Sociology Cosmopolitanism
by
Gerard Delanty, Špela Močnik
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 May 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0133

Introduction

The term cosmopolitanism derives from the Greek word kosmopolites, meaning “a citizen of the world.” It was first used by the Cynics and later the Stoics, who used it to identify people as belonging to two distinct communities: the local and the wider “common.” This understanding of cosmopolitanism denotes only one of its meanings. Its conception nowadays is broad, and no single definition is sufficient to embrace all its meanings. A distinction can be drawn between moral and political cosmopolitanism; cosmopolitanism can be understood as a perspective on global justice and as a concept within which the discourse on human rights and theory of justice takes place. Cosmopolitanism can also be understood as an ethical stance, in which individuals engage with others in dialogue and understanding in order to move beyond parochialism. It is also increasingly seen as expressed in cultural phenomena, as in lifestyles and identities. Cosmopolitanism is a normative viewpoint from which one experiences, understands, and judges the world, and it is also a condition in which laws, institutions, and practices defined as such are being established.

General Overviews

A number of works provide general overviews of cosmopolitanism, including its practices, theorizing, and interpretations of issues in contemporary political and social theory. The books examine the idea of cosmopolitanism—what it is and what it entails and its role in addressing global issues. Skrbiš and Woodward 2013 explores the empirical and everyday aspects of cosmopolitanism and different types and meanings of cosmopolitanism. Beck 2006 discusses cosmopolitanism as a form of methodological outlook. Braidotti, et al. 2012 outlines new definitions and practices of cosmopolitanism; while Breckenridge, et al. 2002 addresses the politics of cosmopolitanism. Some works focus on cosmopolitanism more broadly conceived. Vertovec and Cohen 2002 offers a general overview of cosmopolitanism; Rovisco and Nowicka 2011 offers a review of current research across the social sciences and the humanities; and Delanty 2012 focuses on cosmopolitan theoretical debates, including sociological, cultural, and political topics. Other works focus more on its political aspect. Brown and Held 2010, for example, covers legal, civic, and political cosmopolitanism.

  • Beck, Ulrich. 2006. The cosmopolitan vision. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author explores the ideas of cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan outlook, methodologically understood. The cosmopolitan outlook is a skeptical, self-critical outlook, and its world is “a glass world”—boundaries that separate us from others have become transparent. The author argues that differences and boundaries must be redefined on the basis of an awareness of the sameness, in principle, of others.

    Find this resource:

    • Braidotti, Rosi, Patrick Hanafin, and Bolette Blaagaard, eds. 2012. After cosmopolitanism. New York: Routledge.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This volume examines the “usefulness” of cosmopolitanism in the wake of severe criticism in the 20th century, and the author endeavors to outline its new definitions and practices. The explorations are multidisciplinary, ranging from sociology to legal and political theory to culture, among others. It argues for a “cosmopolitics” of affective interdependence.

      Find this resource:

      • Breckenridge, Carol A., Sheldon Pollock, Homi K. Bhabha, and Dipesh Chakrabarty, eds. 2002. Cosmopolitanism. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

        DOI: 10.1215/9780822383383Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This volume critically investigates the concept of cosmopolitanism and three concepts that are closely related to it: nationalism, globalization, and multiculturalism. It ranges across various disciplines, including language, literature, critical intellectual history, architecture, political philosophy, and art history. The essays address the politics of cosmopolitanism and seek to expand the archives, geographies, histories, and other sources that are connected to cosmopolitanism.

        Find this resource:

        • Brown, Garrett Wallace, and David Held, eds. 2010. The cosmopolitanism reader. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This volume consists of twenty-five essays that are mostly political in nature. It deals with subjects such as Kantian contemporary cosmopolitanism, global justice, governance, cosmopolitan law and order, and global issues. Legal, civic, and political cosmopolitanism are scrutinized in the first five parts, while the last part of the volume focuses on a critique of the concept, in which cosmopolitanism’s endeavors are critically examined.

          Find this resource:

          • Delanty, Gerard, ed. 2012. Routledge handbook of cosmopolitanism studies. London: Routledge.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This volume synthesizes much interdisciplinary research on cosmopolitan theoretical debates, culture, and politics, and treats the diversity of world cosmopolitanisms. It brings together recent research from a variety of fields, such as sociology, philosophy, history, international relations, communications studies, anthropology, and literary theory. Its interdisciplinarity reflects the broad reception of cosmopolitan thought in these various fields of study.

            Find this resource:

            • Rovisco, Maria, and Magdalena Nowicka, eds. 2011. The Ashgate research companion to cosmopolitanism. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This volume offers a wide-ranging review of relatively current research in cosmopolitanism studies across the social sciences and the humanities. The first part deals with the empirical aspects of cosmopolitanism and everyday experiences of individuals in different sociopolitical settings. The second part focuses on political aspects of cosmopolitanism, such as global justice, citizenship, human rights, and democracy. And the third part introduces intellectual discussions that address major polemics within cosmopolitanism.

              Find this resource:

              • Skrbiš, Zlatko, and Ian Woodward. 2013. Cosmopolitanism: Uses of the idea. London: SAGE.

                DOI: 10.4135/9781446288986Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                This book is based on the idea that cosmopolitanism should be looked for in everyday, ordinary encounters. Cosmopolitanism is understood not as a final state but as a project that involves four substantive dimensions: cultural, political, ethical, and methodological. The authors apply cosmopolitan theory to different contexts, such as identity, ethics, networks, and digital societies, among others.

