Burroughs, 41–53. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Stresses narrative as one of the key tools by which ethnic identities—group and individual—are constructed.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Cornell, Stephen, and Douglas Hartmann. 2007. Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        The very best introduction to contemporary constructivist ideas about ethnicity and race is Cornell and Hartmann’s upper-division/graduate-level textbook. In clear prose with a multitude of concrete examples drawn from around the world, they lay out the various ways of thinking about the field and help the reader navigate her way among them.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Smedley, Audrey, and Brian Smedley. 2011. Race in North America: Origin and evolution of a worldview. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The most widely used systematic study of the history of racial and ethnic ideas. Includes new chapters on a variety of current topics, from the contention that the presidency of Barack Obama heralds a “post-racial” future to the emergence of a new generation of scientists who contend that race is a valid biological concept.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Panethnic Formation

                                                                                          One of the modes of analysis which constructivist scholars have pursued is the study of panethnic or racial formations. That is, they attempt to describe and explain how it is that ethnic groups have formed out of previously separate entities. Omi and Winant 1994; Lopez and Espiritu 1990; and HoSang, et al. 2012 offer theoretical treatments, while Espiritu 1992, Menchaca 2002, Cornell 1988, and Gomez 1998 are studies of the formations of particular panethnic groups.

                                                                                          • Cornell, Stephen. 1988. The return of the native: American Indian political resurgence. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Cornell describes the ways that various tribes and mixed peoples built a pan-Indian identity and political movement over the last third of the 20th century.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Espiritu, Yen Le. 1992. Asian American panethnicity: Bridging institutions and identities. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Espiritu shows the quite self-conscious process by which, beginning in the latter 1960s, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and other Americans whom White Americans orientalized together, chose to form a panethnic coalition they called Asian Americans. She goes on to show how that panethnic or racial formation was reinforced by the building of panethnic institutions.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Gomez, Michael. 1998. Exchanging our country marks: The transformation of African identities in the colonial and antebellum South. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Shows how a host of West African ethnic groups—Ibo, Hausa, Fon, Yoruba, Fulani, Bambara, Mandinka, and so on—came to form a common African and then Negro identity in North America because they all had a common interest in surviving their common enslavement, and how they built over a few generations a common African American culture.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • HoSang, Daniel Martinez, Oneka LaBennett, and Laura Pulido, eds. 2012. Racial formation in the twenty-first century. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Seventeen scholars, including Omi and Winant, contemplate various issues regarding racial formation at the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Lopez, David, and Yen Espiritu. 1990. Panethnicity in the United States: A theoretical framework. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13.2 (April): 198–224.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/01419870.1990.9993669Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Constructs a theoretical framework for understanding panethnic formations.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Menchaca, Martha. 2002. Recovering history, constructing race: The Indian, Black, and White roots of Mexican Americans. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Menchaca details how the Mexican American people were formed out of the mixing of Indian, Black, and White people.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Possibly the most influential book put forth by the constructivists. The book’s key contribution is chapter 4, “Racial Formation.” Here Omi and Winant explain the dynamics by which many disparate peoples (for example, Ibo, Hausa, Fon, Fulani, Mandinka, Bambara, etc.) came to be formed into one panethnicity or race (in this case the Black or African American race). They describe this process of panethnic formation, and suggest how the racial formation concept may also be applied historically to White or European Americans, as well as to Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos or Hispanic Americans.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        Ethnicity, Race, and Biology

                                                                                                        Sociologists, anthropologists, and biologists continue to explore the relationships between biology, ethnicity, and race in an era that is dominated by constructivist understandings of ethnic categories and relationships, and that also has at its disposal genetic-level analytical tools that were not available to the scientific racialists of the 18th to 20th centuries. Marks 1995 and Graves 2003 are theoretical and historical analyses of racialist biological thinking. Koenig, et al. 2008 and Wade 2007 are collections that specifically address the issue of race and genetics.

                                                                                                        • Graves, Joseph L., Jr. 2003. The emperor’s new clothes: Biological theories of race at the millennium. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          An evolutionary biologist traces the history of scientific racialism, from pre-Darwinian racial ideas, through Darwin, the eugenicists, Nazism, down to recent controversies over race and IQ and race and disease.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Koenig, Barbara A., Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, and Sarah S. Richardson, eds. 2008. Revisiting race in a genomic age. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Scholars of biology, medicine, law, sociology, pharmacology, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, political science, and environmental science expound on the implications of recent genetic research for ideas about race and ethnicity, as well as the future of medicine.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Marks, Jonathan. 1995. Human biodiversity: Genes, race, and history. New York: de Gruyter.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              A biologist as well as an anthropologist, Marks sorts out the biological claims of the scientific racialists, tests them against the recent findings of geneticists, and finds them wanting. Written with knowledge, insight, and clarity. Highly recommended.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Wade, Peter, ed. 2007. Race, ethnicity and nation: Perspectives from kinship and genetics. New York: Berghahn.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Ideas about family and kinship are changing rapidly in a scientific era dominated by DNA and genetic analysis. European scholars explore the implications of these changes for our understanding of race, ethnicity, and nation.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                Factors in Ethnicity

                                                                                                                One can separate analyses of ethnic groups conceptually into four schools: (1) those that treat ethnicity primarily as an issue of interests (political, economic, etc.); (2) those that concentrate on the building, maintenance, and dissolution of ethnic institutions; (3) those that are concerned mainly with the creation, sustaining, or fading of ethnic culture; and (4) those that treat identity itself as a primary factor holding ethnic groups together. It may be worth noting that a particular scholar is not limited to one of these angles of analysis over the course of her career, nor even necessarily in one study, but most studies concentrate on one of these modes of analysis to the diminution of the others, whether or not they make that choice articulate. Cornell 1996, “The Variable Ties that Bind,” describes the general state of this field and sets the table for the subfields that follow.

                                                                                                                • Cornell, Stephen. 1996. The variable ties that bind: Content and circumstance in ethnic processes. Ethnic and Racial Studies 17.2: 265–289.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/01419870.1996.9993910Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Cornell shows conclusively that at least ethnic interests (usually questions of political or economic advantage or disadvantage), the building and maintaining of ethnic institutions, and the practice of ethnic culture are separate, if interrelated vectors by which we may understand the glue that holds together ethnic groups.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  Interests

                                                                                                                  Horowitz 2000, Cohen 1974, and Glazer and Moynihan 2001 are interested primarily in ethnicity as the enactment of political interests. Wilson 2012 and Bonacich and Modell 1980 are concerned more with economic interests as the glue for ethnic groups.

                                                                                                                  • Bonacich, Edna, and John Modell. 1980. The economic basis of ethnic solidarity: Small business in the Japanese American community. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Treats economic interests as the vital glue to ethnic solidarity, although their data show the opposite: the ethnic basis of economic solidarity.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Cohen, Abner. 1974. The lesson of ethnicity. In Urban Ethnicity. Edited by Abner Cohen, ix–xxiv. London: Tavistock.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Focuses on the economics of ethnic solidarity among Hausa who come together in Yoruba towns in Nigeria to function as independent political entities and control the economic niche of long-distance trade.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. 2001. Beyond the melting pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City. 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        For Glazer and Moynihan, ethnicity was an issue expressed mainly in the political arena. Originally published in 2001.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Horowitz, Donald. 2000. Ethnic groups in conflict. 2d ed. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Charts the shifting political interests that make many ethnic groups work, and the conflicts over political power that result.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Wilson, William Julius. 2012. The declining significance of race: Blacks and changing American institutions. 3d ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226032993.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Contrary to what many of his right-wing fans imagine, Wilson did not argue that race is not important and that class is the master issue in American inequality. Rather, he argues that the Black middle class has become distant from the Black working class, to the detriment of the life chances of poor African Americans.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            Institutions

                                                                                                                            Assimilationists all, Gordon 1964, Alba and Nee 2005, and Gans 1979 are concerned primarily with ethnicity in its institutional aspects.

