Communication Argumentation
by
Beth Innocenti
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 March 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756841-0013

Introduction

Two broad divisions characterize orientations to studies of argumentation by communication scholars and scholars in other disciplines. First, communication scholars perform descriptive and normative studies of argumentation, as well as studies that attempt to integrate these two perspectives. Descriptive studies typically employ qualitative and social-scientific research methods and may analyze argumentation both in laboratory and real-world settings. Normative studies typically employ humanistic research methods and frequently analyze argumentation in the public sphere. Second, scholars may view argumentation as more of an epistemological activity—one that generates knowledge or justifies belief—or as more of a practical activity that is designed to achieve a variety of outcomes such as persuasion, consideration of a proposal, or acceptance of a premise. Various basic questions are addressed by argumentation research: How should we define “argumentation”? How should we analyze it? How should we evaluate it?

Textbooks

Textbooks typically feature the production, presentation, analysis, and evaluation of arguments. Authors’ treatment of these topics is shaped by their theoretical perspective. Working from a pragma-dialectical perspective, van Eemeren, et al. 2002 coaches students in conducting a critical discussion designed to resolve a difference of opinion. Coming out of a speech communication tradition, Inch and Warnick 2010 is oriented toward debate. This source also covers public discourse more broadly, as does Corbett and Eberly 2000, but from the discipline of composition rather than communication. Freeley and Steinberg 2014 is squarely in the tradition of academic debate in the United States. Govier 2005 and Johnson and Blair 2006 come to argumentation from informal logic. Govier focuses more on argument schemes such as generalizations and analogies, and Johnson and Blair include a detailed discussion of fallacies. Herrick 2007 (in detail) and Weston 2000 (more synoptically) cover argument schemes and fallacies as well, although their discussions are oriented toward presentation to situated audiences and so are more rhetorical.

  • Corbett, Edward P. J., and Rosa A. Eberly. 2000. The elements of reasoning. 2d ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    Covers reasoning and invention more generally, and specific kinds of arguments: fact, definition, causes and consequences, values, and proposals. Concludes with a chapter on “citizen critics”—an orientation also informing Eberly’s scholarship on the public sphere—that covers fallacies. Includes exercises. Good introduction for novices.

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  • Freeley, Austin J., and David L. Steinberg. 2014. Argumentation and debate: Critical thinking for reasoned decision making. 13th ed. Boston: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

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    Oriented toward debate. Organized around debate activities such as foundations of debate, critical thinking, propositions, and gathering and testing evidence. Includes exercises and appendixes such as debate propositions and bibliography. Good for novices, advanced undergraduates, and those interested in the history and teaching of academic debate in the United States.

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  • Govier, Trudy. 2005. A practical study of argument. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    Oriented more toward critiquing than practicing argumentation. Covers what arguments are and how to analyze and evaluate them. Treats in detail specific kinds of deductive and inductive arguments, including categorical and propositional logic, causal reasoning, and analogies. Cites argumentation research and includes exercises. Better for advanced undergraduates than novices.

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  • Herrick, James A. 2007. Argumentation: Understanding and shaping arguments. 3d ed. State College, PA: Strata.

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    Oriented more toward critiquing than practicing argumentation but includes a section on developing a case and adapting to audiences. Covers what argumentation is and conditions for good ones, as well as analysis and evaluation of different argument types, including categorical, definitional, analogies and examples, causal reasoning, and fallacies. Includes exercises.

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  • Inch, Edward S., and Barbara Warnick. 2010. Critical thinking and communication: The use of reason in argument. 6th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    Oriented more toward debate. Organized around defining argument and its contexts, different kinds of claims and propositions, different kinds of evidence, and arguing about values and about policies. Attempts to balance criticizing and producing arguments. Better for advanced undergraduates than novices.

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  • Johnson, Ralph H., and J. Anthony Blair. 2006. Logical self-defense. New York: International Debate Education Association.

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    Organized around the basics of identifying, analyzing, evaluating, and producing arguments; fallacies; argumentation and mass media; and advanced analysis and production of arguments. Good introduction for novices.

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    • van Eemeren, Frans H., Rob Grootendorst, and A. Francisca Snoeck Henkemans. 2002. Argumentation: Analysis, evaluation, presentation. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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      Organized around analysis, evaluation, and presentation of arguments from a pragma-dialectical perspective. Explains analyzing arguments as critical discussions—procedures for resolving a difference of opinion. Defines fallacies as violations of rules for critical discussions. Presentation covers oral and written arguments. Includes exercises and further reading, mostly in pragma-dialectical theory.

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    • Weston, Anthony. 2000. A rulebook of arguments. 3d ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.

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      In about a hundred pages, covers different kinds of arguments and rules for evaluating them, including example, analogy, authority, cause, and deductive forms; researching, outlining, and writing an argumentative essay; and fallacies. Includes many examples. Ideal for beginners and as a quick reference.

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    Anthologies

    In contrast to textbooks, anthologies tend to include research from a range of theoretical perspectives. Aguayo and Steffensmeier 2008; Benoit, et al. 1992; and Trapp and Schuetz 1990 include landmark essays in argumentation. Hansen and Pinto 2007 includes important essays from an informal logic perspective. The essays in Schiappa 1995 are written from a rhetorical perspective but involve different philosophical orientations. The edited collections in van Eemeren, et al. 2003 and van Eemeren and Garssen 2009 are good sources of early-21st-century argumentation research, and van Eemeren, et al. 1996 continues to serve as a comprehensive overview of argumentation studies.

    • Aguayo, Angela J., and Timothy R. Steffensmeier, eds. 2008. Readings in argumentation. State College, PA: Strata.

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      Essays organized around the nature of arguments, evaluating arguments, and spheres and uses of argument. Most approaches are rhetorical but also include informal logic and pragma-dialectics. Most essays are theoretical but also include studies of actual political and legal argumentation as well as visual arguments. Good introduction to the field.

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    • Benoit, William L., Dale Hample, and Pamela J. Benoit, eds. 1992. Readings in argumentation. New York: Foris.

      DOI: 10.1515/9783110885651Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Selections cover fundamental issues in argumentation research, including defining argument from the perspectives of scholars and naive social actors; argument analysis and evaluation; arguing about values and argument fields; early pragma-dialectical research; and argumentation in contexts including interpersonal, marriage, and groups.

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    • Hansen, Hans V., and Robert C. Pinto, eds. 2007. Reason reclaimed: Essays in honor of J. Anthony Blair and Ralph H. Johnson. Newport News, VA: Vale.