                Find this resource:

                • Vertovec, Steven, and Robin Cohen, eds. 2002. Conceiving cosmopolitanism: Theory, context and practice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This volume offers a general overview of global, international, national, social, and personal levels of cosmopolitan analysis. It stresses the multilayered character of cosmopolitanism and identifies its six perspectives: sociocultural condition, a philosophy or worldview, political project (transnational institutions), political project (multiple subjects), an attitude or disposition, and a practice or competence.

                  Find this resource:

                  Origins and History

                  Cosmopolitanism as an idea has a long history, beginning in ancient Greece and Rome. Some works offer a more general overview of the origins of the concept. Heater 2004 examines the beginnings of the idea of cosmopolitanism. Kleingeld and Brown 2014 provides a brief introduction to the history of cosmopolitanism. Other works focus on specific periods and thinkers. Nussbaum 1997 explores the Greek origins of the concept, whereas other authors explore Kant’s conceptualization of cosmopolitanism. Bohman and Lutz-Bachmann 1997 focuses on Kant’s essay “Toward Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”; Kleingeld 1999 reviews German cosmopolitan theory between 1780 and 1800; and Kleingeld 2012 gives an overview of Kant’s cosmopolitanism. Ganim and Legassie 2013 deals with the medieval contribution to cosmopolitanism, whereas Holton 2009 explores the historical sociology of cosmopolitanism.

                  • Bohman, James, and Matthias Lutz-Bachmann, eds. 1997. Perpetual peace: Essays on Kant’s cosmopolitan ideal. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    The essays in this volume argue for the continued theoretical and practical relevance of the cosmopolitan ideals of Kant’s essay “Toward Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch.” The authors respond to three challenges: the diverse effects of globalization, the sovereignty of nation-states in the cosmopolitan order, and the reconciliation of unity and difference within cosmopolitan identities.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Ganim, John M., and Shayne Legassie, eds. 2013. Cosmopolitanism and the Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                      DOI: 10.1057/9781137045096Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      This volume presents historical aspects of premodern cosmopolitanism that are usually less prominent, especially vis-à-vis the Enlightenment. The collection of case studies from medieval times examines the place of cosmopolitanism in various medieval writings.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Heater, Derek. 2004. Origins of cosmopolitan ideas. In World citizenship: Cosmopolitan thinking and its opponents. Edited by Derek Heater, 1–26. New York: Continuum.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        This chapter concisely traces the early origins of ideas about cosmopolitanism. It begins in Greece with ancient thinkers, such as Aristotle and his followers, continues with the Stoic canon, and finishes with the Romans. The chapter focuses especially on the idea of world citizenship. Available as an e-book.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Holton, Robert J. 2009. Cosmopolitanisms: New thinking and new directions. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          This book elaborates a new historical sociology of cosmopolitanism. The emphasis is placed on cosmopolitanism as performance—not on cosmopolitanism as a philosophical enquiry but on social, cultural, political, and legal questions.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Kleingeld, Pauline. 1999. Six varieties of cosmopolitanism in late eighteenth-century Germany. Journal of the History of Ideas 60.3: 505–524.

                            DOI: 10.1353/jhi.1999.0025Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Kleingeld focuses on German cosmopolitan theory between 1780 and 1800. She shows that cosmopolitanism in that short period was not a unified idea but consisted of at least six variations: moral, legal, political cultural, economic, and romantic cosmopolitanism.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Kleingeld, Pauline. 2012. Kant and cosmopolitanism: The philosophical ideal of world citizenship. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              This book provides a comprehensive overview of Kant’s cosmopolitanism and compares it to other German conceptions of cosmopolitanism at that time. Kleingeld traces the evolution and transformation of Kant’s cosmopolitanism in his writings. The author discusses moral and political cosmopolitanism, Kant’s cosmopolitan right, cosmopolitanism’s relation to economic justice and free trade, and Kant’s account of cosmopolitan ideal. She then links all these to contemporary discussions of cosmopolitanism.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Kleingeld, Pauline, and Eric Brown. 2014. Cosmopolitanism. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                This entry offers a broad overview of the topic of cosmopolitanism. It gives a comprehensive introduction to the history of cosmopolitanism, its systematization, and the main polemics with regard to cosmopolitanism’s feasibility. Reading lists for each of these topics are provided.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Nussbaum, Martha. 1997. Kant and Stoic cosmopolitanism. Journal of Political Philosophy 5.1: 1–25.

                                  DOI: 10.1111/1467-9760.00021Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  In this article, Nussbaum turns to Kant and Greek thought in order to derive ideas of political significance. More precisely, she traces the debt Kant owed to ancient Stoic cosmopolitanism. She finds that the essential difference between Kant and the Stoics was that for Kant, the search for peace requires a persistent vigilance toward human aggression, which is inherent in human nature, whereas for the Stoics none of the passions are placed in human nature.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  Cosmopolitan Social Theory

                                  Cosmopolitanism must be considered also within the framework of social theory. Cosmopolitan social theory raises questions about social change, identity, social institutions, and the moral or normative character of human society. Some works tackle the question of social theory itself in relation to cosmopolitanism. Turner 2006 shows that classical sociology still possesses value in studying “the social.” Chernilo 2007 explores classical social theory’s relationship to cosmopolitanism’s universalism. Delanty 2009 links cosmopolitanism to critical social theory, and Fine 2007 rethinks the role of cosmopolitanism in social scientific thinking. Other works focus more on the aforementioned questions. Commissiong 2012 argues for a non-Western cosmopolitanism, and Dallmayr 2013 rethinks the traditional concepts of the individual’s identity.