                                                                                                                            • Alba, Richard, and Victor Nee. 2005. Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Alba and Nee attend to various other factors, but their primary concern is the degree to which particular ethnic groups continue to maintain ethnically exclusive institutions. They see assimilation as the main trend in interethnic relationships.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Gans, Herbert. 1979. Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2.1 (January): 1–19.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/01419870.1979.9993248Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Gans saw ethnic institutions withering among the descendants of European immigrants and concluded that any European ethnic group identity was merely symbolic—of the “kiss me, I’m Irish” variety. Like Alba and Nee, he failed to see that nation-specific identities were being transformed into a pan-European White identity that maintained a high degree of salience.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Gordon, Milton. 1964. Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Gordon is famous for making the distinction between ethnicity as culture (practice, behavior, belief) and ethnicity as structure (institutions), and for placing emphasis on institutions.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  Culture

                                                                                                                                  Although they are all interested in politics, economics, and institutions, for Berreman 1972, Steinberg 2001, and Said 1993, ethnicity is most importantly about culture.

                                                                                                                                  • Berreman, Gerald. 1972. Social identity and social interaction in urban India. American Anthropologist 74.3: 567–586.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1525/aa.1972.74.3.02a00220Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Berreman concentrates on what behaviors—language, religious expression, posture, visual cues—mark one as a member of this or that group.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Said, Edward W. 1993. Culture and imperialism. New York: Random House.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Said examines public acts of cultural expression—primarily novels—as measures of ethnic solidarity and resistance to colonial impositions.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Steinberg, Stephen. 2001. The ethnic myth: Race, ethnicity, and class in America. 3d ed. Boston: Beacon.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Steinberg considers many factors, but culture—behavior—is the ultimate criterion of ethnic belonging.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        Identity

                                                                                                                                        For a small but important subset of ethnic theorists—among them Epstein 1978, Nagata 1974, Ferraro 2005, Keesing 1989, Halter 2002, and Waters 2001—identity itself is the focus of concern.

                                                                                                                                        • Epstein, A. L. 1978. Ethos and identity: Three studies in ethnicity. London: Tavistock.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Epstein emphasized the continuing significance of ethnic identities, despite predictions of ethnic group demise and absorption into larger social entities, in three situations: the Copperbelt of southern Africa, in Melanesia, and among American Jews.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Ferraro, Thomas J. 2005. Feeling Italian: The art of ethnicity in America. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            A cultural studies–inflected romp through the emotional attachment to being Italian.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Halter, Marilyn. 2002. Shopping for identity: The marketing of ethnicity. New York: Schocken.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Argues that immigrant groups, as they gain economic security in new places, reinforce their ethnic identity through shopping.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Keesing, Roger M. 1989. Creating the past: Custom and identity in the contemporary Pacific. Contemporary Pacific 1.1–2 (Spring and Fall): 19–42.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Examines the creation of myths of ancestral ways of life as a powerful tool for creating ethnic solidarity in the present.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Nagata, Judith A. 1974. What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society. Ethnology 1.2: 331–350.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1525/ae.1974.1.2.02a00080Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Explores the ways that ethnically complicated people in Malaysia choose among possible ethnic identifications, and the continuous process of ethnic oscillation that results.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Waters, Mary C. 2001. Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Explores the tension between the hard-working, education-and-upward-mobility–oriented civic values of West Indian immigrants and their racial placement as Black in American society.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    Theoretical Collections

                                                                                                                                                    Each of the anthologies listed here (Sollors 1996, Hutchinson and Smith 1996, Guiberman and Rex 2010, Alcoff and Mendieta 2007, Bulmer and Solomos 1999, and Glazer and Moynihan 1975) brings together a large number of different voices—from different eras and from a variety of disciplines—on various aspects of ethnic theory.

                                                                                                                                                    • Alcoff, Linda Martín, and Eduardo Mendieta, eds. 2007. Identities: Race, class, gender, and nationality. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Thirty-four essays from a cultural studies, rather than a social scientific, viewpoint. Treats identities broadly, not only ethnic identities, although ethnicity is the main topic. Focuses on the shift from the modern to the postmodern. Authors include Hegel, Marx, Freud, and Du Bois, as well as Alain Locke, Frantz Fanon, Cheryl Harris, Stuart Hall, Georg Lukács, E. P. Thompson, Simone de Beauvoir, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Judith Butler, Edward Said, Renato Rosaldo, Donna Harraway, and others.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Bulmer, Martin, and John Solomos, eds. 1999. Racism. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Companion volume to Hutchinson and Smith’s Ethnicity. Snippets from fifty-one writers including W. E. B. Du Bois, Philip Curtin, Michael Banton, David Brion Davis, Winthrop Jordan, George Fredrickson, Eugene Genovese, Philip Mason, Frantz Fanon James Grossman, Stephen Cornell, Frank Dikötter, Abby Ferber, Paul Gilroy, Robert Park, John Rex, Robert Miles, Patricia Hill Collins, and Joe Feagin. Fairly US-centric. Another in the series is Nationalism, edited by Hutchinson and Smith (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995).

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, eds. 1975. Ethnicity: Theory and experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          An uneven collection of essays, some now out of date but several with important contemporary resonance.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Guiberman, Montserrat, and John Rex, eds. 2010. The ethnicity reader: Nationalism, multiculturalism, and migration. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Sharply edited versions of thirty-two influential recent essays by people such as Rogers Brubaker, Benedict Anderson, Ernest Gellner, Eric Hobsbawm, Samuel Huntington, Tariq Modood, Douglas Massey, James Clifford, Stephen Steinberg, and Étienne Balibar. Especially attuned to the nexus of ethnicity and nationalism.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Hutchinson, John, and Anthony D. Smith, eds. 1996. Ethnicity. New York: Oxford.

                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Many more selections—sixty-three in all—but severely edited so that it is often hard to appreciate each author’s full argument. Explores ethnicity in many parts of the world, not mainly in the United Kingdom and the United States. Incorporates several social scientific disciplines—sociology, political science, anthropology, etc.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Sollors, Werner. 1996. Theories of ethnicity: A classical reader. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Includes full texts of twenty-four influential essays by authors ranging across the 20th century, including Max Weber, Charles Chesnutt, Randolph Bourne, Horace Kallen, Robert E. Park, Jean Toomer, Marcus Lee Hansen, Georg Simmel, Erik Erikson, Karl Mannheim, Fredrik Barth, Robert Merton, Abner Cohen, Ulf Hannerz, and Herbert Gans. Focuses mainly on the United States and the United Kingdom. Does not address the race-versus-ethnicity question.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                International Comparisons

                                                                                                                                                                More ethnic analysis has focused on the United States (and there on relationships between Blacks and Whites) than on other parts of the world. There has been a tendency to analyze ethnicity and race in the United States and then to use that as a template for analyzing ethnicity and race in other parts of the world. This section contains books that do not do that. They reveal that ethnic and racialized relationships exist in all parts of the world, that the nature of the groups and the relationships between them vary a great deal depending on local history, and that ethnic and racial relationships are primarily relationships of power. Spickard 2005; Reilly, et al. 2003; and Balibar and Wallerstein 2011 chart the shape of the field and introduce the main issues for the subsections that follow.