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      Essays cover major issues, including the dialectical dimension of arguing, the nature and scope of argument, fallacies, and other dimensions involving context, probability, and the nature of reason, by major figures in informal logic and argumentation. Better for intermediate students than beginners.

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    • Schiappa, Edward, ed. 1995. Warranting assent: Case studies in argument evaluation. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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      Essays focus on evaluating actual argumentation from rhetoric and communication perspectives. They are organized around epistemological, axiological, and ideological approaches to evaluation and cover argumentation in political, legal, and religious contexts. Appropriate for more-advanced students and scholars.

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    • Trapp, Robert, and Janice Schuetz, eds. 1990. Perspectives on argumentation: Essays in honor of Wayne Brockriede. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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      Manageable introduction to the field, and still in print. Covers definitions of argumentation; contexts such as interpersonal, political, and philosophical; and special topics such as narrative argument. Most essays are written from a rhetoric and communication perspective, but informal logic and pragma-dialectics make appearances.

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    • van Eemeren, Frans H., J. Anthony Blair, Charles A. Willard, and A. Francisca Snoeck Henkemans, eds. 2003. Anyone who has a view: Theoretical contributions to the study of argumentation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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      An eclectic collection of essays that show the range of perspectives and issues involved in argumentation theory research. Pragma-dialectics, informal logic, rhetoric, normative pragmatic, and communication studies are included. Essays feature topics from analysis of political argumentation, to software that diagrams argumentation, to linguistic analyses. Good source for advanced students.

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    • van Eemeren, Frans H., and Bart Garssen, eds. 2009. Pondering on problems of argumentation: Twenty essays on theoretical issues. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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      Includes essays on analyzing and evaluating argumentation from a variety of perspectives. Grouped under headings of argumentative strategies, norms of reasonableness and fallaciousness, types of argument and argument schemes, structure of argumentation, and rules for advocacy and discussion. Good sample of current research for more-advanced students.

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    • van Eemeren, Frans H., Rob Grootendorst, Francisca Snoeck Henkemans, et al. 1996. Fundamentals of argumentation theory: A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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      Comprehensive introduction to argumentation with pragma-dialectical orientation. Organized into historical backgrounds and modern developments. Historical material covers the triumvirate of logic, dialectic, and rhetoric; fallacies; Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca’s The New Rhetoric; and the Toulmin model. More-recent material covers informal logic, communication and rhetoric, fallacies, pragma-dialectics, and more.

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    Journals

    Some peer-reviewed journals are devoted to argumentation studies, and some journals include argumentation research. Argumentation and COGENCY are the most eclectic, regularly publishing research in all areas of argumentation studies. Journal of Argumentation in Context focuses on situated argumentation. Argumentation and Advocacy, Quarterly Journal of Speech, and Rhetoric and Public Affairs typically publish studies of argumentation from a rhetorical perspective or a focus on situated audiences in context. Both Informal Logic and Philosophy and Rhetoric are oriented toward philosophers; Informal Logic is oriented toward philosophers who teach informal logic and critical thinking, and Philosophy and Rhetoric is oriented both toward philosophers and rhetoricians.

    Conferences

    There are currently three main conferences devoted to argumentation, and the proceedings of each are published. Alta is oriented more toward rhetoric, debate, and communication. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA) is a small conference hosted by informal logicians. International Society for the Study of Argumentation (ISSA) is a large conference hosted by pragma-dialecticians. Although each conference may have a specific theme, the papers presented run the gamut of argumentation studies. Presenters work from all theoretical perspectives and consider different kinds of contexts. European Conference on Argumentation (ECA) and Great Plains Society for the Study of Argumentation (GPSSA) are modeled on Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Wake Forest University also hosts a biennial argumentation conference oriented toward rhetoric, debate, and communication (Biennial Wake Forest Argumentation Conference). Communication scholars will also find argumentation research presented at National Communication Association (NCA) and Rhetoric Society of America (RSA) as well as at regional conferences and conferences in cognate areas such as linguistics.

    Defining Argument

    Wenzel 1990 outlines possible answers to the question “What is argument?” depending on one’s theoretical perspective, so it is a good orientation to other positions. A more technical discussion, O’Keefe 1982, draws fundamental distinctions that also serve to orient. Brockriede 1972, Ehninger 1970, Goodwin 2007a, and Goodwin 2007b outline competing views in the course of defending their own; all work from a rhetorical perspective. Informal logical and pragma-dialectical views can be gleaned from Wenzel 1990. Pinto 2009 aims to transcend the three main perspectives in the author’s account of what it is to have reasons and what is required to present them.

    • Brockriede, Wayne. 1972. Arguers as lovers. Philosophy and Rhetoric 5.1: 1–11.

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      Argues that relationships among arguers can serve as a basis for classifying argumentative transactions. Covers argument as rape, seduction, and love. Analyzes each by the topics of attitudes toward one another, intentions toward one another, and consequences of both for the act of arguing.

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      • Ehninger, Douglas. 1970. Argument as method: Its nature, its limitations and its uses. Speech Monographs 37.2: 101–110.

        DOI: 10.1080/03637757009375654Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Classifies argument as a species of correction that is self-regulating and involves risks. Contrasts argument with coercive correction: unilateral versus bilateral, probability versus certainty, standards of success, arguer attitude, and risks. Limits include irresolvable, mutually exclusive alternatives, discursive only, and addresses only means—not ends. Argument is preferable to chance, authority, and intuition.

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        • Goodwin, Jean. 2007a. Argument has no function. Informal Logic 27.1: 69–90.

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          Takes issue with a view of argument as a joint activity functioning to achieve social good by following the rules necessary for the joint activity to achieve its function. Proposes an alternative view involving designing argumentation to create reasons for hearers to respond as the arguer desires.

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          • Goodwin, Jean. 2007b. Theoretical pieties, Johnstone’s impiety, and ordinary views of argumentation. Philosophy and Rhetoric 40.1: 36–50.

            DOI: 10.1353/par.2007.0012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Covers accounts of arguing that define away negative views of arguing, Johnstone’s competing view, and ordinary student views. Competing views include underlying consensus versus disagreement, alternative to force versus force, and contained versus inevitable conflict. Proposes viewing argument as a way of coming to stand more solidly in the world.

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            • O’Keefe, Daniel J. 1982. The concepts of argument and arguing. In Advances in argumentation theory and research. Edited by J. Robert Cox and Charles Arthur Willard, 3–23. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1982.