                                  • Chernilo, Daniel. 2007. A quest for universalism: Re-assessing the nature of classical social theory’s cosmopolitanism. Journal of Social Theory 10.1: 17–35.

                                    DOI: 10.1177/1368431006068754Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    This article rethinks classical social theory’s relationship with cosmopolitanism. Whereas classical social theory is fully committed to cosmopolitanism’s universalism, it also needs to renew this commitment without those natural law elements that preventing it. The author discusses Karl Marx, Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber, and he shows that their universalism adheres to three different realms: the normative, the political, and the methodological.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Commissiong, Anand Bertrand. 2012. Cosmopolitanism in modernity: Human dignity in a global age. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Commissiong argues for a new type of cosmopolitanism beyond the Western tradition in order to better understand human beings and their communities.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Dallmayr, Fred R. 2013. Being in the world: Dialogue and cosmopolis. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky.

                                        DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813141916.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Dallmayr explores the transition from Westphalia to cosmopolis, which is achieved through sustained dialogue and multilateral interactions. The author rethinks the traditional concepts of the individual’s identity and his or her relations to others in the light of current problems. Heidegger’s phrase “being-in-the-world” is a key concept and seen here as an aspect of ethical-political engagement in today’s world. The author endorses a politics of the common good, which can be achieved through public ethics, deliberation, and responsibility.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Delanty, Gerard. 2009. The cosmopolitan imagination: The renewal of critical social theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          This book links cosmopolitanism to critical social theory. The author argues that unlike traditional critical theory, cosmopolitan critical social theory responds to the challenges posed by globalization and deals with issues other than those that are predominantly Western. The cosmopolitan imagination is a way of seeing the world for the possibilities that if offers for self-transformation and by taking the perspective of the “other” into account.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Fine, Robert. 2007. Cosmopolitanism. London: Routledge.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            This book sets as its goal to rethink the role that cosmopolitanism plays in social scientific thinking. The conception of cosmopolitanism is explored as a part of the modern mind as well as existing on a par with political topics such as constitutional patriotism, international law, humanitarian military intervention, and punishment.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Turner, Bryan S. 2006. Classical sociology and cosmopolitanism: A critical defence of the social. British Journal of Sociology 57.1: 133–151.

                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00097.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              In this article, Turner argues that despite the prevalent understanding of sociology as being unsuitable for a normative debate on cosmopolitanism, classical sociology has value in the study of “the social” and not only toward the study national societies. He does so through examining the works of Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Max Weber, and, in doing so, provides a case study of flexible citizenship.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              Political Cosmopolitanism

                                              Political cosmopolitanism denotes cosmopolitanism’s political and legal aspirations on a global level. It may concern building a cosmopolitan world order: Brown 2009 argues for an international order that is not imperialistic or excessively utopian, while Harvey 2009 argues for a more emancipatory cosmopolitan order, that is, for new institutions of global or supranational governance. The essays in Archibugi, et al. 1998 tackle the issue of cosmopolitan democracy, which can be understood as a political ideal that imagines political community beyond the nation-state. Archibugi and Held 1995 discusses the cosmopolitan democracy. Archibugi 2008 focuses on the international public and its effects on world politics. Research in political cosmopolitanism delves into both its theoretical aspects (Bray 2011 conceptualizes pragmatic cosmopolitanism; Godrej 2011 explores the links between cosmopolitanism and critical theory) as well as its practical applications (Kymlicka 2001 offers a collection of essays that deal with ethnic relations in connection with citizenship and globalization).

                                              • Archibugi, Daniele. 2008. The global commonwealth of citizens: Toward cosmopolitan democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                DOI: 10.1515/9781400829767Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                This book explores the power and limits of public opinion and what it means to subject world politics to the peoples’ scrutiny. It asks: What role does the general public play in world politics and what institutional mechanisms are available to them? These questions and others are examined in the light of many aspects of cosmopolitan democracy.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Archibugi, Daniele, and David Held, eds. 1995. Cosmopolitan democracy: An agenda for a new world order. Oxford: Polity.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  This volume includes six essays that discuss an alternative to current international organization, namely, cosmopolitan democracy. World politics is changing and so should our transnational institutions and the way people participate in politics on a global level. Therefore, not only institutions matter, but also civic participation in decision making as well as the reallocation of power at local, national, and global levels.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Archibugi, Daniele, David Held, and Martin Köhler, eds. 1998. Re-imagining political community: Studies in cosmopolitan democracy. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    This volume consists of three parts: “The Transformation of the Interstate System”; “Citizenship, Sovereignty and Transnational Democracy”; and the “Prospects of Cosmopolitan Democracy.” It deals with changes in political communities due to the processes of globalization. The authors therefore rethink democracy at local, national, regional, and global levels. They concur that cosmopolitan democracy is a political project that seeks to advance peaceful relations and a greater role for public accountability.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Bray, Daniel. 2011. Pragmatic cosmopolitanism: Representation and leadership in transnational democracy. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      The author develops the concept of pragmatic cosmopolitanism as a philosophically grounded approach to transnational democracy. He seeks to reconceptualize representative democracy as an ideal for democratizing contemporary world politics.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Brown, Garrett Wallace. 2009. Grounding cosmopolitanism: From Kant to the idea of a cosmopolitan constitution. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press.