                                                                                                                                                                • Balibar, Etienne, and Immanuel Wallerstein. 2011. Race, nation, class: Ambiguous Identities. 2d ed. London: Verso.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  A conversation between two of the most fruitful of contemporary thinkers. They challenge the common notion of racism as a residue of ancient animosities. Instead, they see it as an ongoing project of relationship between different social groupings that have emerged in the era of the nation-state and the social distortions that have accompanied industrial and post-industrial capitalism.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Reilly, Kevin, Steven Kaufman, and Angela Bodino, eds. 2003. Racism: A global reader. Armonk, NY: Sharpe.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of more than fifty previously published pieces, scholarly and popular, from a variety of viewpoints, dealing with ethnic and racial issues, and especially with the problem of racism, here and there around the globe. Designed for classroom use.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Spickard, Paul, ed. 2005. Race and nation: Ethnic systems in the modern world. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      An integrated conversation among eighteen scholars who analyze and compare the ethnic and racial dynamics in seventeen places around the world, from Japan to Turkmenistan to the Punjab to the Maghreb to South Africa to Central America to the mid-Pacific to Cambodia. The introduction analyzes the relationship between ethnicity and race and other theoretical concerns.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      Latin America

                                                                                                                                                                      There is tremendous variety to the racial and ethnic systems in various parts of Latin America, but all of them recognize a wider range of ethnic and racial categories and experiences than is common in the United States. Wade 2010 treats various parts of Latin America comparatively. Vasconcelos 1997 is a classic evocation of the ethnic system of Mexico. Telles 2006, Freyre 1987, Daniel 2006, Lesser 1999, and Degler 1986 all focus on Brazil.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Daniel, G. Reginald. 2006. Race and multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging paths? University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Daniel updates the work of Freyre (Freyre 1987) and Degler (Degler 1986) in building a convincing portrait of the evolving ethnic and racial shape of Brazilian society. He sees Brazil moving from a society that understood itself as ethnically and racial multiple, mixed, and complicated toward a simpler, binary racial structure where one is either Black or White. At the same time, he sees the United States, which has long been dominated by binary, one-drop rule racial thinking (one drop of Black blood—one known African-identified ancestor—made one Black), moving toward the embrace of multiraciality and ethnic mixedness.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Degler, Carl N. 1986. Neither Black nor White: Slavery and race relations in Brazil and the United States. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Degler begins with Freyre’s observation that unlike the United States, Brazil never developed a binary system of racial segregation, but instead had a many-shaded system of racial and class hierarchy. Rejecting Freyre’s theory that the reason for this was that Brazilian slavery was more humane than the US variety, Degler instead points to a combination of demographic, economic, and cultural factors as the real reason for the differences.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • Freyre, Gilberto. 1987. The masters and the slaves: A study in the development of Brazilian civilization. Rev. ed. Translated by John Putnam. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            English translation of Casa-grande & senzala (1933). Freyre sought to rehabilitate Black culture in Brazil by positing that country as a nation especially blessed by rich racial mixture and harmonious cultural blending—a racial democracy. Every Brazilian, he declared, was in at least some small measure an African and an Indian as well as a European by ancestry and culture.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Lesser, Jeffrey. 1999. Negotiating national identity: Immigrants, minorities, and the struggle for ethnicity in Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Lesser challenges the Black-White or Black-White-Indian characterization of Brazilian society by exploring the crucial role ethnic minorities from China, Japan, North Africa, and the Middle East have played in constructing Brazil’s national identity.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Telles, Edward E. 2006. Race in another America: The significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Widely regarded as the definitive scholarly interpretation of race and ethnicity in Brazil, based on careful demographic, ethnographic, historical, and comparative analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Vasconcelos, José. 1997. The cosmic race. Translated by Didier T. Jaén. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Vasconcelos was to Mexico what Freyre was to Brazil: the theoretician who popularized the idea of a mixed people as the source of his nation’s uniqueness and cultural strength. In Vasconcelos’s case, he wrote of “the cosmic race,” a blend of Spanish and Indian peoples—pointedly leaving out any mention of the substantial part played by Africans and Asians in the making of the Mexican population.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wade, Peter. 2010. Race and ethnicity in Latin America. 2d ed. London: Pluto.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    An eminent anthropologist sketches the shapes that ethnicity and race take in various parts of Latin America and contemplates the evolution and implications of plastic as well as enduring identities.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    Asia

                                                                                                                                                                                    Asia is a lot of different places. To take just one crude example, social systems in Confucian-inflected China and Japan do not resemble those in Hindu-inflected South Asia. Mackerras 2003 attempts a continent-wide overview and comparison of minority peoples and national policies.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mackerras, Colin, ed. 2003. Ethnicity in Asia. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      A comprehensive, country-by-country analysis of ethnic groups, national policies, and local ethnic issues in twelve countries in East and Southeast Asia.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      Northeast Asia

                                                                                                                                                                                      Harrell 2001, Honig 1992, Harrell 2003, Gladney 1998, and Dikötter 1992 describe various minority groups and the ethnic system in China. The essays in Weiner 2009 perform a similar function in Japan, while Dikötter 1997 compares the two countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dikötter, Frank. 1992. The discourse of race in modern China. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Explores the roots and contemporary manifestations of ethnic and racial thinking as they developed in China. The system of categories looks suspiciously like those used by a couple of Western sociologists, notably Michael Banton, as those authors characterized Western ideas, but Dikötter’s book nonetheless represents a serious first attempt to understand how Han Chinese people have understood themselves and the peoples around them.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dikötter, Frank, ed. 1997. The construction of racial identities in China and Japan: Historical and contemporary perspectives. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai’i Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese, Japanese, and Western scholars explain modern ethnic and racial identity issues in Japan and China.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gladney, Dru C. 1998. Ethnic identity in China: The making of a Muslim minority nationality. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Summary of Gladney’s research on the Hui, a large Muslim minority spread through several parts of China. Includes a thoughtful meditation on the nature of ethnicity. Draws on research Gladney first reported in Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1991).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harrell, Stevan. 2001. Ways of being ethnic in southwest China. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Focusing on the Nuosu (classified as Yi by the Chinese government), Prmi, Naze, and Han (the Chinese majority) in southern Sichuan province, Harrell argues that even within the same regional social system, ethnic identity is formulated, perceived, and promoted differently by different communities at different times.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Harrell, Stevan, ed. 2003. Cultural encounters on China’s ethnic frontiers. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Ten Chinese and Western scholars explore the imperialist treatment within China of ethnic minorities by the Han Chinese majority. The book provides rich material for the comparative study of colonialism, imperialism, and nation-building.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Honig, Emily. 1992. Creating Chinese ethnicity: Subei people in Shanghai, 1850–1980. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Shows how an ethnic minority was created out of migrants from one rural area who were segregated, discriminated against, consigned to the worst jobs and housing, and despised by other residents of China’s largest city.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weiner, Michael, ed. 2009. Japan’s minorities: The illusion of homogeneity. 2d ed. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Essays by several scholars describing the historical and contemporary situations of several minority peoples in Japan, including Koreans, Burakumin, mixed-race people, Blacks, Chinese, Ainu, Okinawans, and Japanese Brazilian return migrants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    South Asia