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              Clarifies the concepts of argument and arguing by defining paradigm cases. Includes basic distinction between argument1 (a kind of utterance or a sort of communicative act) and argument (interactions in which extended overt disagreement between the interactants occurs). Also describes argument making. Good starting point for theory construction.

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            • Pinto, Robert C. 2009. Argumentation and the force of reasons. Informal Logic 29.3: 268–295.

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              Begins with the idea of reasons for doing (doubting, expecting, presuming, choosing, and more). Argues that something is a reason if it makes an action or belief reasonable. Norms are implicit in what a community takes as a reason for doing something. Connects this account to logical, dialectical, and rhetorical perspectives.

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              • Wenzel, Joseph W. 1990. Three perspectives on argument: Rhetoric, dialectic, logic. In Perspectives on argumentation: Essays in honor of Wayne Brockriede. Edited by Robert Trapp and Janice Schuetz, 9–26. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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                Accounts of argument—its purposes, scope and focus, situations, resources, standards, and roles—depend on the scholar’s perspective. Rhetoric, dialectic, and logic correspond to argument as process, procedure, and product. A clear introduction to argumentation theories for newcomers.

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              Theories

              Setting aside the issue of what theories are, it continues to be useful to distinguish among the main theoretical perspectives that characterize argumentation studies. They differ in areas such as the methods they use to analyze arguments, and whether and how they evaluate arguments. The subsections under this section focus individually on each of the following perspectives. Pragma-dialectical research analyzes and evaluates argumentation as a procedure for resolving a difference of opinion, and it uses both humanistic and social-scientific research methods. It aims to be both descriptive and normative. Typically, research on Informal Logic involves analyzing arguments in terms of premises and conclusions and evaluating them according to criteria such as acceptability, relevance, and sufficiency. It is normative. Early-21st-century research both by pragma-dialecticians and informal logicians has attempted to incorporate rhetorical insights. Rhetorical research tends to be normative and may be characterized by its use of humanistic research methods and its attention to situated audiences and more focus on public contexts. Communication research is primarily descriptive and may be characterized by its use of social-scientific research methods and more focus on interpersonal contexts. Normative Pragmatic research is both normative and descriptive, uses humanistic research methods, and views context as constituted by arguers’ talk.

              Pragma-dialectical

              The pragma-dialecticians continue to systematically develop a theory of argumentation that analyzes and evaluates argumentation as a critical discussion—a procedure for resolving a difference of opinion. Also known as the Amsterdam school, these researchers have developed a graduate program in argumentation at the University of Amsterdam focusing on the development of the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation, host the International Society for the Study of Argumentation conference (see Conferences), and publish the journal Argumentation (see Journals) and a book series. Broadly speaking, there have been two stages to the theory construction: foundations of the critical discussion model and strategic maneuvering. The model of a critical discussion and the analytical and evaluative procedures it involves are detailed in van Eemeren, et al. 1993 and van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, and a detailed, technical-theoretical treatment of that part of the pragma-dialectical theory is provided in van Eemeren and Grootendorst 2004. Strategic maneuvering is overviewed in van Eemeren 2009, and more-detailed consideration of context is exemplified by Mohammed 2008. Empirical testing of pragma-dialectical rules is reported in van Eemeren, et al. 2009.

              • Mohammed, Dima. 2008. Institutional insights for analysing strategic manoeuvring in the British prime minister’s question time. Argumentation 22.3: 377–393.

                DOI: 10.1007/s10503-008-9090-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Includes institutional context in the pragma-dialectical theoretical framework. Argues that the purpose of question time is to hold the government accountable, and the norm of critical testing is instrumental for achieving this purpose. Proposes using a dialectical profile to absorb the concrete, actual argumentative moves into analytical reconstruction.

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                • van Eemeren, Frans H., ed. 2009. Examining argumentation in context: Fifteen studies on strategic maneuvering. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                  First chapter overviews strategic maneuvering, which refers to efforts to reconcile the aim of getting one’s own way with the aim of resolving a difference of opinion in a reasonable way. Comprises research from different perspectives and contexts of argumentation.

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                • van Eemeren, Frans H., Bart Garssen, and Bert Meuffels. 2009. Fallacies and judgments of reasonableness: Empirical research concerning the pragma-dialectical discussion rules. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                  Results of empirical studies on pragma-dialectical rules for critical discussions designed to determine to what extent ordinary arguers accept them. Views fallacies as violations of rules for critical discussion. Organized around stages of critical discussion: opening, confrontation, argumentation, and conclusion. Overall, results confirm that ordinary arguers regard pragma-dialectical fallacies as unreasonable moves.

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                • van Eemeren, Frans H., and Rob Grootendorst. 1992. Argumentation, communication, and fallacies: A pragma-dialectical perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                  An overview of the pragma-dialectical perspective that serves as a good introduction. Covers assumptions, their view of argumentation, role of speech acts in it, basics of argument analysis, and evaluation based on whether the argumentation adheres to rules of a critical discussion designed to resolve a difference of opinion.

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                • van Eemeren, Frans H., and Rob Grootendorst. 2004. A systematic theory of argumentation: The pragma-dialectical approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                  Overviews the pragma-dialectical research program, critical discussion model, and the modes of analysis and evaluation that follow from it. Includes a chapter with a simplified version of critical discussion rules. Theoretical and technical discussion. Better for summary than introduction to the theory.

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                • van Eemeren, Frans H., Rob Grootendorst, Sally Jackson, and Scott Jacobs. 1993. Reconstructing argumentative discourse. Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press.

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                  Introduces a method of reconstructing argumentation described as normative description since it aims to merge descriptive and normative accounts of argumentation. Argumentation is reconstructed as a critical discussion designed to resolve a difference of opinion. Includes examples of reconstructions of actual discourse in mediation.

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                Informal Logic

                This perspective developed from dissatisfaction with the applicability of formal logic to actual argumentation. The core method of analysis involves standardizing argumentation as premises and conclusions, and evaluation involves identification of fallacies. Johnson and Blair 2000 provides an overview. Toulmin 1958 expands on the traditional model by including other elements, such as warrants. Hamblin 1970 takes issue with the standard formal logical treatment of fallacies. Johnson 2000 adds a dialectical tier to evaluation. Govier 1987 and Walton 2008 provide good introductions to major issues, and Finocchiaro 2005 and Pinto 2001 reflect the philosophical thinking that orients researchers working in informal logic.