                                                        DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748638819.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        This book traces the legacy of Kantian cosmopolitanism in the increasingly interconnected global community. Brown argues for an international order that responds to a minimal ethical and legal cosmopolitan order, and one that is not imperialistic or too utopian. Brown therefore understands Kantian cosmopolitanism as a form of international constitutional jurisprudence that requires minimal legal demands and not an establishment of a world state.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Godrej, Farah. 2011. Cosmopolitan political thought: Method, practice, discipline. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782062.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          This book examines the question of what it means for political theory to be cosmopolitan. The author distinguishes between cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan political theory and calls for a cosmopolitan practice of political theory. She argues that the latter’s development is connected to the methodological questions about the practice of comparative political theorizing. To be genuinely cosmopolitan, political theory must reflect on its perspectives both inside and outside various traditions.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Harvey, David. 2009. Cosmopolitanism and the geographies of freedom. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Harvey argues for a new cosmopolitan order that would be more emancipatory and would take geographical knowledge into consideration. He investigates why universal and utopian projects fail so often. He argues that geographical knowledge must be integrated into the formation of democratic social and political policies.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Kymlicka, Will. 2001. Politics in the vernacular: Nationalism, multiculturalism, and citizenship. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                              DOI: 10.1093/0199240981.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              This volume is a collection of Will Kymlicka’s most important essays. The essays are divided into four parts: “The Evolution of the Minority Rights Debate,” “Ethnocultural Justice,” “Misunderstanding Nationalism,” and “Democratic Citizenship in Multi-ethnic States.” The focus is placed on ethnic relations in today’s world and how these are conceived within the larger context of issues of nationalism, democratic citizenship, and globalization.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              Moral Cosmopolitanism and Cosmopolitan Ethics

                                                              Moral cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan ethics are philosophical perspectives that place every human being at the center of moral consideration and concern. All human beings belong to humanity and therefore should be judged on the basis of that fact rather than on the basis of some other parochial association. Moral cosmopolitanism does not prescribe fixed moral norms and ideals but judges each situation in its particularity. Some works, such as Derrida 2001, focus on hospitality, while others, such as Appiah 2006 and Roberts and Arnett 2008 treat the possibility of communication in a global age that could enhance our ethics. Erskine 2008 deals with the relationship between the global and the local and how this affects our moral dispositions. Held 2010 as well as Pierik and Werner 2010 study cosmopolitanism’s moral outlook in connection with existing sociopolitical reality and institutions.

                                                              • Appiah, Anthony. 2006. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York: Norton.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                This author argues for the inevitability of conversation in our global age. There are no objective values or ethics; some values are global, others are local, and it is up to people to converse and try to overcome each other’s foreignness and strangeness.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Derrida, Jacques. 2001. On cosmopolitanism and forgiveness. London: Routledge.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Derrida explores the question of whether it is still possible to maintain international hospitality and justice despite heightened nationalism and the increase in conflicts around the world. Is space even available for exercising hospitality within an international law that is limited by treaties between sovereign states? The author hopes for new cities of refuge that open up new possibilities for hospitality and cosmopolitan rights for asylum-seekers, refugees, and immigrants.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Erskine, Toni. 2008. Embedded cosmopolitanism: Duties to strangers and enemies in a world of “dislocated communities.” Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                    DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197264379.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    The author argues for “embedded cosmopolitanism” that recognizes the importance of local ties and attachments. She argues that these need not be parochial and that moral perspective that stems from them includes duties to strangers and enemies.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Held, David. 2010. Cosmopolitanism: Ideals and realities. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Held argues that we need a new ethical framework of political and moral interaction to solve contemporary global problems and coexist in a multipolar world. Cosmopolitanism offers a good alternative to existing frameworks that guide us. It allows for a solution to problems on the basis of deliberation and democratic public law.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Pierik, Roland H. M., and W. G. Werner, eds. 2010. Cosmopolitanism in context: Perspectives from international law and political theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511761263Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        This volume examines the relationship between the moral aspects of cosmopolitanism and existing cosmopolitan institutions. It consists of five parts: “Environmental Protection,” “World Trade Organization,” “Collective Security and Intervention,” “International Criminal Court,” and “International Migration.” Cosmopolitanism in this book is understood as a normative theory of justice and its aspirations and limitations are critically assessed in various social and political institutions.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Roberts, Kathleen Glenister, and Ronald C. Arnett, eds. 2008. Communication ethics: Between cosmopolitanism and provinciality. New York: P. Lang.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This volume addresses the question of the relationship between cosmopolitanism and locality from a communication ethics perspective. The authors provide no final answers but they open up a conversation about communication ethics that, ironically, joins the cosmopolitan with the provincial.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          Cultural Cosmopolitanism

                                                                          Cultural cosmopolitanism is concerned with preserving respect for the difference found among groups and cultures in the world. This strand of cosmopolitanism tries to maintain a balance between the particular and the universal, and works such as Nava 2007 and Werbner 2008 are concerned with studying the everyday experience of people. Theodossopoulos and Kirtsoglou 2010 focuses on cosmopolitanism from below, whereas Brennan 1997 deals with instances of cultural consumption and Robertson 2010 focuses on the media. Among discussions of cultural cosmopolitanism, an important aspect is criticism of the neoliberal form of cosmopolitanism for which alternatives and different interpretations are offered. Pollock 2006 examines an alternative conception of Sanskrit cosmopolitanism, and Jabri 2007 treats political cosmopolitanism from the viewpoint of postcolonial critique.