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bayly 2001 and Dirks 2001 are two classic studies of ethnicity and caste in South Asia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bayly, Susan. 2001. Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Both an anthropologist and a historian, Bayly gives a comprehensive account of the origins and functioning of the caste system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dirks, Nicholas. 2001. Castes of mind: Colonialism and the making of modern India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Also both an anthropologist and a historian, Dirks argues that what has come to be called caste is not some primordial entity that has existed since time immemorial, nor is it a single system reflecting a core Indian value. Rather, he portrays it as a modern phenomenon that arose out of concrete interactions between people of the Indian subcontinent and British colonizers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sub-Saharan Africa

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Berman, et al. 2004 is a continent-wide collection. Moodie 1980, Adhikari 2009, Fredrickson 1981, and Mahoney 2012 explore the ethnic and racial dynamics in southern Africa. Spear and Waller 1993 concentrates on one ethnic group in East Africa. Hawley 2008 and Geschiere 2009 concentrate on international linkages.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Adhikari, Mohamed, ed. 2009. Burdened by race: Coloured identities in southern Africa. Cape Town: UCT Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nine scholars explore the status and life patterns of interstitial, mixed-race peoples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Berman, Bruce, Dickson Eyoh, and Will Kymlicka, eds. 2004. Ethnicity and democracy in Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Eighteen essays by specialists illuminate the nexus between ethnicity and nation-building in Africa as a whole, and in more than a dozen individual country studies. The essays and bibliography will lead the reader to further books on individual ethnic groups and the ethnic situation in particular countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fredrickson, George M. 1981. White supremacy: A comparative study in American and South African history. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Classic study of the roots and development of the Apartheid racial regime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Geschiere, Peter. 2009. The perils of belonging: Autochthony, citizenship, and exclusion in Africa and Europe. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226289663.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Centered on the post–Cold War era, Geschiere compares the nativist movements that grew in Cameroon and the Netherlands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hawley, John C., ed. 2008. India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean cosmopolitanisms. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explores the longstanding interactions between Africans and Indians across the Indian Ocean, with several essays each on Indian populations and cultures in Africa and Africa populations and cultures in India.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mahoney, Michael R. 2012. The other Zulus: The spread of Zulu ethnicity in colonial South Africa. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explains how other Natal Africans became Zulus over the course of colonial conflicts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Moodie, T. Dunbar. 1980. The rise of Afrikanerdom: Power, Apartheid, and the Afrikaner civil religion. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the shaping of Afrikaner identity as both the colonizers (over Black Africans) and the colonized (at the hands of the British). A powerful challenge to easy assertions of racism, at the same time it emphatically undermines Apartheid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spear, Thomas, and Richard Waller, eds. 1993. Being Maasai: Ethnicity and identity in East Africa. Papers presented at the African Studies Association Meeting in Atlanta in 1989. Athens, OH: Ohio Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, and linguists analyze how Maasai identity was formed and transformed several times from early in Kenyan history to the present. They also contemplate the nature of ethnicity in thoughtful ways.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Middle East and North Africa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Any book on the relationship between Israel and Palestine, or between Israelis and Palestinians, is necessarily about ethnic conflict in the Middle East, and there are many, many such books. Bracketing them, here are some notable analyses of ethnic dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa. Boudraa and Krause 2007, Chatty 2010, and Nisan 2002 survey ethnic minority peoples across the region. Beinart 2012 and Ince 2012 focus in on ethnic dynamics of two countries: Israel and Turkey. Natali 2005 examines the Kurds in three states.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beinart, Peter. 2012. The crisis of Zionism. New York: Henry Holt.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Analyzes the relationship between Palestinians and Jews in Israel (and Israel’s crucial American supporters). Points to the walling off of Gaza, the ongoing takeover of Palestinian homes and lands in the West Bank, and the at-best-second-class citizenship of Palestinian Arabs within Israel as abandonments of Zionism’s original democratic ideals. Treats these developments, not primarily as international or religious conflicts, but as racialized and colonial ones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Boudraa, Nabil, and Joseph Krause, eds. 2007. North African mosaic: A cultural reappraisal of ethnic and religious minorities. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A big book packed with scholarly descriptions of the many different minority ethnic peoples to be found across North Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chatty, Dawn. 2010. Displacement and dispossession in the modern Middle East. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the status of Armenians, Circassians, Kurds, Palestinians, and other peoples who live as minorities in various parts of the Middle East.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ince, Basak. 2012. Citizenship and identity in Turkey: From Atatürk’s republic to the present day. London: Tauris.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines the interplay between Atatürk’s attempt to create a unified Turkish nation out of disparate ethnic materials and the more amorphous collection of ethnicities on the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Natali, Denise. 2005. The Kurds and the state: Evolving national identity in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charts the development of modern Kurdish identity amid the complex building of nationalisms in the northern reaches of the modern Middle East.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nisan, Mordechai. 2002. Minorities in the Middle East: A history of struggle and self-expression. 2d ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assays the situations of many longstanding minority ethnic groups in various parts of the Middle East, including Druze, Armenians, Copts, Jews, Kurds, Baluchis, Alawites, Assyrians, Maronites, and Sudanese Christians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Europe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Studying ethnicity, race, and related issues in Europe is complicated by Europe’s troubled history with race, dating to the era of World War II and before. Since that war’s end, Europeans have been reluctant to use the word “race,” even for relationships that are manifestly racialized. Europeans, even scholars of race, have the tendency to use “ethnicity” or “culture” in its stead. Hine, et al. 2009 brings together the work of scholars who study the African diaspora at various places in Europe. Fonseca 1996 describes another group, the Roma, who are found in many parts of Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fonseca, Isabel. 1996. Bury me standing: The Gypsies and their journey. New York: Vintage Books.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More properly known as Roma or Romani, Gypsies constitute a significant ethnic minority in nearly every part of Europe, and are fairly universally discriminated against. A lyrical journalistic investigation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hine, Darlene Clark, Tricia Danielle Keaton, and Stephen Small, eds. 2009. Black Europe and the African diaspora. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Twenty scholars from across the disciplines examine the impact, image, and prospects of African-descended people in various parts of Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Alibhai-Brown 2001, Gilroy 2010, and Paul 1997 are among the many books on ethnicity, race, and civic membership in Britain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin. 2001. Imagining the new Britain. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Based on extensive interviews and personal experience. Charts the dimensions of the multicultural reality of British society and challenges it to go beyond its narrow past.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gilroy, Paul. 2010. “There ain’t no Black in the Union Jack”: The cultural politics of race and nation. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Provocative exploration of the relationship between class, race, and national identity amid the moral panic that accompanied Britain’s decline in economic and political power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Paul, Kathleen. 1997. Whitewashing Britain: Race and citizenship in the postwar era. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Charts the development of racially tinged immigration policies in post–World War II Britain. Formerly, the United Kingdom would allow subjects of the British Empire to immigrate. Then racist ministers and senior officials erected a series of legal and regulatory barriers to entry by dark-skinned migrants despite their being formal British subjects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Germany and France

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Göktürk, et al. 2007 and Alba, et al. 2003 collect materials on ethnic questions in Germany. Begag 2007 analyzes ethnic dynamics in France.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Alba, Richard, Peter Schmidt, and Martina Wasmer, eds. 2003. Germans or foreigners? Attitudes toward ethnic minorities in post-reunification Germany. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                German sociologists (and Alba, an American) make careful, frequently quantitative assessments of the place of the ethnic map of German society—demography, economics, citizenship, social interactions, ethnocentrism, and social policy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Begag, Azouz. 2007. Ethnicity and equality: France in the balance. Translated by Alec C. Hargreaves. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  By turns autobiographical and analytical, the novelist and politician examines the situation of disaffected immigrant youth in France and the challenge to Republican values of universal citizenship they embody as France seeks, unsuccessfully so far, for a way to become a multicultural society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Göktürk, Deniz, David Gramling, and Anton Kaes, eds. 2007. Germany in transit: Nation and migration, 1955–2005. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than three hundred documents and articles from the popular press and scholarly sources. The same editors plus Andreas Langenohl published an expended German version in 2011 under the title Transit Deutschland: Debatten zu nation und migration (Konstanz, Germany: Konstanz Univ. Press).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Russia and the Soviet Union