                • Finocchiaro, Maurice A. 2005. Arguments about arguments: Systematic, critical, and historical essays in logical theory. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                  Collection of essays over time by the author on topics including theorizing about reasoning and argument, fallacies, dialectical approaches, and historical analyses of critical thinking in science. Identifies important issues, possible positions, and relevant scholarship. Oriented toward advanced students with a philosophical bent.

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                • Govier, Trudy. 1987. Problems in argument analysis and evaluation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Foris.

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                  Covers fundamental issues in theorizing about argumentation. Introduces issues related to topics such as distinguishing inductive and deductive arguments, filling in missing premises, the differences between arguments and explanations, fallacies, and critical thinking. Excellent starting point for identifying issues and possible positions on them.

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                • Hamblin, C. L. 1970. Fallacies. Newport News, VA: Vale.

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                  Canonical and frequently cited; reprinted in 1994. Covers historical treatments of fallacies from Aristotle forward in Europe and India. Argues that formal logic cannot provide a general theory of fallacy. Supports alternative ways of talking about arguments and their evaluation, and in particular viewing arguments as put forward in a dialectical context.

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                  • Johnson, Ralph H. 2000. Manifest rationality: A pragmatic theory of argument. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                    Presents a theory of argument grounded in informal logic; focuses on evaluating arguments. Views argumentation as a practice designed to achieve rational persuasion. Proposes evaluating both the illative core (premises and conclusions) and dialectical tier (alternative positions and standard objections).

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                  • Johnson, Ralph H., and J. Anthony Blair. 2000. Informal logic: An overview. Informal Logic 20.2: 93–107.

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                    Covers positions on the issue of what is informal logic. Identifies areas of research and cites sources for each. Areas include argument as dialogue, argument schemes, structures and diagrams, fallacies, and more. Suggests areas for future research, including analysis and evaluation and resources for informal logic such as journals and conferences.

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                    • Pinto, Robert C. 2001. Argument, inference and dialectic: Collected papers on informal logic. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

                      DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0783-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Philosophical treatments of topics in argumentation that have been the focus of researchers in informal logic, and in particular how informal logic challenges commonplaces of traditional logic. Topics include what argument is, inference, argument schemes, fallacies, and standards of evaluation. Technical discussions for advanced students.

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                    • Toulmin, Stephen. 1958. The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                      Canonical text in informal logic and argumentation. Includes chapters on topics of enduring interest in argumentation research, including argument fields, probability, and argument analysis. Source of the Toulmin model, which continues to be featured in argumentation and textbooks on public speaking.

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                      • Walton, Douglas N. 2008. Informal logic: A pragmatic approach. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511808630Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Introduction to critical methods for evaluating arguments. Assumes argument is reasoned dialogue. Defines six dialogue types (persuasion, inquiry, negotiation, information seeking, deliberation, eristic). Covers topics such as argument schemes and appeals to emotion and authority and personal attacks; considers them in the context of dialogue types in order to evaluate them.

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                      Rhetorical

                      Students of rhetoric initially studied argumentation as part of university programs on speech and debate, and began to perform research in argumentation as speech became a research area and scholarly discipline. Given the absence of consensus on what rhetoric is, it is not surprising that theories of argumentation from a rhetorical perspective are quite disparate. Pragma-dialectics attempts to incorporate rhetoric as part of strategic maneuvering and views rhetoric as an attempt to get one’s own way by any means, but rhetorical approaches incorporate other ends and norms. Regarding ends, for Goodwin 2001, speakers design arguments to induce even reluctant addressees to act; likewise, Kock 2009 defines rhetorical argumentation not as persuasion but in terms of a domain: choice of action. Regarding norms, for Gilbert 1997 the key norm is “coalescence”—the merging of two positions into one, or at least the merging of them to the degree that it becomes possible to discuss points of disagreement. Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969 holds that the merits of an argument depend on the audience, and Tindale 1999 and Tindale 2004 attempt to develop a model that rescues Perelman from charges of relativism. Weaver 2009 proposes a different standard: the most ethical argument is the one that best captures the essential nature or truth. Whately 1963 proposes standards that are based on logic as well as audience centered.

                      • Gilbert, Michael A. 1997. Coalescent argumentation. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                        Covers argumentation theory—including its history and feminist perspective—and what he describes as multimodal argumentation. Argues for analyzing alternative modes (emotional, visceral, kisceral) and for coalescence as a goal.

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                      • Goodwin, Jean. 2001. Henry Johnstone, Jr.’s still-unacknowledged contributions to contemporary argumentation theory. Informal Logic 21.1: 41–50.

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                        Focuses on Johnstone’s insights: argumentation involves transactions among people, disagreement is fundamental, models of argumentation ought to begin with noncooperation rather than a cooperative ideal, and rhetoric creates the conditions for arguing with even-reluctant addressees and does not persuade so much as induce them to think.

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                        • Kock, Christian. 2009. Choice is not true or false: The domain of rhetorical argumentation. Argumentation 23.1: 61–80.

                          DOI: 10.1007/s10503-008-9115-xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Argues for a view of rhetorical argumentation that focuses not on the end of persuasion but that centers on a domain of issues—namely, choice of action, typically in the civic sphere. Holds that choices about actions are not true or false; reasonable disagreement may persist indefinitely.

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                          • Perelman, Chaim, and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca. 1969. The new rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation. Translated by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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                            Canonical text in argumentation research; reprinted in 2008. Covers topics including the nature of argumentation and audiences, and the nature of choice, as well as the selection and presentation of premises. Core of the book comprises liaisons based on association (quasi-logical, from the structure of the real, establishing the structure of the real) and dissociation (appearance/reality, philosophical pairs, dissociative definition).

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                          • Tindale, Christopher W. 1999. Acts of arguing: A rhetorical model of argument. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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                            Introduces a rhetorical model of argument. Identifies shortcomings of informal logical and dialectical models. Rhetorical model based in part on Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca’s discussions of universal audience and figures and argumentation. Analyzes and evaluates two cases of argumentation to illustrate the model. Covers fallacies and critiques of reason.

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                          • Tindale, Christopher W. 2004. Rhetorical argumentation: Principles of theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                            Makes a case for a rhetorical perspective that subsumes logical and dialectical perspectives. Covers some classical history of argument, argues that some figures are arguments, develops Bakhtinian view of dialogic argument, and covers ways of assessing argumentation with respect to audiences, on the basis of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca’s “universal audience.”