                                                                          • Brennan, Timothy. 1997. At home in the world: Cosmopolitanism now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            The author in this book makes cultural observations and examines their implications for world citizenship in a post-perestroika age. He offers debates about world culture, studies the framework of our thinking about colonial literatures and global cultural production, and examines the culture of transnational corporations, cosmopolitan culture, and Americanization.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Jabri, Vivienne. 2007. Solidarity and spheres of culture: The cosmopolitan and the postcolonial. Review of International Studies 33:715–728.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0260210507007747Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              This article addresses political cosmopolitanism that takes into account a postcolonial critique. It presents a concept of solidarity that entails the universal, one that does not perpetuate inequality.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Nava, Mica. 2007. Visceral cosmopolitanism: Gender, culture and the normalisation of difference. Oxford: Berg.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                The author explores vernacular English urban cosmopolitanism and the relationship of cosmopolitanism to otherness, antiracism, and the situation of women. Nava sees cosmopolitanism as a feeling, a set of identifications, and looks at its everyday, domestic expressions. She traces cosmopolitanism’s development from an oppositional culture in the early 20th century to the cultural mainstream today.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Nowicka, Magdalena, and Maria Rovisco, eds. 2009. Cosmopolitanism in practice. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  This volume shows how cosmopolitanism can be used as a tool in addressing identity outlooks as well as ethical and political practices in various institutional settings. The essays are divided into three groups: Mobilities, Memories, and Tensions. All chapters focus on empirically grounded research.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Pollock, Sheldon I. 2006. The language of the gods in the world of men: Sanskrit, culture, and power in premodern India. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This book is a key work on alternative historical conceptions of cosmopolitanism, in this case Sanskrit cosmopolitanism. Pollock examines the specific forms of that culture takes in power configurations and traces those alternative practices of being cosmopolitan and vernacular that are preserved in the languages of premodern India.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Robertson, Alexa. 2010. Mediated cosmopolitanism: The world of television news. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This book explores the connection between cosmopolitanism and the media. Robertson analyzes news reports on national and global channels and demonstrates that the same stories about the world can take on different meanings in different cultures. The author argues that media consumers become part of the community of imagination and explores the role of the media in making connections between people.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios, and Elisabeth Kirtsoglou, eds. 2010. United in discontent: Local responses to cosmopolitanism and globalization. New York: Berghahn.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        This volume explores the growing discontent with homogenizing global processes and local, complex, culturally specific expressions of it. The local critics of global politics and power benefit from a wider global awareness that is fostered by globalization and cosmopolitanism, and, in doing so, they set the parameters for imagining a broader, more inclusive and accessible community of those who feel similar discontent.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Werbner, Pnina, ed. 2008. Anthropology and the new cosmopolitanism: Rooted, feminist and vernacular perspectives. Oxford: Berg.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The volume is divided into five sections: “Anthropology as a Cosmopolitan Discipline”; “Feminist and Non-violent Cosmopolitan Movements”; “Rooted Cosmopolitanism, Public Cosmopolitans”; “Vernacular Cosmopolitans, Cosmopolitan National Spaces”; and “Demotic and Working-Class Cosmopolitanisms.” Contributions aim to show the cosmopolitan character of social anthropology’s theory and practice.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Cosmopolitanism and Migration

                                                                                          In an increasingly connected and, for some, even borderless world, migration has become a widespread social phenomenon. Whether it is a privileged businessman or a distressed refugee, migration takes many forms and is a consequence of manifold causes. Cosmopolitanism offers a good milieu for studying migration since its focus alternates between and bridges local-national-global and urban-rural divides as well as other levels of perspectives, which is shown in Shabani 2007. Some works, such as Lachenicht and Heinsohn 2009 and Ziemer and Roberts 2013 focus on different kind of diasporas in a cosmopolitan framework. Ossman 2007 and Chin 2013 focus on personal stories, Hansen and Stepputat 2005 examines migration in connection to citizenship, and Amit and Rapport 2012 explores how communities change because of migrations.