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hirsch 2005 and Edgar 2004 examine the making of ethnic nationalities in the Soviet Union.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Edgar, Adrienne Lynn. 2004. Tribal nation: The making of Soviet Turkmenistan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines how the idea of Turkmen ethnicity and a Turkmen nation were forged out of the interplay between Soviet nationality-building policies and local notions of ethnicity and identity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hirsch, Francine. 2005. Empire of nations: Ethnographic knowledge and the making of the Soviet Union. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An essential part of the Soviet nation-making project was recruiting ethnographers to describe (some would say create) a host of minority nationalities to make up the population of the further reaches of the Soviet empire. Hirsch tells the story of these ethnographers and the ethnic groups (the Soviets would say “nationalities”) they created and analyzed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Antiquity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Benjamin Isaac (Isaac 2006) is one of the few scholars willing to consider the racialized quality of social relations in the ancient Mediterranean world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Isaac, Benjamin. 2006. The invention of racism in classical antiquity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Isaac refutes the common belief that the ancient Greeks and Romans harbored ethnic and cultural, but not racial, prejudices, by comprehensively tracing the intellectual origins of racism back to classical antiquity. Isaac’s systematic analysis of ancient social prejudices and stereotypes reveals that some of those represent prototypes of racism, which in turn inspired the early modern authors who developed the more familiar racist ideas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ethnicity and Other Issues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students, and especially theorists, of ethnicity have been interested in ethnicity as it relates to other major issues, institutions, types of analysis, or relationships of power. Among them are nationalism, class, gender, sexuality, caste, colonialism, and migration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nationalism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For a large subset of scholars, ethnicity is primarily about the nation: how nations are formed, how they create and sustain an identity and institutions, what are the boundaries of citizenship, and similar concerns. Led by political scientists but including also sociologists, philosophers, and historians, their number includes Eley and Suny 1996, Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983, Gellner 1983, Smith 2010, Reid 2009, Anderson 2006, Brubaker 1998, and Armstrong 1982.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Anderson, Benedict. 2006. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. Rev. ed. London: Verso.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A much-admired but pretty confused book with no discernible outline or argument. Nonetheless, it contains a few scattered paragraphs that change everything. It articulates the revolutionary insight (at least in 1983 when the first edition was published) that nations, races, and ethnic groups—perhaps genders and classes, too—are “imagined communities,” not biological facts or primordial social entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Armstrong, John A. 1982. Nations before nationalism. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Emphasizes centuries-long processes of memory and myth that make primordial identities that ultimately end up producing modern nations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brubaker, Rogers. 1998. Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In France, citizenship is reckoned according to the jus soli, the law of the soil. Anyone born in France and naturalized as French is a French citizen. This leads the French to ignore actual ethnic and racial differences and discriminations. Germany, by contrast, adheres to the rule of jus sanguinis, the law of blood. To be a true German citizen one must be descended from ethnic Germans.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Eley, Geoff, and Ronald Grigor Suny, eds. 1996. Becoming national: A reader. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of two dozen key texts on the creation of national identities. Excellent for classroom use.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Czech philosopher sees ethnic group and nation as pretty much the same thing—each nation by definition has one ethnic group as its center, one government, one language, and if possible one religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, eds. 1983. The invention of tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A key early collection of essays on places in Europe, Africa, and South Asia where what are widely regarded as primordial ethnic entities were created. On closer scrutiny, they all appear to be rather recent inventions. See also Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Reid, Anthony. 2009. Imperial alchemy: Nationalism and political identity in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511691829Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Explores the evolving relationships between ethnicity and national identity in the post–World War II creation of several nation-states in Southeast Asia out of formerly multiethnic empires.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Anthony D. 2010. The ethnic origins of nations. Oxford: Lightning Source.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith also focuses on the creation of a nation as the important thing about ethnicity, but he is more open to explore the processes by which ethnic groups, and therefore nations, form. See also Smith, Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism (New York: Routledge, 1998); Smith, The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For another substantial subset, ethnic issues are mainly to be analyzed in class terms. Roediger 2007, Johnson 2005, Wray 2006, and McDermott 2006 are concerned with issues of race and class among White Americans. Kelley 1996 and Lacy 2007 are interested in class issues among African Americans. Moodie 1994 analyzes the interplay of class and ethnicity in South Africa, Foley 1997 among the various peoples of Texas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Foley, Neil. 1997. The white scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and poor Whites in Texas cotton culture. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Detailed study of the ways that shifting class positions can affect racial positions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Johnson, Allan G. 2005. Privilege, power, and difference. 2d ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Excellent undergraduate textbook showing interlocking systems of privilege—class, race, gender, ethnicity, and so on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kelley, Robin D. G. 1996. Race rebels: Culture, politics, and the Black working class. New York: Free Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A loose collection of essays, some quite controversial, on the means and meanings of resistance by Black working-class Americans to racialized and class oppressions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lacy, Karyn R. 2007. Blue-chip Black: Race, class, and status in the new Black middle class. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charts several different groups within the Black middle class, including some whose lives in White suburbs and jobs in White companies keep them quite separate from working-class African Americans, even in parts of the country with large Black populations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • McDermott, Monica. 2006. Working-class white: The making and unmaking of race relations. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Race relations in everyday life from the vantage point of a convenience store clerk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Moodie, T. Dunbar. 1994. Going for gold: Men, mines, and migration. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Detailed study of the proletarianized workforce of South African gold mines. Shows the formation of new ethnic groupings and social hierarchies, as well as complex framings of gender and sexuality. A model of sociological inquiry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Roediger, David R. 2007. The wages of whiteness: Race and the making of the American working class. Rev. ed. London: Verso.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A massively influential book in the Whiteness studies canon, this is really about race, class, and the labor movement. Addresses the question why working-class Whites did not make common cause with working-class Blacks in the 19th century, as their class interests would seem to favor such a coalition. Finds the answer in the intensity of their identifying racially (and against their own class interests) with upper-class and middle-class Whites.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wray, Matt. 2006. Not quite white: White trash and the boundaries of whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wray asserts that some poor southern White people suffer a semi-racialized minority position on account of class. Indelible characteristics are written on them by others, including filth, poverty, ignorance, violence, and a propensity toward incest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Many scholars have addressed the relationship between ethnicity and gender. Among the most influential are Ruíz and DuBois 2007, Ferber 1999, Collins 2008, Carby 1982, Frankenberg 1993, and Brodkin 1998. Hunter 2005 and King-O’Riain 2006 add beauty culture to the analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brodkin, Karen. 1998. How Jews became white folks: And what that says about race in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Does not in fact establish that Jews were ever not White in America. But this is an excellent study of the interplay among ethnicity, class, and gender in the making of a people, their culture, and their position in society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Carby, Hazel V. 1982. White woman listen! Black feminism and the boundaries of sisterhood. In The empire strikes back: Race and racism in 70s Britain. Edited by the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, 212–235. London: Hutchinson.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A Black British woman’s clarion call for White women to understand their implicatedness in White racism, on Black feminists to stand together, and on women of both races to construct a non-racist feminism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Collins, Patricia Hill. 2008. Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                When first published in 1990, Collins’s book opened to the reading public for the first time an understanding of the rich tradition of feminist thought and action among African Americans.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ferber, Abby L. 1999. White man falling: Race, gender, and White supremacy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ferber analyzes White supremacists’ belief that White men are victims of race and gender politics that are tilted unfairly against them. She lays out an original, forceful, and accessible approach to the intricacies of the relationship between gender and racism, and between racism and sexuality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Frankenberg, Ruth. 1993. White women, race matters: The social construction of Whiteness. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Interviews with thirty White women explore their own racial positioning, how they got there, and what they do in the racial arena. Among the first books to explore Whiteness critically, and the first to do so with a feminist lens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hunter, Margaret L. 2005. Race, gender, and the politics of skin tone. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A penetrating analysis of the impact of race, gender, and racial mixedness on beauty culture and women’s self-images and relationships, primarily among Blacks and Latinas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • King-O’Riain, Rebecca Chiyoko. 2006. Pure beauty: Judging race in Japanese American beauty pageants. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        With a high rate of outmarriage and a rapidly growing mixed population, the grounds and limits of Japanese American ethnicity have come into question in recent years. King-O’Riain explores how Japanese Americans police the bounds of ethnicity in beauty pageants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ruíz, Vicki L., with Ellen DuBois, eds. 2007. Unequal sisters: An inclusive reader in US women’s history. 4th ed. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Long regarded as the definitive anthology of essays on US women’s history and the intersections of gender and ethnicity, the new edition contains forty selections, some classics from earlier editions and some new.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sexuality