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                          • Weaver, Richard M. 2009. The ethics of rhetoric. New York: Routledge.

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                            Chapters cover the nature of ethical rhetoric, including arguments and style. Analyzes arguments from definition, analogy, and circumstances and argues that arguments from definition are most ethical because they best capture the essential nature of things. Illustrates positions with rhetoric of Edmund Burke and Abraham Lincoln.

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                          • Whately, Richard. 1963. Elements of rhetoric. Edited by Douglas Ehninger. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press.

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                            Although first published in the 19th century, continues to be a starting point for research on burden of proof. Covers argument, emotional appeals, style, and delivery. Defends classification of arguments by whether the premise would account for the conclusion if the conclusion were granted.

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                            Communication

                            Communication research tends to use qualitative and social-scientific research methods to describe and analyze arguments and their effectiveness. A traditional area of research is conversational argument; this research is summarized in Meyers, et al. 2000. Researchers study argumentation in different kinds of contexts. For example, Lee 2008 discusses arguing in an online context, and Feng and Burleson 2008 discusses it in an advice-giving context. Aakhus 2013 and Tracy 2012 explain how contextual features shape a practical activity that involves arguing. Willard 1989 argues that argumentation is best studied from a communication perspective, while O’Keefe 2007 aims to bridge a divide between descriptive social-scientific and normative argumentation research.

                            • Aakhus, Mark. 2013. Deliberation digitized: Designing disagreement space through communication-information services. Journal of Argumentation in Context 2.1: 101–126.

                              DOI: 10.1075/jaic.2.1.05aakSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Explains how technology works to manage disagreement. Assumes technology is not a communication conduit but takes responsibility and designs disagreement space. Uses theories of language and social interaction. Good bibliography for sources on disagreement management.

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                              • Feng, Bo, and Brant R. Burleson. 2008. The effects of argument explicitness on responses to advice in supportive interactions. Communication Research 35.6: 849–874.

                                DOI: 10.1177/0093650208324274Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Social-scientific study shows that when advice explicitly covers well the topics of efficacy, feasibility, and potential limitations of a proposed action, addressees evaluate it more positively, view it as contributing to coping efforts, and are more likely to implement it. Covering efficacy was particularly important, and politeness helps.

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                                • Lee, Eun-Ju. 2008. When are strong arguments stronger than weak arguments? Deindividuation effects on message elaboration in computer-mediated communication. Communication Research 35.5: 646–665.

                                  DOI: 10.1177/0093650208321784Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Experiment finding that without biographical information about group members, people were less likely to process partners’ arguments systematically and relied more on how strongly they identified with partners when deciding whether to conform to a group. With brief biographical information, people processed messages more intensely, and argument strength predicted conformity behavior.

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                                  • Meyers, Renee A., Dale E. Brashers, and Jennifer Hanner. 2000. Majority-minority influence: Identifying argumentative patterns and predicting argument-outcome links. Journal of Communication 50.4: 3–30.

                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02861.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Summarizes research on conversational argument. Uses social-scientific methods. Concludes that majorities tend to win more often than minorities, there are differences in how subgroups argue and differences in winning and losing groups, and consistency predicts subgroup success. Majority subgroups showed significant differences in private acceptance and public compliance.

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                                    • O’Keefe, Daniel J. 2007. Potential conflicts between normatively-responsible advocacy and successful social influence: Evidence from persuasion effects research. Argumentation 21.2: 151–163.

                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10503-007-9046-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      This study points to social-scientific research findings suggesting some ways in which persuasive success may not be entirely compatible with normatively desirable advocacy. Covers gain-loss and success-failure framing, risk information, and self-efficacy appeals.

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                                      • Tracy, Karen. 2012. Public hearings about same-sex marriage: How the context “makes” an argument. Qualitative Communication Research 1.1: 83–107.

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                                        Uses qualitative methods in analyzing public hearings. Aims to generate grounded practical theory (GPT). Explains how context itself advances arguments. Focuses on two contextual features: formulating the controversy and structuring the hearing.

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                                        • Willard, Charles Arthur. 1989. A theory of argumentation. Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press.

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                                          Argues that argumentation is best analyzed from the perspective of communication theory, not logic. Defines argument as a kind of interaction. Holds that analysis of argument ought to include anything involved in communicating it—reason giving, gestures, facial cues, and the like. Covers views of rationality and fallacies more from an interactionist perspective. Better for advanced students than beginners.

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                                        Normative Pragmatics

                                        This theoretical perspective begins with a noncooperative view of argumentation. Kauffeld 2009 details speech act theory that grounds normative pragmatic analysis. Goodwin 2001, Goodwin 2002, Goodwin 2011, and Kauffeld 1998 explain how arguers design discourse to pressure hearers to do something. Innocenti 2011, Jacobs 2000, and Jacobs 2006 distinguish normative pragmatics from other perspectives and focus on the need for analysis to involve examining strategies arguers actually use and not reconstructing actual argumentation in premise-conclusion form. Evaluation proceeds not by applying rules to a situation but by examining how arguers bring to bear norms of argumentation as they argue. Context is dynamic and is generated by arguers’ talk.

                                        • Goodwin, Jean. 2001. Cicero’s authority. Philosophy and Rhetoric 34.1: 38–60.

                                          DOI: 10.1353/par.2001.0003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Makes a case for a “blackmail-bond” model of authority: to avoid insulting a person of dignity, do not openly oppose her. Explains design features: put auditors in a position such that opposing will insult the speaker, and assure auditors that judgment is trustworthy.

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                                          • Goodwin, Jean. 2002. Designing issues. In Dialectic and rhetoric: The warp and woof of argumentation analysis. Edited by Frans H. van Eemeren and Peter Houtlosser, 81–96. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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                                            Discusses why we need issues, what issues are, and how arguers design deliberative and forensic issues. Provides a normative pragmatic account: explains why arguers can reasonably expect strategies to work to make something an issue even in adversarial circumstances. Contrasts her approach with a dialectical one.

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                                          • Goodwin, Jean. 2011. Accounting for the appeal to the authority of experts. Argumentation 25.3: 285–296.

                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10503-011-9219-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Explains that appeals to authority of experts are designed to make expertise assessable, by bringing to bear a norm that it is imprudent for a nonexpert to go against the expert view and by generating visibility and accountability. Synthesizes relevant scholarship in argumentation studies as well as in studies in expertise and experience.