                                                                                          • Amit, Vered, and Nigel Rapport. 2012. Community, cosmopolitanism and the problem of human commonality. London: Pluto.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            This book takes the form of a dialogue between the two authors. Through dialogue, they examine the anthropological aspect of cosmopolitanism and how communities change because of migrants and other mobile subjects.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Chin, Christine B. N. 2013. Cosmopolitan sex workers: Women and migration in a global city. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890910.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              The book’s study focuses on Southeast Asia and women’s transnational migration for sex work. The author researches in what ways neoliberal/economic globalization and labor flexibility facilitate such migration.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Hansen, Thomas Blom, and Finn Stepputat, eds. 2005. Sovereign bodies: Citizens, migrants, and states in the postcolonial world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                This volume explores the link between state territory and sovereignty, and the application of sovereign power within states through the exercise of violence over bodies and populations. The authors undertake three tasks: to advance the study of sovereign power and its violence as practices across societies; to consider ethnography and history in studies of sovereignty and citizenship; and top examine the reconfiguration of sovereignty and citizenship in colonial and postcolonial societies.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Lachenicht, Susanne, and Kirsten Heinsohn, eds. 2009. Diaspora identities: Exile, nationalism and cosmopolitanism in past and present. Frankfurt: Campus.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  The authors undertake a comparative study of the interrelatedness of exile, diasporas, cosmopolitanism, and nationalism. The authors argue that the latter two are complementary in situations of diaspora or exile, and that the formation of nation-states has been influenced by the diasporas. The volume present different perspectives on exile and diasporas and their influence on identity formations in transnational contexts.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Ossman, Susan, ed. 2007. Places we share: Migration, subjectivity, and global mobility. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    This volume involves an anthropological study and its contributors undertake “research in action” as they are themselves part of the group of serial migrants. They try to unveil experiences and modes of mobility that usually remain unrecognized. The essays present personal stories, fieldwork, and literary and linguistic analyses, and they engage with the concepts of identity, migration, and culture.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Shabani, Omid A. Payrow. 2007. Cosmopolitan justice and immigration: A critical theory perspective. European Journal of Social Theory 10.1: 87–98.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1368431006068760Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      This article argues that dealing with justice only from the perspective of state boundaries has become inadequate. Political theorizing on this topic should adopt a cosmopolitan approach. From a perspective of discourse theory, the author explores cosmopolitan justice and issues of immigration.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Ziemer, Ulrike, and Sean P. Roberts, eds. 2013. East European diasporas, migration, and cosmopolitanism. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        The authors in this volume explore the many facets of diasporic life in central and eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The focus is on eastern European diasporas and migration in a cosmopolitan framework in a post-socialist context.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        Cosmopolitanism and Mobilities

                                                                                                        The essays in Canzler, et al. 2008 study modern mobility as a general principle of modernity. Mobilities are not just migrations, they also figure in studies of communications, transport, urbanism, and tourism, among others. A field that is highly interdisciplinary, its study areas range from history, geography, anthropology, and communication to sociology and cultural studies. Sheller 2014 explores how the new mobilities paradigm impacts the discipline of sociology. Hand and Sandywell 2002 examines the Internet’s impact on cultural sociology; the essays in Ahmed, et al. 2003 explore how “home” is formed. Szerszynski and Urry 2006 explores the relationship between visuality and cosmopolitan citizenship; Tzanelli 2011 examines the relationships of national characters and national heritage. Sheller 2012 studies freedom and citizenship from below, and the essays in Picard and Buchberger 2013 explore the couchsurfing culture.

                                                                                                        • Ahmed, Sara, Claudia Castañeda, and Anne-Marie Fortie, eds. 2003. Uprootings/regroundings: Questions of home and migration. Oxford: Berg.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          This volume consists of three parts: “Bodies at Home and Away,” “Family Ties,” and “Trans/Nations and Border Crossings.” It explores how homes are formed in relationship to movement, how homes are formed and changed, and how movements influence the attachment of people to place.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Canzler, Weert, Vincent Kaufmann, and Sven Kesselring, eds. 2008. Tracing mobilities: Towards a cosmopolitan perspective. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            This volume explores research on mobility in different fields, emphasizing mobility as a general principle of modernity. The authors conceptualize modern mobility in the first part of the volume, and they treat mobility practices in the second.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Hand, Martin, and Barry Sandywell. 2002. E-topia as cosmopolis or citadel on the democratizing and de-democratizing logics of the internet, or, toward a critique of the new technological fetishism. Theory, Culture & Society 19.1–2: 197–225.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              The authors argue that an alternative approach to global civil society presupposes a cultural sociology of the Internet. Information technologies must be understood as the product of specific sociocultural practices and as historical sites of ethicopolitical transformation. They analyze how Internet technology and cybersocieties have been polarized into mutually exclusive democratization and de-democratization e-topias.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Picard, David, and Sonja Buchberger. 2013. Couchsurfing cosmopolitanisms: Can tourism make a better world? Bielefeld, Germany: transcript.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.14361/transcript.9783839422557Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                This book explores the couchsurfing culture and online-to-offline hospitality. It explores human relations in such settings and how they differ from conventional tourism and consumerist relations, and whether travelling and hospitality therefore create a better world.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Sheller, Mimi. 2012. Citizenship from below: Erotic agency and Caribbean freedom. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/9780822393825Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Sheller examines the contemporary gendered spaces of citizenship, travel, and popular culture across the Caribbean in the post-slavery context. The volume is a history from below studied through cultural geographies, visual histories, culture and tourism. She explores how freedom is enacted in diverse contexts of activation.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Sheller, Mimi. 2014. Sociology after the mobilities turn. In The Routledge handbook of mobilities. Edited by Peter Adey, David Bissell, Kevin Hannam, Peter Merriman, and Mimi Sheller, 45–54. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    This chapter explores the impact on sociology of the new mobilities paradigm and critical mobilities research. Mobilities research offers new forms of engagement with the empirical world and raises the question of its impact on the field of sociology. Does sociology keep up with mobilities or will it have to catch up with such research?