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Only in the last decade or so has the study of ethnicity, race, and sexuality begun to flourish. Among the leading exponents are Nagel 2003, Luibhéid 2002, Anzaldúa and Keating 2002, and Manalansan 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Anzaldúa, Gloria, and AnaLouise Keating, eds. 2002. This bridge we call home: Radical visions for transformation. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Successor to a legendary anthology (This Bridge Called My Back. 3d ed. Edited by Gloria Anzaldúa and Cherríe Moraga. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman, 2002), this version combines the work of more than eighty feminist scholars on a host of topics crossing feminisms, races, sexualities, ethnicities, classes, and genders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Luibhéid, Ethne. 2002. Entry denied: Controlling sexuality at the border. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Women’s sexuality and ethnicity have been causes for denying them entry to the United States. From the early allegation that Chinese women were prostitutes who might pollute White men, through the 1920s exclusion of Japanese wives for fear they would outbreed White women, and the deportation of Mexican women on the assertion that they were lesbians, down to the role of rape and sexuality in determining women’s border crossing chances today, Luibhéid uncovers previously unnoted connections between hierarchies of gender, race, ethnicity, class, and sexuality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Manalansan, Martin. 2003. Global divas: Filipino gay men in the diaspora. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Manalansan takes the reader into the complex world of gay Filipino immigrants in New York, into the conflicting pressures these queers experience and the ways they make alternative paths to queer modernity and citizenship. He argues that diaspora and immigration are key places for exploring the complexities of gender, race, and sexuality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nagel, Joane. 2003. Race, ethnicity, and sexuality: Intimate intersections, forbidden frontiers. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unpacks the interrelationships between ethnicity, race, sexuality, and nationality. Shows how sexual ideas, desires, and fears inform stereotypes about ethnic groups, races, and nations, and how this may result in conflict. Explores the creation of hybrid communities and cultures out of ethnic and sexual encounters, and shows how what Nagel calls “ethnosexual encounters” can both reinforce and undermine existing group categories and national boundaries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Colonialism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Race-making has happened most prominently in colonial encounters, as Fanon 2004, Memmi 1991, Césaire 2001, Said 1979, Spickard 2007, Stoler 2010, Milner-Thornton 2012, and Lake and Reynolds 2008 all attest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Césaire, Aimé. 2001. Discourse on colonialism. Translated by Joan Pinkham. New York: Monthly Review.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Classic (1955) work that inspired generations of anticolonial revolutionaries in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Emphatically and eloquently refutes the racist ideas that lie at the heart of colonial encounters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fanon, Frantz. 2004. The wretched of the earth. Translated by Richard Philcox. New York: Grove.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A Caribbean psychiatrist who took part in the Algerian Revolution, Fanon was one of the most important theorists of revolutionary struggle, colonialism, and the meanings of race. Since the 1960s, The Wretched of the Earth has been a handbook for revolutionaries around the globe. Time magazine described it as “not so much a book as a rock thrown through the window of the West.” Fanon saw race as the key issue in colonial encounters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lake, Marilyn, and Henry Reynolds. 2008. Drawing the global colour line: White men’s countries and the international challenge of racial equality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511805363Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On a worldwide scale, draws together the issues of colony-making and race-making.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Memmi, Albert. 1991. The colonizer and the colonized. Rev. ed. Boston: Beacon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A fierce, lyrical contemplation of the minds both of those who colonize others and of those who are colonized, racialized persons. Viewed by many as a revolutionary document after its initial publication in 1965.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Milner-Thornton, Juliette Bridgette. 2012. The long shadow of the British Empire: The ongoing legacies of race and class in Zambia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In this deeply researched and richly imagined account, Milner-Thornton takes us inside racially complicated families and communities, and also into the minds of their colonizers, who were sometimes their family members. She explores evolving ideas about race and the shifting sands of race policy in the British Empire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Eminent literary critic, Palestinian activist, and moral leader’s classic statement of the ways Europeans racialized Arabs and other peoples to their east and south.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spickard, Paul. 2007. Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lays out the interweaving of migration, race, ethnicity, and colonialism in the development of the American people. Sees racial formation, colonialism, and policies of racial replacement as the major issues shaping American history and identity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stoler, Ann Laura. 2010. Carnal knowledge and imperial power: Race and the intimate in colonial rule. 2d ed. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Drawing mainly on the history of Dutch colonialism in what is now Indonesia, and using a Foucauldian interpretive lens, Stoler explores the interwoven dynamics of race, colonialism, sexuality, family, and power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Migration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  One of the primary ways that different ethnic groups come into contact with each other is through migration. Sociologists and other scholars have repeatedly tried to discover universal rules that govern the patterns of encounter between peoples, like Robert E. Park’s famous “race relations cycle” noted above under Classic Works. But the patterns of ethnic peoples in encounter in fact vary enormously: sometimes there is conflict; sometimes different peoples live among each other in relative harmony; sometimes they blend to form a new composite people; sometimes one disappears into another, and so on. In any give case, one can explain why things occurred as they did, but there do not seem to be universal rules. Hoerder 2002 and Sassen 1999 study the broad sweep of human migrations in the modern world. Portes and Rumbaut 1996 and Hirschman, et al. 1999 analyze the current situation of migrant minorities in the United States. Foner and Fredrickson 2004 and Fuchs 1990 compare American migration streams and ethnic groups across time. Zolberg 2006 and Hing 2004 evaluate American immigration policy and its racial element.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Foner, Nancy, and George M. Fredrickson, eds. 2004. Not just Black and White: Historical and contemporary perspectives on immigration, race, and ethnicity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Two dozen outstanding scholars of ethnicity, race, and migration in the United States bring the best of their insights.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fuchs, Lawrence H. 1990. The American kaleidoscope: Race, ethnicity, and the civic culture. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A distinguished political scientist and immigration reform activist recounts the sweep of American migration history and contemporary issues, with an eye to the commitments inherent in the social contract that has evolved in American civic culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hing, Bill Ong. 2004. Defining America through immigration policy. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shows how widely presumed but sometimes unspoken conceptions of who was appropriate to be an American—a judgment primarily about race, and secondarily about sexuality, ideology, and other issues—has framed US immigration policy from the beginning. Especially strong on its discussion of contemporary issues regarding Mexican and other Latino immigrants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hirschman, Charles, Philip Kasinitz, and Josh DeWind, eds. 1999. The handbook of international migration: The American experience. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Two dozen essays by well-known sociologists, political scientists, and historians on a host of theoretical and empirical issues. Assumes an assimilationist outcome.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hoerder, Dirk. 2002. Cultures in contact: World migrations in the second millennium. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A massive interpretation—cultural, economic, political, sociological, historical—of world migrations throughout the last millennium places current global flows in context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portes, Alejandro, and Rubén B. Rumbaut. 1996. Immigrant America: A portrait. 2d ed. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An outstanding synthesis of current theoretical insights and empirical findings, told in a narrative style and written with grace. Highly recommended. Among Portes and Rumbaut’s other collaborations are Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2001), and an edited volume, Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2001).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sassen, Saskia. 