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                                            • Innocenti, Beth. 2011. A normative pragmatic model of making fear appeals. Philosophy and Rhetoric 44.3: 273–290.

                                              DOI: 10.1007/s10503-006-9016-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Argues that fear appeals generate persuasive force by making manifest that the speaker has made a responsible assessment of the potential for fearful outcomes and how to address them. Explains benefits of a normative pragmatic model with respect to the extended parallel process model, classical model, and logical model.

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                                              • Jacobs, Scott. 2000. Rhetoric and dialectic from the standpoint of normative pragmatics. Argumentation 14.3: 261–286.

                                                DOI: 10.1023/A:1007853013191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Describes normative pragmatics as a way to bridge dialectical and rhetorical theories. Calls for attention to actual strategies rather than reconstruction according to an ideal model, and for recognizing that not all symbolic inducement is argument. Proposes that rhetorical strategies be evaluated by whether they create conditions for deliberation.

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                                                • Jacobs, Scott. 2006. Nonfallacious rhetorical strategies: Lyndon Johnson’s daisy ad. Argumentation 20.4: 421–442.

                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10503-007-9028-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Argues that rhetorical strategies are not simply violations of ideals but may constructively contribute to argumentation. Part of project to integrate logical, dialectical, and rhetorical insights. Argues that key question regarding fallacies is whether or not the strategy degrades the quality of disputation relative to what it might have been.

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                                                  • Kauffeld, Fred J. 1998. Presumptions and the distribution of argumentative burdens in acts of proposing and accusing. Argumentation 12.2: 245–266.

                                                    DOI: 10.1023/A:1007704116379Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Argues against transferring the concept of presumption in a legal sense to analysis of ordinary acts of proposing and accusing. Explains how speakers design proposals and accusations to pressure reluctant auditors to tentatively consider a proposal or to respond to an accusation.

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                                                    • Kauffeld, Fred J. 2009. Grice’s analysis of utterance-meaning and Cicero’s Catilinarian apostrophe. Argumentation 23.2: 239–257.

                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10503-008-9123-xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      A technical discussion of speech act theory that grounds normative pragmatic analysis. Speakers undertake commitments and incur obligations just by saying something. Focuses on the need for analysis to include speaker’s intention that addressees recognize speaker’s subintention to induce them to recognize a primary intention.

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                                                      Fallacies

                                                      Modern fallacy theory began with Hamblin 1970 and its call for an alternative to formal logic. This area has received most attention from informal logicians. Walton 1995 covers a broad range of fallacies in an accessible manner. Douglas Walton is the most prolific scholar on the topic of fallacies; he has written many books on specific fallacies, such as ad hominem, appeal to fear, and begging the question. Hansen and Pinto 1995 offers an accessible introduction to historical sources and issues involved in developing a general fallacy theory and treating specific ones. Van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992 covers the pragma-dialectical view of fallacies. Goodwin 2001 offers a normative pragmatic view of analyzing and evaluating an appeal to dignity of authority.

                                                      • Goodwin, Jean. 2001. Cicero’s authority. Philosophy and Rhetoric 34.1: 38–60.

                                                        DOI: 10.1353/par.2001.0003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Normative pragmatic account of an appeal often considered a fallacy. Argues that the appeal to the authority of dignity is not a fallacy. It involves designing a message such that authority reasonably pressures hearers to act, provided the speaker is not deceiving them or pressuring them to believe a proposition.

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                                                        • Hamblin, C. L. 1970. Fallacies. London: Methuen.

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                                                          Canonical text in the study of fallacies. Covers the “standard treatment” of the topic: lists of fallacies but no coherent theory of fallacy. Explains limits of formal logic and proposes as an alternative evaluating arguments in a dialectical context. Replaces terms of evaluation such as “true” and “valid” with “accepted.”

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                                                          • Hansen, Hans V., and Robert C. Pinto, eds. 1995. Fallacies: Classical and contemporary readings. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press.

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                                                            Includes historical sources such as Aristotle, Richard Whately, and J. S. Mill. Covers general fallacy theory and analyses of specific fallacies, including ad hominem, begging the question, and appeal to authority. Covers teaching fallacies. Includes bibliography. Most contributors work from an informal logic perspective, but there are selections from communication and pragma-dialectical perspectives.

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                                                          • van Eemeren, Frans H., and Rob Grootendorst. 1992. Argumentation, communication, and fallacies: A pragma-dialectical perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                                                            Covers the pragma-dialectical view of argumentation and fallacies. Fallacies viewed as violations of rules of a critical discussion; critical discussion is an ideal model of a procedure for resolving a difference of opinion. Discussion of fallacies organized around stages of critical discussion: confrontation, opening, argumentation, and conclusion.

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                                                          • Walton, Douglas. 1995. A pragmatic theory of fallacy. Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press.

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                                                            Proposes to evaluate fallacies on the basis of argumentation schemes and types of dialogue. Covers a range of formal and informal fallacies. Identifies schemes of presumptive argumentation as used in ordinary practical reasoning about probable matters. Defines six dialogue types designed to serve as normative models for evaluating argumentation; one is critical discussion.

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                                                          Visual Argument

                                                          Researchers debate what visual argument is, its relationship to verbal argument, and how to analyze it. Johnson 2003 questions the idea and utility of a theory of visual argument. Scholars use different theories to explain visual arguments. Groarke 1996 builds a theory of visual argumentation by using insights from informal logic and pragma-dialectics. Slade 2003 recommends using semiotic theories designed specifically for the visual. Palczewski 2005 illustrates ways of using historical and contextual research to ground interpretations of images. Kjeldsen 2013 uses rhetorical concepts from Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969 (cited under Rhetorical) and other studies to explain visual argumentation. Hahner 2013 uses an expanded view of frame theory to analyze memes. The 2007 Argumentation and Advocacy special issue (editor’s name 2007) illustrates a range of approaches to visual argumentation of various kinds.

                                                          • Groarke, Leo. 1996. Logic, art and argument. Informal Logic 18.2: 105–129.

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                                                            Argues that some ways of analyzing and assessing verbal arguments work for visual arguments. Holds that while argumentative analysis may not be appropriate for all images, it certainly is for some. Illustrates points with analyses and evaluations of a range of images, including political cartoons and works of art.

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                                                            • Hahner, Leslie A. 2013. The riot kiss: Framing memes as visual argument. Argumentation and Advocacy 49.3: 151–166.