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Szerszynski, Bronislaw, and John Urry. 2006. Visuality, mobility and the cosmopolitan: Inhabiting the world from afar. British Journal of Sociology 57.1: 113–131.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00096.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      In this article, the authors explore the relationship among visuality, mobility, and cosmopolitanism. They explore the significant role that the visual and mobility play in the formation of a cosmopolitan citizenship. They argue that people explore and inhabit their world only from afar.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Tzanelli, Rodanthi. 2011. Cosmopolitan memory in Europe’s “backwaters”: Rethinking civility. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Tzanelli explores the relationships of national characters and national heritage in the context of Western industrial modernity and cinema. In a case study of filming a blockbuster film on the Greek islands, she examines how this experience encouraged regional competitions, which could already be found in history.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        Human Rights

                                                                                                                        Human rights are an inherent part of cosmopolitanism. Cosmopolitanism envisions a just society, and such a society is characterized by respect for human rights. Human rights are a mechanism by which to achieve justice and they serve to facilitate social change. Some authors study the normative character of human rights and the discrepancies between this ideal and the real world. Anderson-Gold 2001 studies the normative character of human rights; Pogge 2002 compares the existing global order with our moral beliefs; and Benhabib 2006 examines cosmopolitan norms of justice in connection with human rights. Cheah 2006, Benhabib 2011, and Morris 2010 focus on the discourse of human rights, its development and consequences. Critique is also important when and if human rights are misused for dubious interests. Douzinas 2007 examines how human rights are exploited for imperialist goals; and the essays in Lutz-Bachmann and Nascimento 2014 study critical theory of human rights.

                                                                                                                        • Anderson-Gold, Sharon. 2001. Cosmopolitanism and human rights. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Anderson-Gold explores the normative character of universal human rights and tackles other topics, such as a cosmopolitan system of law, global justice, and a cosmopolitan community.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Benhabib, Seyla. 2006. Another cosmopolitanism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183221.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            The book includes two of Benhabib’s lectures and contributions from Robert Post, Bonnie Honig, Will Kymlicka, and Jeremy Waldron. Benhabib argues that global civil society is governed by cosmopolitan norms of justice, but these norms and certain democratic ideals can create some tensions. These can be resolved or diminished only through commitments to human rights and sovereign self-determination.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Benhabib, Seyla. 2011. Dignity in adversity: Human rights in troubled times. Cambridge. UK: Polity.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              This book argues that cosmopolitanism is a field of unresolved contrasts that avoids making any distorted totalizing claims. The topics that the author examines in essays include the unity and diversity of human rights, the conflict between cosmopolitanism and democracy, porous borders, and democratic sovereignty. Through these and other topics, the author studies the development of cosmopolitan human rights discourse.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Cheah, Pheng. 2006. Inhuman conditions: On cosmopolitanism and human rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                In this book, Cheah examines the ways in which discourses on being human underwrite our understanding of globalization. He explores whether we should rethink the meaning of the human in relation to globalization through two theoretical debates: the possible rise of new cosmopolitanisms in a world of movement and the establishment of international human rights regimes.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Douzinas, Costas. 2007. Human rights and empire: The political philosophy of cosmopolitanism. London: Routledge-Cavendish.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  This book contributes to political and legal theory and critically addresses the issue of exploiting human rights launch wars and spread new imperialism. But human rights can retrieve their primary role of emancipation through struggles and resistance.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Lutz-Bachmann, Matthias, and Amós Nascimento, eds. 2014. Human rights, human dignity, and cosmopolitan ideals: Essays on critical theory and human rights. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This volume pursues three goals: to reconstruct modern theories of human rights and global justice; to highlight the importance of humanity and human dignity as complements to liberal rights; and to integrate these issues into existing discussions about cosmopolitanism. The authors rethink political and international theory in terms of the normativity of human rights in an effort to promote a dialogue on critical theory of human rights.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Morris, Lydia. 2010. Asylum, welfare and the cosmopolitan ideal: A sociology of rights. New York: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      This book focuses on asylums in dealing with the issue of migrants’ rights. The author examines contemporary asylum and migrant policies, which often reflect the tension between national citizenship and respect for the universality of rights.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Pogge, Thomas. 2002. World poverty and human rights: Cosmopolitan responsibilities and reforms. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        This book includes nine essays written between 1990 and 2007. They take a normative position on global justice. In the first three essays, Pogge discusses justice, human rights, and morality; the second series of essays engage with the discrepancy between the existing political order and moral beliefs about morality and justice; and the final series of essays propose institutional reforms that would bring global order into line with our moral beliefs.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        Cosmopolitan Citizenship

                                                                                                                                        Cosmopolitan citizenship can be understood as an aspect of political, moral, and cultural cosmopolitanism. It is an important concept in cosmopolitanism as well as constituting a part of social reality. Cosmopolitan citizenship goes beyond citizenship of a nation-state (but does not replace it) and stems from universal ethical commitments to “others,” or non-nationals. Like cosmopolitanism itself, cosmopolitan citizenship also results from the encounter between the local/national and the global. Therefore, the authors of some works, such as Nussbaum and Cohen 1996, focus on this tension, while others, such as Erskine 2002 and Heater 2004, consider the makeup of world citizenship. Delanty 2000 and Trepanier and Habib 2011 deal with theoretical aspects of cosmopolitan citizenship, while Cabrera 2010 looks at the practical aspects, Stevenson 2003 examines cultural aspects, and Smith 2007 treats the personal.