1999. Guests and aliens. New York: New Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A short book sketching the broad sweep of human migration in a globalizing world. Puts US migration issues into a global context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Zolberg, Aristide R. 2006. A nation by design: Immigration policy in the fashioning of America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tells the history of the development of US immigration policy. Essential to understanding the politics of immigration and ethnicity today.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Recent Issues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Four issues or themes of analysis have come to the fore in the past couple of decades, framed in ways that do not fit easily into traditional sociological categories: the turn to transnational analysis; a movement called critical race theory; the possibility of ethnic multiplicity; and the racialization of religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Transnational Turn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scholars have been increasingly at pains to step outside of nation-state frames of reference. Why would one imagine that ethnic groups or relationships would operate in or be bound by just one national entity? Such scholars have engaged in projects that connect the Over Here with the Over There. Gilroy 1993 set this trend off with an evocation of Black populations connected across the Atlantic. Hirabayashi, et al. 2002 and Fojas and Guevarra 2012 explore ethnic connections around the Pacific. Prashad 2002 and Raphael-Hernandez and Steen 2006 are interested specifically in connections between African-descended people and Asian-descended people wherever they may occur. Friedman and Schultermandl 2011 is interested in pretty much all kinds of transnational connections everywhere.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fojas, Camilla, and Rudy P. Guevarra Jr., eds. 2012. Transnational crossroads: Remapping the Americas and the Pacific. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Analyzes the cultural and social interactions between Asians, Latin Americans, and Pacific Islanders at various points throughout the Americas and the Pacific.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Friedman, May, and Silvia Schultermandl, eds. 2011. Growing up transnational: Identity and kinship in a global era. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A cultural studies take on the whirling social processes of the era of globalization, when fixed identities have come loose and people refashion their identities and connections in complex, shifting ways.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gilroy, Paul. 1993. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and double consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gilroy is the most influential proponent of the transnational mode of analysis. Here he proposes that there exists a culture, often unmarked but nonetheless real, that was not specifically African nor African American nor Caribbean nor Black British, but that was all of these at once, a common Black Atlantic ethnicity. He links this to Jewish concepts of commonality in diaspora.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hirabayashi, Lane Ryo, Akemi Kikumura-Yano, and James A. Hirabayashi, eds. 2002. New worlds, new lives: Globalization and people of Japanese descent in the Americas and from Latin America to Japan. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A wide-ranging collection by scholars from Japan and throughout the Americas. They examine the diaspora of Japanese-descended people in Brazil, the United States, Canada, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Hawai’i, Argentina, and back to Japan with regard to identity, community formation and maintenance, gender, education, representations, political participation, and a host of other issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Prashad, Vijay. 2002. Everybody was Kung Fu fighting: Afro-Asian connections and the myth of cultural purity. Boston: Beacon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prashad’s powerful analytical and polemical essays point to a centuries-long history of making of common ground between colonized Asian- and African-descended peoples, here and there around the globe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Raphael-Hernandez, Heike, and Shannon Steen, eds. 2006. AfroAsian encounters: Culture, history, politics. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scholars examine places, mostly in North America and northeast Asia, where the African diaspora and the Asian diaspora have interacted. Ignores local racialized issues that do not involve Black-Asian encounters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Critical Race Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are two different intellectual movements that both call themselves critical race theory. The first in time, and the more coherent in content, is the legal version. In the 1980s and 1990s a series of legal scholars began to question the assumptions of both conservative and liberal legal thinkers with regard to the merits and goals of civil rights reform. They critiqued the ways that the law had been used (and continues to be used) to privilege certain people and punish others on the basis of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. Crenshaw, et al. 1995; Delgado 1995; Delgado and Stefancic 2005; Delgado and Stefancic 2012; and Johnson 2003 are legal studies. Zamudio, et al. 2011 and Yosso 2006 are analyses of critical race issues in education. Goldberg 2002 specifically addresses the issue of race in state formation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, eds. 1995. Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement. New York: New Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than two dozen key essays, most substantially in their entirety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Delgado, Richard, ed. 1995. Critical race theory: The cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fifty essays, more sharply abbreviated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic, eds. 2005. The Derrick Bell reader. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collected essays by perhaps the most influential critical race theorist. See also Bell’s Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic, eds. 2012. Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A solid textbook introduction to critical race theory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Goldberg, David Theo. 2002. The racial state. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Integrates racial theory and state theory, arguing that race has been crucial to the formation of the modern nation-state and to its continuing functioning. Calls for a post-racist, post-national conception of the state that is open, mobile, and fluid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Johnson, Kevin R., ed. 2003. Mixed race America and the law: A reader. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A massive collection of writings that chart the relationship between racial complexity (see below) and legal institutions. Ranges from anti-miscegenation laws and decisions, to definitions of racial identity, to passing to immigration laws, to colorism, to inheritance rights, to adoption rules, and beyond.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yosso, Tara J. 2006. Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Uses personal narratives of resistance and success to ground her analysis of racial discrimination in education.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Zamudio, Margaret, Christopher Russell, Francisco Rios, and Jacqueline L. Bridgeman. 2011. Critical race theory matters: Education and ideology. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A coherent and detailed summary of the findings and perspectives of the education version of critical race theory. Explores the impact of race and racism on education and proposes strategies for teachers and administrators.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Complexity and Plasticity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of the fastest-growing subfields of ethnic studies in the last two decades has been the study of multiracial and multiethnic individuals and communities. The acknowledgment of ethnic and racial multiplicity is in one sense the logical outcome of the constructivist understanding of ethnicity and race. Some would assert that openness to ethnic and racial multiplicity offers a challenge to the very basis of racism: its categories. Others are less sanguine about ending racism, even as they acknowledge the multiracial trend. Root 1992, Ifekwunigwe 2004, and DaCosta 2007 address multiraciality in many contexts and among many peoples. Daniel 2001, Williams-León and Nakashima 2001, and Sturm 2002 address specific American racial groups and the question of multiplicity. Spickard 1989 compares groups in the United States, Wade 1995 in Latin America.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DaCosta, Kimberly McClain. 2007. Making multiracials: State, family, and market in the redrawing of the color line. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DaCosta ingeniously analyzes the ways that state and market forces were brought to bear on the making of the multiracial movement and the assertion of a multiracial identity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Daniel, G. Reginald. 2001. More than Black? Multiracial identity and the new racial order. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The most knowledgeable account of the multiracial movement, as well as a sensitive contemplation of the ambivalence that some monoracially identified African Americans have about that movement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ifekwunigwe, Jayne I., ed. 2004. “Mixed race” studies: A reader. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The definitive collection of forty sharply edited essays on multiraciality, from Gobineau and Darwin down to Maria Root and Gloria Anzaldúa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Root, Maria P. P., ed. 1992. Racially mixed people in America. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An anthology of writings by psychologists, sociologists, historians, and others who explored the emerging idea that ethnic and racial complexity not only was possible, but in fact was quite common, even though it went unrecognized by mainstream scholars and social commentators. This book marked the public coming-out of the multiracial movement. Root followed in 1995 with another edited volume, The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spickard, Paul. 1989. Mixed blood: Intermarriage and ethnic identity in 20th-century America. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Laid the groundwork for the multiracial scholarship above. A sociological and historical study of intermarriage and multiethnic, multiracial people. Built around detailed analysis of three kinds of intimate encounters: Japanese Americans and non-Japanese Americans; Jews and Gentiles; and African Americans and non-African Americans.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sturm, Circe. 2002. Blood politics: Race, culture, and identity in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sturm examines how Cherokee identity is socially and politically constructed, and how that process is embedded in ideas of blood, color, and race. Blood has long been a metaphor for belonging among Cherokee, an idea imposed by the US government on Native ways of membership. With nearly all Cherokee mixed, disputes over membership have become increasingly common. In particular, those Cherokee whose ancestry was mixed with Africans have experienced attempts to push them out of the nation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wade, Peter. 1995. Blackness and race mixture: The dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A complex, subtle ethnography exploring dynamics of race, class, Blackness, family, and mixture in a Colombian province, which has implications for other Latin American societies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Williams-León, Teresa, and Cynthia L. Nakashima, eds. 2001. The sum of our parts: Mixed-heritage Asian Americans. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Two dozen authors explore facets of racial mixedness for Asian-descended people in the United States and several other countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Whiteness Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The other rapidly growing ethnic studies subfield is Whiteness studies. If one keyed the word “whiteness” into a library catalogue in 1995, one would come up with a few chromatic studies of paint pigments and little else. Seventeen years later, one finds thousands of books and articles on sociology, law, politics, history, literature, film, and a host of other topics. This line of analysis began as an attempt to analyze the ways that White people have exercised and maintained racial power, and so perhaps to undermine it. Among the foremost exponents of Whiteness studies are Harris 1993, Lipsitz 2006, Jacobson 1998, Roediger 2007, Wise 2008, and Haney López 2006. Spickard 2004 is a critique.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Haney López, Ian F. 2006. White by law: The legal construction of race. New York: New York Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Charts how legislation and court decisions constructed the boundaries of the White race—and thereby who would have access to full citizenship in the United States.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Harris, Cheryl I. 1993. Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review 106.8: 1707–1791.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/1341787Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  All work in the Whiteness field stems from Harris’s insight that American law and social practice have treated Whiteness, not simply as membership in an ethnic group, but as a form of property—an asset with tangible benefits.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jacobson is sensitive to the racial positioning of White immigrant groups over the course of US history. There clearly was a hierarchy among Whites, with English-descended people at the top and people such as Jews and Italians lower down. But contrary to the assumptions of some of the Whiteness studies scholars, no European-derived people ever was not White in America. Jacobson traces this history with sensitivity and nuance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lipsitz, George. 2006. The possessive investment in Whiteness: How White people profit from identity politics. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Racism is a matter of interests as well as attitudes. Lipsitz takes the reader systematically through American history, showing how White people used law, economics, and other forms of power systematically to enhance White people’s life chances at the expense of African Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and Latinos, in areas such as wealth accumulation, employment, education, housing, and health care.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Roediger, David R. 2007. The wages of Whiteness: Race and the making of the American working class. Rev. ed. London: Verso.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See description under Class above. See also Roediger’s Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994); Colored White: Transcending the Racial Past (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2002); and Working toward Whiteness: How America’s Immigrants Became White: The Strange Journey from Ellis Island to the Suburbs (New York: Basic Books, 2005).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spickard, Paul. 2004. What’s critical about White studies. In Racial thinking in the United States: Uncompleted independence. Edited by Paul Spickard and G. Reginald Daniel, 248–274. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A critical survey of the Whiteness studies literature, assessing its strengths and weaknesses.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wise, Tim. 2008. White like me: Reflections on race from a privileged son. Rev. ed. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wise is a public intellectual and anti-racism activist, not a scholar, but he is a powerful writer and charismatic speaker. This book is part memoir, part exhortation to other White people to analyze their own lives and act in opposition to White privilege in housing, education, criminal justice, employment, and other spheres.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Racialization of Religion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The introduction to this bibliography pointed out that ethnicity can be racialized. It referred to this as the racial moment, when a person or group looks on another group and imputes to them a set of characteristics that are permanent, that cannot be altered or erased, that are part of their elemental makeup. Gentile Europeans for many centuries racialized Jews; ultimately, that racialization of religion ended in the Holocaust. In the last couple of decades, many Europeans and Americans have racialized Islam and Muslims. A few scholars have begun to examine contemporary racialization of religion. Among them are Bayoumi 2008; Blumenfeld, et al. 2009; Goldschmidt and McAlister 2004; Nussbaum 2012; Rana 2011; Bakalian and Bozorgmehr 2009; and Bazack 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bakalian, Anny, and Mehdi Bozorgmehr. 2009. Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans respond. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Analyzes the heightened racialization of Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans in the aftermath of the attacks of 11 September 2001, the rise of hate crimes and bias incidents, the growth of organizations pushing Islamophobia, and the efforts of Muslim and Middle Eastern American leaders and organizations to engage with the wider society and blunt the impact of the religious racism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bayoumi, Moustafa. 2008. How does it feel to be a problem? Being young and Arab in America today. New York: Penguin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Echoing the century-old question posed by W. E. B. Du Bois about another despised minority, Bayoumi tells the stories of seven young Arab Americans, not all of them Muslims, as they try to make their way through a society that racializes and discriminates against them as Muslims.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bazack, Sherene. 2008. Casting out: The eviction of Muslims from Western law and politics. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explores the racialization of Muslim identity and its consequences in North America and Europe. Points to ominous trends that might yield drastic consequences for Muslims in Western societies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Blumenfeld, Warren J., Khyati Y. Joshi, and Ellen E. Fairchild, eds. 2009. Investigating Christian privilege and religious oppression in the United States. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nine essays set forth the proposition that Christian privilege amounts to a large array of benefits that are often invisible, unearned, and unacknowledged by Christian Americans or other social commentators. Notable among them is Joshi’s theoretical essay, “The Racialization of Religion in the United States” (pp. 37–56).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Goldschmidt, Henry, and Elizabeth McAlister, eds. 2004. Race, nation, and religion in the Americas. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/0195149181.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A dozen essays on religion, race, and identity at various places throughout the hemisphere.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nussbaum, Martha. 2012. The new religious intolerance: Overcoming the politics of fear in an anxious age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674065918Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Philosopher attacks the root of anti-Muslim feelings in contemporary American society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rana, Junaid. 2011. Terrifying Muslims: Race and labor in the South Asian diaspora. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Charts the figure of the racialized Muslim as threatening proletarian laborer and probably terrorist in the minds of Europeans and Americans.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Down