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                                                              Analyzes memes as visual arguments. Expands frame theory to explain multiple perspectives on images that rapidly circulate online. Shows how memes are arguments and inventional resources. Good bibliography for sources on visual argument and visual rhetoric.

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                                                              • Johnson, Ralph H. 2003. Why “visual arguments” aren’t arguments. Paper presented in celebration of the 25th anniversary of the First International Symposium on Informal Logic, held in June 1978 at University of Windsor, Windsor, ON. In Informal logic @ 25: Proceedings of the Windsor Conference. Edited by Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, and Ralph H. Johnson. CD-ROM. Windsor, ON: OSSA.

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                                                                Argues that we do not need a theory of visual argument; there are better methods for promoting visual literacy. What is meant by a “visual argument” is unclear, and there are problems with converting images into verbal propositions. There are not benefits to viewing images as arguments, and there is asymmetry between verbal and visual arguments.

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                                                              • Kjeldsen, Jens E. 2013. Strategies of visual argumentation in slideshow presentations: The role of the visuals in an Al Gore presentation on climate change. Argumentation 27.4: 425–443.

                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s10503-013-9296-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Explains how Gore uses images on slides to argue for the nature and significance of a problem. Uses mainly rhetorical concepts to analyze the images and to explain strategies of visual analogy and visual chronology. Engages sources working from rhetorical and pragma-dialectical perspectives on argumentation.

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                                                                • Palczewski, Catherine H. 2005. The male Madonna and the feminine Uncle Sam: Visual arguments, icons, and ideographs in 1909 anti-woman suffrage postcards. Quarterly Journal of Speech 91.4: 365–394.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/00335630500488325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Argues that postcards reflect verbal arguments and that they depart from verbal arguments in arguing that women’s suffrage feminizes men. Suggests that the feminization argument may be in postcards only because it may be an unconscious fear. Analyses are grounded in historical, contextual research.

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                                                                  • Slade, Christina. 2003. Seeing reasons: Visual argumentation in advertisements. Argumentation 17.2: 145–160.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1023/A:1024025114369Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Argues that visual images in advertisements function rationally and can be analyzed using methods suited to visual reasoning. Argues that images may function as speech acts, ought to be interpreted in terms of their own semiotic system (not language), and contain their own argumentation structure.

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                                                                    • Special issue on visual argumentation. Argumentation and Advocacy 43.3–4 (2007): 103–188.

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                                                                      Includes a theory of visual argumentation by David S. Birdsell and Leo Groarke, as well as essays that discuss visual argumentation in a range of contexts, including Scandinavian political advertising, prison tattooing, political demonstrations, and brain imaging.

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                                                                      Public Sphere

                                                                      Scholarship on the public sphere and argumentation addresses issues such as the nature of the public sphere, the role of argumentation in it, and how to evaluate arguments in the public sphere and the functioning of the public sphere itself. Hauser 1999 and Warner 2002 propose text-based definitions of publics; Hauser grounds his discussion more in rhetorical traditions, and Warner grounds his more in philosophy. Asen 2005 and Tracy 2010 expand functions of argument in the public sphere beyond giving reasons for belief and action. Tannen 1998 argues that argument ought not to be the only way of addressing problems. Keith 2007 provides historical context for disagreement about these issues. Eberly 2000 shows how nonexpert, public arguments about literary fiction may affect social change. Goodnight 1982 assesses it by considering the level of encroachment of personal and technical spheres into the public.

                                                                      • Asen, Robert. 2005. Pluralism, disagreement, and the status of argument in the public sphere. Informal Logic 25.2: 117–137.

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                                                                        Proposes to address the question of the status of argument in the public sphere by examining the functions of argument. Besides justifying, arguments are also designed to expand agendas, to attribute responsibility, and to form identity. Accessible discussion of important sources such as Jürgen Habermas and John Dewey, and good bibliography.

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                                                                        • Eberly, Rosa A. 2000. Citizen critics: Literary public spheres. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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                                                                          Proposes a rhetorical model of how fictional texts create literary public spheres that affect democratic society. Analyzes public discourses produced by nonexpert citizen critics in response to four controversial 20th-century novels. Bridges interests in argumentation studies by composition and communication scholars.

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                                                                        • Goodnight, G. Thomas. 1982. The personal, technical, and public spheres of argument: A speculative inquiry into the art of public deliberation. Journal of the American Forensic Association 18:214–227.

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                                                                          Continues to be cited frequently. Aims to assess the status of deliberative rhetoric. Describes personal, technical, and public spheres of argument. Argues that public sphere is eroded as personal and technical spheres substitute semblance of deliberation for actual deliberation. Calls for alternatives to stave off decline of deliberative argument.

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                                                                          • Hauser, Gerard A. 1999. Vernacular voices: The rhetoric of publics and public spheres. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press.

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                                                                            Proposes a rhetorical framework for understanding publics, public spheres, and public opinion. This involves emphasizing their discursive character—describing publics in terms of their discursive activity rather than polling data. Amplifies with case studies—discourse as actually practiced rather than ideal speech.

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                                                                          • Keith, William M. 2007. Democracy as discussion: Civic education and the American Forum movement. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

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                                                                            Covers the teaching of argumentation over time in the context of changing pedagogies for changing circumstances. Speech pedagogy initially involved teaching debate as a skill required for citizenship. New visions of democratic politics lead to a new focus on teaching discussion in colleges and as part of adult education.

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                                                                          • Tannen, Deborah. 1998. The argument culture: Moving from debate to dialogue. New York: Random House.

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                                                                            Describes “argument culture” as adversarial, oppositional, critical, and aggressive. Defines problem not as arguing but holding that all issues and problems are best approached this way. Proposes other ways of addressing problems, such as focusing on harmony, integrating ideas, and believing as well as doubting. Written for a broad audience.

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                                                                          • Tracy, Karen. 2010. Challenges of ordinary democracy: A case study in deliberation and dissent. Rhetoric and Democratic Deliberation. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press.

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                                                                            Analyzes school board meetings to describe the talk that occurs in ordinary democracy. Generates grounded practical theory designed to aid reflection about how to communicate. Examines a range of communicative action, including invoking “democracy” and using platitudes and personal attacks. Advances “reasonable hostility” as a communicative ideal.