                                                                                                                                        • Cabrera, Luis. 2010. The practice of global citizenship. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511762833Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Cabrera argues that cosmopolitan citizenship is a fully realized form of individual cosmopolitanism. Individuals must therefore contribute to the protection and promotion of human rights. The second part of the book focuses on organizations that are already practicing aspects of global citizenship, and on a trans-state citizenship regime.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Delanty, Gerard. 2000. Citizenship in the global age: Culture, society and politics. Buckingham, UK: Open Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of citizenship in the global age. Since capitalism and democracy have lost their connection to citizenship, the author explores the notion of post-national citizenship, which tries to retain some innovations in the modern nation-state as well as open up new possibilities in the global age.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Erskine, Toni. 2002. “Citizen of nowhere” or “the point where circles intersect”? Impartialist and embedded cosmopolitanisms. Review of International Studies 28:457–478.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0260210502004576Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              This article offers an alternative understanding of cosmopolitanism, namely, embedded cosmopolitanism. The latter recognizes community membership as being morally constitutive insofar as the communities are not bounded or territorially determined.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Heater, Derek Benjamin. 2004. World citizenship: Cosmopolitan thinking and its opponents. New York: Continuum.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                The author explores the idea of world citizenship and argues that to be a world citizen effective institutions must be in place that enable the exercise of the duties and rights of world citizenship. Arguments in favor of accepting the concept and status of world citizenship as well as objections to it are presented.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Nussbaum, Martha, and Joshua Cohen. 1996. For love of country: Debating the limits of patriotism. Boston: Beacon.

                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  In this book, Nussbaum argues that everyone should see themselves as citizens of the world rather than patriots of individual countries. Nussbaum’s essay is accompanied by fifteen others, whose authors respond to Nussbaum and, unlike her, often defend local attachments.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Smith, William. 2007. Cosmopolitan citizenship: Virtue, irony and worldliness. European Journal of Social Theory 10.1: 37–52.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1368431006068755Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Smith explores the virtue every cosmopolitan citizen should possess. He proposes the virtue of worldliness, which is the concept proposed by Hannah Arendt that encompasses self-reflexiveness, care for the world, and skills to disclose ourselves in the world.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Stevenson, Nick. 2003. Cultural citizenship: Cosmopolitan questions. Maidenhead, UK: Open Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Stevenson studies the concept of citizenship through a cultural framework and examines the relevance of citizenship in the modern world. The author discusses the cultural understanding of citizenship and develops a cosmopolitan understanding of citizenship that connects a global conception of citizenship with the notion of personhood, multiculturalism, and city-based citizenship.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Trepanier, Lee, and Khalil M. Habib, eds. 2011. Cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization: Citizens without states. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        This volume addresses an engaged and critical cosmopolitanism from its beginnings to its contemporary manifestations. The volume consists of four chronologically organised parts: “Classical Cosmopolitanism,” “Modern and Contemporary Cosmopolitanism,” “Cosmopolitanism in the United States,” and “Practical Cosmopolitanism.” The essays seek to connect current debates on cosmopolitanism with primary sources of cosmopolitanism in history and moral philosophy.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        Global Justice

                                                                                                                                                        A prime goal of cosmopolitanism is to achieve global justice. The struggle of cosmopolitanism to do so arises, once again, out of the tension between the global and the local, as shown in Tan 2004 and Brock 2009, and it tries to transcend the national framework on questions of human rights, migration, and international regimes and institutions, an effort that is studied with respect to international distributive justice in Jones 1999 and with respect to international law in Sellers 2012. Pieterse 2006 finds a counterbalance to capitalist cosmopolitanism in emancipatory cosmopolitanism, which seeks greater justice for the world’s majority.

                                                                                                                                                        • Brock, Gillian. 2009. Global justice: A cosmopolitan account. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230938.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Brock offers a model of global justice that embraces both the importance of individuals as well as the significant role played by nationalism. The book is divided into three parts in which Brock defends a cosmopolitan account of global justice, tackles public policy issues, and shows how discussions on public policy can inform theorizing about nationalism and equality in global justice.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Jones, Charles. 1999. Global justice: Defending cosmopolitanism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            The author explores the idea of international distributive justice and tries to reach definite conclusions about the disagreements in the cosmopolitan and the communitarian approaches. He conceives distributive justice in terms of human rights, which means that the borders as drawn between nation-states lack ethical standing and that the demands of global justice include actions that protect the interests of individuals regardless of their location, nationality, or citizenship.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. 2006. Emancipatory cosmopolitanism: Towards an agenda. Development and Change 37.6: 1247–1257.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2006.00521.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This article outlines an agenda of emancipatory cosmopolitanism, which seeks to countervail capitalist cosmopolitanism. Emancipation is understood as what is relevant and of benefit to the world’s majority, that is, what contributes to greater global justice.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Sellers, M. N. S., ed. 2012. Parochialism, cosmopolitanism, and the foundations of international law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                This volume examines the boundary between parochial and cosmopolitan justice and concerns international law in particular. The authors confirm the importance of both parochial tradition as well as cosmopolitan value in the foundation of international law. The distinctions among international law, national jurisdiction, and the private autonomy of individuals are also examined.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Tan, Kok-Chor. 2004. Justice without borders: Cosmopolitanism, nationalism, and patriotism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511490385Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  This book examines the idea of cosmopolitan justice as justice without borders, and the author claims that such justice can incorporate national and patriotic aspirations without endangering commitments to cosmopolitan justice. The argument is that cosmopolitan justice is compatible with liberal forms of nationalism.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  back to top

                                                                                                                                                                  Article

                                                                                                                                                                  Up

                                                                                                                                                                  Down