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                                                                          • Warner, Michael. 2002. Publics and counterpublics (abbreviated version). Quarterly Journal of Speech 88.4: 413–425.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/00335630209384388Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Makes a case for a definition of publics and counterpublics as constituted by texts. Identifies features and argues for their advantages over competing definitions of publics. Features of publics include self-organized, relations among strangers, constituted through attention, and involved in poetic world making (rather than conversation or rational-critical discussion).

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                                                                            Argument and Style

                                                                            Style usually has been treated separately from argument, but some scholars seek a rapprochement. Perelman 1982 and Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969 are precursors of this perspective. Conley 1985 makes a case for the inseparability of style and argument, as do Plantin 2009 and Fahnestock 2011, which cover historical treatments and propose research programs. Innocenti Manolescu 2005 analyzes style as argument from a normative pragmatic perspective, and Snoeck Henkemans 2009 analyzes it from a pragma-dialectical perspective.

                                                                            • Conley, Thomas M. 1985. The beauty of lists: Copia and argument. Journal of the American Forensic Association 22:96–103.

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                                                                              Analyzes the use of congeries to support the position that style is argument. Makes a case for expanded views of rationality and argument. Techniques of amplification have an argumentative edge and call for value judgments. Judgments are about fit—generating and meeting expectations of consistency and direction.

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                                                                              • Fahnestock, Jeanne. 2011. Rhetorical style: The uses of language in persuasion. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764129.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Describes ways of analyzing style, with attention to arguing and persuading. Organized around word choice, sentences, interactive dimensions (speaker, audience, context), and passage construction (coherence, sentence variety, amplification, passage patterns such as enthymeme).

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                                                                              • Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. 2005. Norms of presentational force. Argumentation and Advocacy 41.3: 139–151.

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                                                                                Explains how presentational devices may serve as sources of the pragmatic force of arguments. Distinguishes the pragmatic force of arguments from intellectual and social force. Covers logic and presentational force, emotion and presentational force, and style and presentational force. Explains how the normative pragmatic view complements the pragma-dialectical approach to presentational devices.

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                                                                                • Perelman, Chaim. 1982. The realm of rhetoric. Translated by William Kluback. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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                                                                                  Accessible introduction to Perelman’s view of rhetoric and argumentation. Covers fundamental topics such as the nature of rhetoric, argumentation, and argument schemes. Integrates style in all respects—figures, word choice, syntax, and composition—into discussions of all topics.

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                                                                                • Perelman, Chaim, and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca. 1969. The new rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation. Translated by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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                                                                                  Canonical treatment of style and argument. Introduces taxonomy of figures: choice, presence, and communion. Discussion of figures also integrated into treatment of liaisons or argument schemes. Index includes detailed list of figures discussed.

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                                                                                • Plantin, Christian. 2009. A place for figures of speech in argumentation theory. Argumentation 23.3: 325–337.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10503-009-9152-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Covers historical treatments of figures with respect to argumentation, with particular attention to Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969. Argues against opposition between argument and figures. Proposes analyzing them as discourse strategies and outlines three topics for investigation: operations on objects, discursive construction of emotions, and monological representations of dialogue.

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                                                                                  • Snoeck Henkemans, A. Francisca. 2009. Manoeuvring strategically with praeteritio. Argumentation 23.3: 339–350.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s10503-009-9153-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Example of analyzing and evaluating style and argument from a pragma-dialectical perspective. Identifies different ways of presenting praeteritio and different functions it performs, such as emphasizing and hiding. Explains how it may be used to strategically maneuver at all stages of an argumentative discussion and how it may derail the discussion.

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                                                                                    Argument and Emotion

                                                                                    Scholars have traditionally viewed emotional appeals as fallacies because they are irrelevant and short-circuit reason, but research since the late 20th century finds a legitimate place for them in argumentation. Plantin 2004 argues that reason and emotion are inseparable in argumentation. Micheli 2010 focuses on emotions as objects of argumentation and proposes a research program with that focus. Brinton 1988 proposes a more philosophically oriented informal logical method of analyzing and evaluating emotional appeals; Gilbert 2004, a more communication-oriented such method. Innocenti Manolescu 2006 proposes a normative pragmatic one, and Walton 1992 offers a pragma-dialectical one.

                                                                                    • Brinton, Alan. 1988. Appeal to the angry emotions. Informal Logic 10.2: 77–87.

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                                                                                      Argues that some emotional appeals are logically acceptable arguments. Proposes that they be evaluated by considering whether the emotion is justified by the reasons given and whether the intensity of the emotional response is appropriate given the reasons and situation.

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                                                                                      • Gilbert, Michael A. 2004. Emotion, argumentation and informal logic. Informal Logic 24.3: 245–264.

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                                                                                        Calls for attention of informal logicians to emotion. Aims to use informal logic as a basis for analyzing and evaluating emotion in argumentation. Argues that informal logical criteria of acceptability, relevance, and adequacy are applicable to evaluating emotion in argumentation.

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                                                                                        • Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. 2006. A normative pragmatic perspective on appealing to emotions in argumentation. Argumentation 20.3: 327–343.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/s10503-006-9016-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Argues that emotional appeals are legitimate in argumentation, and that they may be analyzed as strategies that create pragmatic reasons and may be assessed by the standard of formal propriety. Outlines positions on these issues from informal logical, pragma-dialectical, and rhetorical perspectives.

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                                                                                          • Micheli, Raphaël. 2010. Emotions as objects of argumentative constructions. Argumentation 24.1: 1–17.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10503-008-9120-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Proposes to view emotions as objects of argumentation, as opposed to something to which arguers appeal. Calls for study of the attribution of emotions, evaluation, and legitimation by speakers. Proposes evaluation based on fit of emotion to individual, object, action, and discourse genre.

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                                                                                            • Plantin, Christian. On the inseparability of emotion and reason in argumentation. In Emotion in dialogic interaction: Advances in the complex. Edited by Edda Weigand, 265–281. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2004.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1075/cilt.248Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Argues that emotional appeals are inseparable from arguing. Provides topics and vocabulary for discussing emotional strategies. Emotional claims may be present as sentences asserting or denying a particular emotional state, descriptions of signs of emotional states, descriptions of situations and contexts, and “emotional scenarios.”

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                                                                                            • Walton, Douglas. The place of emotion in argument. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1992.

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                                                                                              Covers four emotional arguments: ad baculum, ad misericordiam, ad hominem, and ad populum. Argues that they may be reasonable if they contribute to the goals of a dialogue, such as persuasion, negotiation, or critical discussion. Covers textbook accounts of these fallacies and analyzes and evaluates clearer and more-borderline cases.

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